37 relations: Al-Azhar University, Arabic, İslâm Ansiklopedisi, Brill Publishers, Catholic Encyclopedia, Clifford Edmund Bosworth, Discipline (academia), Elton L. Daniel, Encyclopaedia Islamica, Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān, Encyclopædia Iranica, Encyclopedia, English language, Free University of Berlin, French language, German language, Gudrun Krämer, Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb, Islamic studies, Jewish Encyclopedia, Leiden University, Martijn Theodoor Houtsma, Middle East, Netherlands, Peri Bearman, Qom, Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, The Asia Foundation, Turkish language, UNESCO, Union Académique Internationale, Université catholique de Louvain, University of the Punjab, Urdu, William Brice (ethnographer), Wolfhart Heinrichs, Yale University.
Al-Azhar University (1,, "the (honorable) Azhar University") is a university in Cairo, Egypt.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The İslâm Ansiklopedisi (İA) is a Turkish academic encyclopedia for Islamic studies.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church, also referred to as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia and the Original Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in the United States and designed to serve the Roman Catholic Church.
Clifford Edmund Bosworth FBA (29 December 1928 – 28 February 2015) was an English historian and Orientalist, specialising in Arabic and Iranian studies.
An academic discipline or academic field is a branch of knowledge.
Elton L. Daniel, Ph.D., is a historian and Iranologist.
The Encyclopedia Islamica is a new encyclopedia on Islamic and Iranian studies published by Brill, comprising a projected 16-volume translation of selected articles from the new Persian Dā'erat-ol-Ma'āref-e Bozorg-e Eslāmi (دائرةالمعارف بزرگ اسلامی, "The Great Islamic Encyclopaedia"), supplemented by additional articles written in English by scholars affiliated with the Institute of Ismaili Studies.
The Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān (abbreviated EQ) is an encyclopedia dedicated to the Qur'an published with Brill.
Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times.
An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of information from either all branches of knowledge or from a particular field or discipline.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The Free University of Berlin (Freie Universität Berlin, often abbreviated as FU Berlin or simply FU) is a research university located in Berlin, Germany.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Gudrun Krämer (born 1953) is a German scholar of Islamic history and co-editor of the third edition of the Encyclopaedia of Islam.
Sir Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb, FBA (2 January 1895 – 22 October 1971), known as H. A. R. Gibb, was a Scottish historian on Orientalism.
Islamic studies refers to the study of Islam.
The Jewish Encyclopedia is an English encyclopedia containing over 15,000 articles on the history, culture, and state of Judaism and the Jews up to the early 20th century.
Leiden University (abbreviated as LEI; Universiteit Leiden), founded in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands.
Martijn Theodoor Houtsma (Irnsum, Friesland, 15 January 1851 – Utrecht, 9 February 1943), often referred to as M. Th.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Peri J. Bearman (born 1953) is an academic scholar of Islamic law.
Qom (قم) is the eighth largest city in Iran.
The Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, commonly called the Pauly–Wissowa or simply RE, is a German encyclopedia of classical scholarship.
The Asia Foundation is a nonprofit international development organization committed to “improving lives across a dynamic and developing Asia.” Informed by six decades of experience and deep local expertise, its programs address critical issues affecting Asia in the 21st century—governance and law, economic development, women's empowerment, environment, and regional cooperation.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The Union Académique Internationale (UAI)—in English, International Union of Academies—is a federation of many national academies and international academies from more than 60 countries all over the world which works in the field of Humanities and Social Sciences.
The University of Louvain (Université catholique de Louvain, UCL) is Belgium's largest French-speaking university.
The University of the Punjab (جامعہ پنجاب), also referred to as Punjab University, is a public research university located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
William Charles Brice (3 July 1921 – 24 July 2007) was a British ethnographer and linguist.
Wolfhart P. Heinrichs (3 October 1941 – 23 January 2014) was a German-born scholar of Arabic.
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
Daarya Muaarif Uloom-e-Islamya, EI1, EI2, Encyclopaedia of Islam Online, Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Edition, Encyclopaedia of islam, Encyclopedia of Islam, Encyclopædia of Islam, Shorter Encyclopaedia of Islam, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, The Encyclopedia of Islam, The Encylcopaedia of Islam, Urdu Da’ira Ma’arif-i-Islamiya, Urdu Encyclopaedia of Islam, Urdu da'irah-yi ma'arif-i Islamiyyah.