108 relations: Adamorobe Sign Language, Ainu language, Alsatian dialect, Anomie, Australia, Australian Aboriginal languages, Ban Khor Sign Language, Brazil, Breton language, Cameroon, Central America, Chamorro language, Cornish language, Creole language, Cultural hegemony, Cultural imperialism, Disease, Dolly Pentreath, Endangered Languages Project, Endangered species, Equinox Publishing (Sheffield), Ethnologue, Extinct language, Famine, First language, Fluency, France, Gender and Language, Genocide, Ghil'ad Zuckermann, Globalization, Grammar, Great Britain, Guam, Guatemala, India, Indigenous language, Indigenous languages of the Americas, Indigenous peoples, Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast, Individual and group rights, Indonesia, Indonesian language, Interethnic marriage, J-1 visa, Japan, Joshua Fishman, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, Kurdish languages, Language, ..., Language attrition, Language death, Language documentation, Language Documentation & Conservation, Language ideology, Language policy, Language revitalization, Language shift, Lingua franca, List of endangered languages with mobile apps, List of languages by number of native speakers, List of revived languages, Lists of endangered languages, Lists of extinct languages, Marringarr language, Mayan languages, Mexico, Michael E. Krauss, Miskito language, Modernity, Nancy Dorian, National language, Native American Languages Act of 1990, Natural disaster, Neocolonialism, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Northern Australia, Occitan language, Oklahoma, Papua New Guinea, PDF, Peter Ladefoged, Plains Indian Sign Language, Political repression, Prestige (sociolinguistics), Red Book of Endangered Languages, Salikoko Mufwene, Scots language, Scottish Gaelic, Siberia, Siberian Federal District, Sign language, SIL International, Social exclusion, Southern Cone, Speaker types, Speech community, Systematic survey, Tasmania, The Linguists, Turkey, UNESCO, Universal Declaration of Linguistic Rights, Urbanization, War, Welsh language, 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami. Expand index (58 more) » « Shrink index
Adamorobe Sign Language
Adamorobe Sign Language or Adasl is a village sign language used in Adamorobe, an Akan village in eastern Ghana.
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Ainu (Ainu: アイヌ・イタㇰ Aynu.
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Alsatian (Alsatian and Elsässerditsch (Alsatian German); Frankish: Elsässerdeitsch; Alsacien; Elsässisch or Elsässerdeutsch) is a Low Alemannic German dialect spoken in most of Alsace, a formerly disputed region in eastern France that has passed between French and German control five times since 1681.
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Anomie is a "condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals".
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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
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Australian Aboriginal languages
The Australian Aboriginal languages consist of around 290–363 languages belonging to an estimated twenty-eight language families and isolates, spoken by Aboriginal Australians of mainland Australia and a few nearby islands.
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Ban Khor Sign Language
Ban Khor Sign Language (BKSL) is a village sign language used by at least 400 people of a rice-farming community in the village of Ban Khor in a remote area of Isan (northeastern Thailand).
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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
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Breton (brezhoneg or in Morbihan) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany.
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Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
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Chamorro (Finu' Chamoru) is an Austronesian language spoken by about 58,000 people (about 25,800 people on Guam and about 32,200 in the Northern Mariana Islands and the rest of the United States).
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Cornish (Kernowek) is a revived language that became extinct as a first language in the late 18th century.
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A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages at a fairly sudden point in time: often, a pidgin transitioned into a full, native language.
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In Marxist philosophy, cultural hegemony is the domination of a culturally diverse society by the ruling class who manipulate the culture of that society—the beliefs, explanations, perceptions, values, and mores—so that their imposed, ruling-class worldview becomes the accepted cultural norm; the universally valid dominant ideology, which justifies the social, political, and economic status quo as natural and inevitable, perpetual and beneficial for everyone, rather than as artificial social constructs that benefit only the ruling class.
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Cultural imperialism comprises the cultural aspects of imperialism.
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A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
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Dorothy Pentreath (16 May 1692 – 26 December 1777), known as Dolly, was a speaker of the Cornish language.
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Endangered Languages Project
The Endangered Languages Project (ELP) is a worldwide collaboration between Indigenous language organizations, linguists, institutions of higher education, and key industry partners to strengthen endangered languages.
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An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct.
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Equinox Publishing (Sheffield)
Equinox Publishing Ltd is an independent academic publisher founded in 2003 by Janet Joyce and based in Sheffield.
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Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
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An extinct language is a language that no longer has any speakers, especially if the language has no living descendants.
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A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.
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A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
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Fluency (also called volubility and eloquency) is the property of a person or of a system that delivers information quickly and with expertise.
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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
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Gender and Language
Gender and Language is a triannual peer-reviewed academic journal covering research on and debates about feminist research on gender and language.
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Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
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Ghil'ad Zuckermann (גלעד צוקרמן,, born 1 June 1971) is a linguist and revivalist who works in contact linguistics, lexicology and the study of language, culture and identity.
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Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
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In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
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Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
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Guam (Chamorro: Guåhån) is an unincorporated and organized territory of the United States in Micronesia in the western Pacific Ocean.
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Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.
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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
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An indigenous language or autochthonous language is a language that is native to a region and spoken by indigenous people, often reduced to the status of a minority language.
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Indigenous languages of the Americas
Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.
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Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
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Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast
The indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast are composed of many nations and tribal affiliations, each with distinctive cultural and political identities, but they share certain beliefs, traditions and practices, such as the centrality of salmon as a resource and spiritual symbol.
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Individual and group rights
Group rights, also known as collective rights, are rights held by a group qua group rather than by its members severally; in contrast, individual rights are rights held by individual people; even if they are group-differentiated, which most rights are, they remain individual rights if the right-holders are the individuals themselves.
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Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
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Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia.
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Interethnic marriage is a form of exogamy that involves a marriage between spouses who belong to different ethnic groups or races.
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A J-1 visa is a non-immigrant visa issued by the United States to research scholars, professors and exchange visitors participating in programs that promote cultural exchange, especially to obtain medical or business training within the U.S. All applicants must meet eligibility criteria, English language requirements, and be sponsored either by a university, private sector or government program.
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Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
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Joshua Aaron Fishman, (Yiddish: שיקל פֿישמאַן — Shikl Fishman; July 18, 1926 – March 1, 2015) was an American linguist who specialized in the sociology of language, language planning, bilingual education, and language and ethnicity.
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Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development
The Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the study of topics in the sociology and social psychology of language, in language and cultural politics, policy, planning, and practice.
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Kurdish (Kurdî) is a continuum of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in Western Asia.
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Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
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Language attrition is the process of losing a native, or first, language.
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In linguistics, language death occurs when a language loses its last native speaker.
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Language documentation (also: documentary linguistics) is a subfield of linguistics which aims to describe the grammar and use of human languages.
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Language Documentation & Conservation
Language Documentation & Conservation is a peer-reviewed open-access academic journal covering all topics related to language documentation and conservation, including the goals of data management, field-work methods, ethics, orthography design, reference grammar design, lexicography, methods of assessing ethnolinguistic vitality, archiving matters, language planning, areal survey reports, short field reports on underdocumented or endangered languages, reports on language maintenance, preservation, and revitalization efforts, plus reviews of software, hardware, and books.
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Language ideology (also referred to as linguistic ideology) is a concept used primarily within the fields of anthropology (esp. Linguistic anthropology), sociolinguistics, and cross-cultural studies to characterize any set of beliefs or feelings about languages as used in their social worlds.
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Many countries have a language policy designed to favor or discourage the use of a particular language or set of languages.
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Language revitalization, also referred to as language revival or reversing language shift, is an attempt to halt or reverse the decline of a language or to revive an extinct one.
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Language shift, also known as language transfer or language replacement or language assimilation, is the process whereby a community of speakers of a language shifts to speaking a completely different language, usually over an extended period of time.
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A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
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List of endangered languages with mobile apps
This is a list of endangered languages with mobile apps available for use in language revitalization.
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List of languages by number of native speakers
This article ranks human languages by their number of native speakers.
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List of revived languages
A revived language is one that, having experienced near or complete extinction as either a spoken or written language, has been intentionally revived and has regained some of its former status.
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Lists of endangered languages
The following lists of endangered languages are mainly based on the definitions used by UNESCO.
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Lists of extinct languages
*List of languages by time of extinction ----.
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Marri Ngarr (Maringarr, Marenggar, Maringa) is a moribund Australian aboriginal language spoken along the northwest coast of the Northern Territory.
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The Mayan languagesIn linguistics, it is conventional to use Mayan when referring to the languages, or an aspect of a language.
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Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
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Michael E. Krauss
Michael E. Krauss (born August 15, 1934) is an American linguist, professor emeritus, founder and long-time head of the Alaska Native Language Center.
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Miskito (Mískitu in the Miskito language) is a Misumalpan language spoken by the Miskito people in northeastern Nicaragua, especially in the North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region, and in eastern Honduras.
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Modernity, a topic in the humanities and social sciences, is both a historical period (the modern era), as well as the ensemble of particular socio-cultural norms, attitudes and practices that arose in the wake of Renaissance, in the "Age of Reason" of 17th-century thought and the 18th-century "Enlightenment".
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Nancy C. Dorian is an American linguist who has carried out research into the death of the East Sutherland dialect of Scottish Gaelic for over 40 years, particularly in the villages of Brora, Golspie and Embo.
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A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.
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Native American Languages Act of 1990
The Native American Languages Act of 1990 is the short cited title for executive order PUBLIC LAW 101-477 enacted by Congress on October 30, 1990.
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A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth; examples include floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, and other geologic processes.
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Neocolonialism, neo-colonialism or neo-imperialism is the practice of using capitalism, globalization and cultural imperialism to influence a developing country in lieu of direct military control (imperialism) or indirect political control (hegemony).
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Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
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Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
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The term Northern Australia includes Queensland and the Northern Territory (NT).
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Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
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Oklahoma (Uukuhuúwa, Gahnawiyoˀgeh) is a state in the South Central region of the United States.
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Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (PNG;,; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.
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The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
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Peter Nielsen Ladefoged (17 September 1925 – 24 January 2006) was a British linguist and phonetician who travelled the world to document the distinct sounds of endangered languages and pioneered ways to collect and study data.
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Plains Indian Sign Language
Plains Indian Sign Language (PISL), also known as Plains Sign Talk, Plains Sign Language and First Nation Sign Language, is a trade language (or international auxiliary language), formerly trade pidgin, that was once the lingua franca across central Canada, central and western United States and northern Mexico, used among the various Plains Nations.
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Political repression is the persecution of an individual or group within society for political reasons, particularly for the purpose of restricting or preventing their ability to take part in the political life of a society thereby reducing their standing among their fellow citizens.
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Prestige is the level of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community, relative to other languages or dialects.
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Red Book of Endangered Languages
The Red Book of Endangered Languages was published by UNESCO and collected a comprehensive list of the world's endangered languages.
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Salikoko Mufwene is a linguist born in Mbaya-Lareme in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
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Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots).
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Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.
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Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
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Siberian Federal District
Siberian Federal District (Сиби́рский федера́льный о́круг, Sibirsky federalny okrug) is one of the eight federal districts of Russia.
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Sign languages (also known as signed languages) are languages that use manual communication to convey meaning.
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SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics) is a U.S.-based, worldwide, Christian non-profit organization, whose main purpose is to study, develop and document languages, especially those that are lesser-known, in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy, translate the Christian Bible into local languages, and aid minority language development.
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Social exclusion, or social marginalization, is the social disadvantage and relegation to the fringe of society.
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The Southern Cone (Cono Sur, Cone Sul) is a geographic and cultural region composed of the southernmost areas of South America, south of and around the Tropic of Capricorn.
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Within the linguistic study of endangered languages, sociolinguists distinguish between different speaker types based on the type of competence they have acquired of the endangered language.
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A speech community is a group of people who share a set of linguistic norms and expectations regarding the use of language.
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Systematic survey or extensive survey is the archaeological technique of detailed examination of an area for the purpose of recording the location and significance of archaeological resources.
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Tasmania (abbreviated as Tas and known colloquially as Tassie) is an island state of Australia.
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The Linguists is an independent 2008 American documentary film produced by Ironbound Films about language extinction and language documentation.
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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
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Universal Declaration of Linguistic Rights
The Universal Declaration of Linguistic Rights (known also as the Barcelona Declaration) is a document signed by the International PEN Club, and several non-governmental organizations in 1996 to support linguistic rights, especially those of endangered languages.
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Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
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War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.
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Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
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2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami
The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake occurred at 00:58:53 UTC on 26 December with the epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia.
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An endangered language, Endangered Language, Endangered langauge, Endangered languages, Language endangerment, Moribund language, The Rarest Language in the World.