144 relations: Absinthe, Anise, Antimicrobial, Aqueous solution, Arak (drink), Bacitracin/polymyxin B, Bancroft rule, Bisacodyl, Blood cell, Blue, Buoyancy, Butter, Carboxymethyl cellulose, Cell envelope, Cell membrane, Centrifuge, Centripetal force, Ceteareth, Chemical kinetics, Churchill Livingstone, Cleaning agent, Clotrimazole, Coalescence (physics), Cod liver oil, Colloid, Cooking oil, Cortisol, Cosmetics, Cream, Cream (pharmaceutical), Creaming (chemistry), Cutting fluid, DATEM, Detergent, Disinfectant, Dispersion (chemistry), Dosage form, Elementary particle, Emulsified fuel, Emulsifying wax, Emulsion dispersion, Espresso, Ethanol, Evolution of biological complexity, Eye drop, Fire class, Firefighting foam, Flocculation, Gelatin, Graphene, ..., Gum arabic, Hairstyling product, High-shear mixer, Hollandaise sauce, Homogenization (chemistry), Homogenizer, Human skin, Hygiene, Injection (medicine), International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Intravenous therapy, Jones & Bartlett Learning, Kinetics (physics), Latex, Lecithin, Liniment, Lipid, Lipoprotein, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Liquid, Liquid whistle, Lotion, Margarine, Matter, Mayonnaise, Meat emulsion, Metalworking, Microemulsion, Microorganism, Milk, Miniemulsion, Miscibility, Mixture, Mucilage, Mustard seed, Nano-, Nanometre, Nuclear emulsion, Oral administration, Ostwald ripening, Ouzo, Ouzo effect, Paste (rheology), Pastis, Pharmaceutical formulation, Pharmaceutics, Pharmacy, Phase (matter), Phase boundary, Photographic emulsion, Photographic film, Pickering emulsion, Polyethylene glycol, Polysorbate 20, Porosity, Probability distribution, Pure and Applied Chemistry, Rakı, Rectum, Rheology, Route of administration, Scattering, Silver halide, Skimmed milk, Soap, Sodium phosphates, Sodium stearoyl lactylate, Solvent, Soybean oil, Spermatozoon, Subtypes of HIV, Surface tension, Surfactant, Taylor & Francis, Thermodynamics, Thin film, Topical medication, Tragacanth, Transdermal, Tuberculosis, Tyndall effect, Ultrasound, Vaccine, Vagina, Vinaigrette, Virus, Visible spectrum, Water, Water-in-water emulsion, White, Wiley-Blackwell, Yellow, Yellow grease, Yolk. Expand index (94 more) » « Shrink index
Absinthe is historically described as a distilled, highly alcoholic (45–74% ABV / 90–148 U.S. proof) beverage.
Anise (Pimpinella anisum), also called aniseed, is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae native to the eastern Mediterranean region and Southwest Asia.
An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth.
An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water.
Arak or araq (عرق, ערק) is a Levantine alcoholic spirit (~40–63% Alc. Vol./~80–126 proof, commonly 50% Alc. Vol./100 proof) in the anise drinks family.
Bacitracin/polymyxin B (trade name Polysporin among others) is a topical antibiotic cream or ointment.
The Bancroft rule states: "The phase in which an emulsifier is more soluble constitutes the continuous phase." It was named after Wilder Dwight Bancroft, an American physical chemist, who proposed the rule in the 1910s.
Bisacodyl (INN) is an organic compound that is used as a stimulant laxative drug.
A blood cell, also called a haematopoietic cell, hemocyte, or hematocyte, is a cell produced through hematopoiesis and found mainly in the blood.
Blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments in painting and traditional colour theory, as well as in the RGB colour model.
In physics, buoyancy or upthrust, is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object.
Butter is a dairy product containing up to 80% butterfat (in commercial products) which is solid when chilled and at room temperature in some regions and liquid when warmed.
Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) or cellulose gum or tylose powder is a cellulose derivative with carboxymethyl groups (-CH2-COOH) bound to some of the hydroxyl groups of the glucopyranose monomers that make up the cellulose backbone.
The cell envelope comprises the inner cell membrane and the cell wall of a bacterium, if present, plus a bacterial outer membrane (i.e. in gram-negative bacteria).
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
A centrifuge is a piece of equipment that puts an object in rotation around a fixed axis (spins it in a circle), applying a force perpendicular to the axis of spin (outward) that can be very strong.
A centripetal force (from Latin centrum, "center" and petere, "to seek") is a force that makes a body follow a curved path.
The INCI names ceteareth-n (where n is a number) refer to polyoxyethylene ethers of a mixture of high molecular mass saturated fatty alcohols, mainly cetyl alcohol (n.
Chemical kinetics, also known as reaction kinetics, is the study of rates of chemical processes.
Churchill Livingstone is an academic publisher.
Cleaning agents are substances (usually liquids, powders, sprays, or granules) used to remove dirt, including dust, stains, bad smells, and clutter on surfaces.
Clotrimazole, sold under the brand name Canesten among others, is an antifungal medication.
Coalescence is the process by which two or more droplets, bubbles or particles merge during contact to form a single daughter droplet, bubble or particle.
Cod liver oil is a dietary supplement derived from liver of cod fish (Gadidae).
In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance.
Cooking oil is plant, animal, or synthetic fat used in frying, baking, and other types of cooking.
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.
Cosmetics are substances or products used to enhance or alter the appearance of the face or fragrance and texture of the body.
Cream is a dairy product composed of the higher-butterfat layer skimmed from the top of milk before homogenization.
A cream is a preparation usually for application to the skin.
Creaming, in the laboratory sense, is the migration of the dispersed phase of an emulsion, under the influence of buoyancy.
Cutting fluid is a type of coolant and lubricant designed specifically for metalworking processes, such as machining and stamping.
DATEM (diacetyl tartaric acid ester of mono- and diglycerides, also E472e) is an emulsifier primarily used in baking to create a strong gluten network in dough.
A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleaning properties in dilute solutions.
Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to the surface of non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects.
A dispersion is a system in which particles are dispersed in a continuous phase of a different composition (or state).
Dosage forms (also called unit doses) are pharmaceutical drug products in the form in which they are marketed for use, with a specific mixture of active ingredients and inactive components (excipients), in a particular configuration (such as a capsule shell, for example), and apportioned into a particular dose.
In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle with no substructure, thus not composed of other particles.
Emulsified Fuels are emulsions composed of water and a combustible liquid, either oil or a fuel.
Emulsifying wax is a cosmetic emulsifying ingredient.
An emulsion dispersion is thermoplastics or elastomers suspended in a waterphase with help of emulsifiers.
Espresso is coffee brewed by expressing or forcing out a small amount of nearly boiling water under pressure through finely ground coffee beans.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
The evolution of biological complexity is one important outcome of the process of evolution.
Eye drops are saline-containing drops used as an ocular route to administer.
Fire class is a term used to denote the type of fire, in relation to the combustion materials which have (or could be) ignited.
Firefighting foam is a foam used for fire suppression.
Flocculation, in the field of chemistry, is a process wherein colloids come out of suspension in the form of floc or flake, either spontaneously or due to the addition of a clarifying agent.
Gelatin or gelatine (from gelatus meaning "stiff", "frozen") is a translucent, colorless, brittle (when dry), flavorless food derived from collagen obtained from various animal body parts.
Graphene is a semi-metal with a small overlap between the valence and the conduction bands (zero bandgap material).
Gum arabic, also known as acacia gum, arabic gum, gum acacia, acacia, Senegal gum and Indian gum, and by other names, is a natural gum consisting of the hardened sap of various species of the acacia tree.
Hairstyle products are used to change the texture and/or shape of hair, or to hold a hairstyle in place.
A high-shear mixer disperses, or transports, one phase or ingredient (liquid, solid, gas) into a main continuous phase (liquid), with which it would normally be immiscible.
Hollandaise sauce, formerly also called Dutch sauce, is an emulsion of egg yolk, melted butter, water and lemon juice (or a white wine or vinegar reduction).
Homogenization or homogenisation is any of several processes used to make a mixture of two mutually non-soluble liquids the same throughout.
A homogenizer is a piece of laboratory or industrial equipment used for the homogenization of various types of material, such as tissue, plant, food, soil, and many others.
The human skin is the outer covering of the body.
Hygiene is a set of practices performed to preserve health.
Injection (often referred to as a "shot" in US English, or a "jab" in UK English) is the act of putting a liquid, especially a drug, into a person's body using a needle (usually a hypodermic needle) and a syringe.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Jones & Bartlett Learning, a division of Ascend Learning, is a provider of instructional, assessment and learning-performance management solutions for the secondary, post-secondary, and professional markets.
In physics and engineering, kinetics is the branch of classical mechanics that is concerned with the relationship between motion and its causes, specifically, forces and torques.
Latex is a stable dispersion (emulsion) of polymer microparticles in an aqueous medium.
Lecithin (from the Greek lekithos, "egg yolk") is a generic term to designate any group of yellow-brownish fatty substances occurring in animal and plant tissues, which are amphiphilic – they attract both water and fatty substances (and so are both hydrophilic and lipophilic), and are used for smoothing food textures, dissolving powders (emulsifying), homogenizing liquid mixtures, and repelling sticking materials.
Liniment (or embrocation), from the Latin linere, to anoint, is a medicated topical preparation for application to the skin.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
A lipoprotein is a biochemical assembly whose purpose is to transport hydrophobic lipid (a.k.a. fat) molecules in water, as in blood or extracellular fluid.
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (LWW) is an imprint of the publishing conglomerate Wolters Kluwer.
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.
Liquid whistles are a kind of static mixer which pass fluid at high pressure through an orifice and subsequently over a blade.
A lotion is a low-viscosity topical preparation intended for application to unbroken skin.
Margarine is an imitation butter spread used for flavoring, baking, and cooking.
In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.
Mayonnaise (also), informally mayo, is a thick cold sauce or dressing usually used in sandwiches and composed salads.
Meat emulsion is a two-phase system, with the dispersed phase consisting of either solid or liquid fat particles and the continuous phase being the water containing salts and dissolved, gelled and suspended proteins.
Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large-scale structures.
Microemulsions are clear, thermodynamically stable, isotropic liquid mixtures of oil, water and surfactant, frequently in combination with a cosurfactant.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.
A miniemulsion (also known as nanoemulsion) is a special case of emulsion.
Miscibility is the property of substances to mix in all proportions (that is, to fully dissolve in each other at any concentration), forming a homogeneous solution.
In chemistry, a mixture is a material made up of two or more different substances which are mixed.
Mucilage is a thick, gluey substance produced by nearly all plants and some microorganisms.
Mustard seeds are the small round seeds of various mustard plants.
Nano- (symbol n) is a unit prefix meaning "one billionth".
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
In particle and nuclear physics, a nuclear emulsion plate is a photographic plate with a particularly thick emulsion layer and with a very uniform grain size.
Ostwald ripening is an observed phenomenon in solid solutions or liquid sols that describes the change of an inhomogeneous structure over time, i.e., small crystals or sol particles dissolve, and redeposit onto larger crystals or sol particles.
Ouzo (ούζο) is a dry anise-flavoured aperitif that is widely consumed in Greece, Cyprus, Lebanon and Israel.
The ouzo effect (also louche effect and spontaneous emulsification) is a milky (louche) oil-in-water emulsion that is formed when water is added to ouzo and other anise-flavored liqueurs and spirits, such as pastis, rakı, arak, sambuca and absinthe.
In physics, a paste is a substance that behaves as a solid until a sufficiently large load or stress is applied, at which point it flows like a fluid.
Pastis is an anise-flavoured spirit and apéritif from France, typically containing less than 100 g/l sugar and 40–45% ABV (alcohol by volume).
Pharmaceutical formulation, in pharmaceutics, is the process in which different chemical substances, including the active drug, are combined to produce a final medicinal product.
Pharmaceutics is the discipline of pharmacy that deals with the process of turning a new chemical entity (NCE) or old drugs into a medication to be used safely and effectively by patients.
Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing and dispensing drugs.
In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.
In thermal equilibrium, each phase (i.e. liquid, solid etc.) of physical matter comes to an end at a transitional point, or spatial interface, called a phase boundary, due to the immiscibility of the matter with the matter on the other side of the boundary.
Photographic emulsion is a light-sensitive colloid used in film-based photography.
Photographic film is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals.
A Pickering emulsion is an emulsion that is stabilized by solid particles (for example colloidal silica) which adsorb onto the interface between the two phases.
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a polyether compound with many applications from industrial manufacturing to medicine.
Polysorbate 20 (common commercial brand names include Scattics, Alkest TW 20 and Tween 20) is a polysorbate-type nonionic surfactant formed by the ethoxylation of sorbitan before the addition of lauric acid.
Porosity or void fraction is a measure of the void (i.e. "empty") spaces in a material, and is a fraction of the volume of voids over the total volume, between 0 and 1, or as a percentage between 0% and 100%.
In probability theory and statistics, a probability distribution is a mathematical function that provides the probabilities of occurrence of different possible outcomes in an experiment.
Pure and Applied Chemistry (abbreviated Pure Appl. Chem.) is the official journal for the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).
Raki or rakı is an unsweetened, occasionally (depending on area of production) anise-flavored, alcoholic drink that is popular in Albania and Greece (where it is distinctly different and comes as an unflavoured distillate, unlike its Turkish counterpart), Iran, Turkic countries, and in the Balkan countries as an apéritif.
The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals, and the gut in others.
Rheology (from Greek ῥέω rhéō, "flow" and -λoγία, -logia, "study of") is the study of the flow of matter, primarily in a liquid state, but also as "soft solids" or solids under conditions in which they respond with plastic flow rather than deforming elastically in response to an applied force.
A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body.
Scattering is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more paths due to localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass.
A silver halide (or silver salt) is one of the chemical compounds that can form between the element silver and one of the halogens.
Skimmed milk (British English), or skim milk (American English), is made when all the cream (also called milkfat) is removed from whole milk.
Soap is the term for a salt of a fatty acid or for a variety of cleansing and lubricating products produced from such a substance.
Sodium phosphate is a generic term for a variety of salts of sodium (Na+) and phosphate (PO43−).
Sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (sodium stearoyl lactylate or SSL) is a versatile, FDA approved food additive used to improve the mix tolerance and volume of processed foods.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
Soybean oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of the soybean (Glycine max).
A spermatozoon (pronounced, alternate spelling spermatozoön; plural spermatozoa; from σπέρμα "seed" and ζῷον "living being") is a motile sperm cell, or moving form of the haploid cell that is the male gamete.
One of the obstacles to treatment of the human immunodeficiency virus is its high genetic variability.
Surface tension is the elastic tendency of a fluid surface which makes it acquire the least surface area possible.
Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension (or interfacial tension) between two liquids, between a gas and a liquid, or between a liquid and a solid.
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.
A thin film is a layer of material ranging from fractions of a nanometer (monolayer) to several micrometers in thickness.
A topical medication is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or in the body.
Tragacanth is a natural gum obtained from the dried sap of several species of Middle Eastern legumes of the genus Astragalus, including A. adscendens, A. gummifer, A. brachycalyx, and A. tragacantha.
Transdermal is a route of administration wherein active ingredients are delivered across the skin for systemic distribution.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
The Tyndall effect, also known as Willis–Tyndall scattering, is light scattering by particles in a colloids or in a very fine suspension.
Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
In mammals, the vagina is the elastic, muscular part of the female genital tract.
Vinaigrette is made by mixing an oil with something acidic such as vinegar or lemon juice.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Water-in-water (W/W) emulsion is a system that consists of droplets of water-solvated molecules in another continuous aqueous solution; both the droplet and continuous phases contain different molecules that are entirely water-soluble.
White is the lightest color and is achromatic (having no hue), because it fully reflects and scatters all the visible wavelengths of light.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
Yellow is the color between orange and green on the spectrum of visible light.
Yellow grease, also termed used cooking oil (UCO), used vegetable oil (UVO), recycled vegetable oil, or waste vegetable oil (WVO) is recovered from businesses and industry that use the oil for cooking.
Among animals which produce one, the yolk (also known as the vitellus) is the nutrient-bearing portion of the egg whose primary function is to supply food for the development of the embryo.
Emulgator, Emulsification, Emulsified, Emulsifier, Emulsifiers, Emulsifies, Emulsify, Emulsifying, Emulsifying agent, Emulsifying agents, Emulsions, External phase, Internal phase, Nanoemulsion, Oil-in-water emulsion, Water-in-oil emulsion.