148 relations: Acetylcholine, Addison's disease, Adrenal gland, Adrenaline, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, American Board of Internal Medicine, American Diabetes Association, American Osteopathic Board of Internal Medicine, Amino acid, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Androgen, Aristotle, Arnold Adolph Berthold, Atropine, Aulus Cornelius Celsus, Autocrine signalling, Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, Biochemistry, Biology, Blood sugar level, Calcitriol, Calcium sulfate, Caleb Hillier Parry, Catecholamine, Cholecalciferol, Cholesterol, Chronic condition, Chronotropic, Clinic, Clinical chemistry, Clinical research, Comparative endocrinology, Cortisol, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, Diabetes mellitus, Digestion, Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine, Dopamine, Duodenum, Earl Wilbur Sutherland Jr., Edward Jenner, Endocrine disease, Endocrine Society, Endocrine system, Endocrinology, Enzyme inhibitor, Ernest Starling, Estrogen, ..., Excretion, Exophthalmos, Fertility, Follicle-stimulating hormone, Galen, Gastrointestinal tract, Germ theory of disease, Ghrelin, Gland, Gleditsia sinensis, Glossary of medicine, Glucocorticoid, Glucose, Glycogen, Goitre, Graves' disease, Growth hormone, Gynaecology, Gypsum, Health administration, Heart, Hippocrates, Homeostasis, Hormone, Hormone replacement therapy, Hospital, Human brain, Human development (biology), Human skin, Hyperandrogenism, Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism, Incidental imaging finding, Inotrope, Insulin, Internal medicine, Intracrine, Joseph von Mering, Karl Adolph von Basedow, Kidney, Laboratory, Lactation, Leptin, Lucretius, Lung, Mammal, Medical imaging, Medical research, Medicine, Metabolic syndrome, Metabolism, Mineralocorticoid, Mood (psychology), Motor coordination, Neuroendocrine cell, Neuroendocrinology, Neurohormone, Norepinephrine, Oskar Minkowski, Otto Loewi, Ovary, Pancreas, Paracrine signalling, Pediatric endocrinology, Pediatrics, Peptide hormone, Perception, Phosphorylase, Physician, Pituitary gland, Progestogen, Reproduction, Reproductive endocrinology and infertility, Respiration (physiology), Robert James Graves, Saponin, Secretin, Sleep, Society for Endocrinology, Specialty (medicine), Steroid hormone, Stress (biology), Teacher, Testicle, Testosterone, Thomas Addison, Thyroid, Thyroid disease, Thyroid function tests, Thyroid hormones, Thyroid-stimulating hormone, Thyrotropin-releasing hormone, Tissue (biology), Triiodothyronine, Urine, Vagus nerve, Vitamin D, William Bayliss. Expand index (98 more) » « Shrink index
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
Addison's disease, also known as primary adrenal insufficiency and hypocortisolism, is a long-term endocrine disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough steroid hormones.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) is a professional community of physicians specializing in endocrinology, diabetes, and metabolism committed to enhancing the ability of its members to provide the highest quality of patient care.
The American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) is a non-profit, self-appointed physician evaluation organization which certifies physicians who practice internal medicine and its subspecialties.
The American Diabetes Association (ADA) is a United States-based nonprofit that seeks to educate the public about diabetes and to help those affected by it by funding research to manage, cure and prevent diabetes (including type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes, and pre-diabetes).
The American Osteopathic Board of Internal Medicine (AOBIM) is an organization that provides board certification to qualified Doctors of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) who specialize in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease in adults (internists).
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Arnold Adolph Berthold or Arnold Adolf Berthold (26 February 1803 – 3 January 1861) was a German physiologist and zoologist.
Atropine is a medication to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisonings as well as some types of slow heart rate and to decrease saliva production during surgery.
Aulus Cornelius Celsus (25 BC 50 AD) was a Roman encyclopaedist, known for his extant medical work, De Medicina, which is believed to be the only surviving section of a much larger encyclopedia.
Autocrine signaling is a form of cell signaling in which a cell secretes a hormone or chemical messenger (called the autocrine agent) that binds to autocrine receptors on that same cell, leading to changes in the cell.
Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, or in '''Medicinae Baccalaureus, Baccalaureus Chirurgiae'''. (abbreviated in many ways, e.g. MBBS, MB ChB, MB BCh, MB BChir (Cantab), BM BCh (Oxon), BMBS), are the two first professional degrees in medicine and surgery awarded upon graduation from medical school by universities in countries that follow the tradition of the United Kingdom.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.
Calcitriol (INN), also called 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, or 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and other variants, is the hormonally active metabolite of vitamin D which has three hydroxyl groups.
Calcium sulfate (or calcium sulphate) is the inorganic compound with the formula CaSO4 and related hydrates.
Caleb Hillier Parry (21 October 1755 – 9 March 1822) was an English physician credited with the first report of Parry–Romberg syndrome, published in 1815, and one of the earliest descriptions of the exophthalmic goiter, published in 1825.
A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.
Cholecalciferol, also known as vitamin D3 and colecalciferol, is a type of vitamin D which is made by the skin, found in some foods, and taken as a dietary supplement.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.
Chronotropic effects (from chrono-, meaning time, and tropos, "a turn") are those that change the heart rate.
A clinic (or outpatient clinic or ambulatory care clinic) is a healthcare facility that is primarily focused on the care of outpatients.
Clinical chemistry (also known as chemical pathology, clinical biochemistry or medical biochemistry) is the area of chemistry that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily fluids for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.
Clinical research is a branch of healthcare science that determines the safety and effectiveness (efficacy) of medications, devices, diagnostic products and treatment regimens intended for human use.
Comparative endocrinology is concerned with the many complexities of vertebrate and invertebrate endocrine systems at the sub-molecular, molecular, cellular and organismal levels of analysis.
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
A Doctor of Medicine (MD from Latin Medicinae Doctor) is a medical degree, the meaning of which varies between different jurisdictions.
Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) is a professional doctoral degree for physicians and surgeons offered by medical schools in the United States.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
Earl Wilbur Sutherland Jr. (November 19, 1915 – March 9, 1974) was an American pharmacologist and biochemist born in Burlingame, Kansas.
Edward Jenner, FRS FRCPE (17 May 1749 – 26 January 1823) was an English physician and scientist who was the pioneer of smallpox vaccine, the world's first vaccine.
Endocrine diseases are disorders of the endocrine system.
The Endocrine Society is a professional, international medical organization in the field of endocrinology and metabolism, founded in 1916 as The Association for the Study of Internal Secretions.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
Endocrinology (from endocrine + -ology) is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones.
4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.
Ernest Henry Starling (17 April 1866 – 2 May 1927) was a British physiologist who contributed many fundamental ideas to this subject.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.
Exophthalmos (also called exophthalmus, exophthalmia, proptosis, or exorbitism) is a bulging of the eye anteriorly out of the orbit.
Fertility is the natural capability to produce offspring.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropin, a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
The germ theory of disease is the currently accepted scientific theory of disease.
Ghrelin (pronounced), the "hunger hormone", also known as lenomorelin (INN), is a peptide hormone produced by ghrelinergic cells in the gastrointestinal tract which functions as a neuropeptide in the central nervous system.
A gland is a group of cells in an animal's body that synthesizes substances (such as hormones) for release into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland).
Gleditsia sinensis is a species of flowering plant native to Asia.
This glossary of medical terms is a list of definitions about medicine, its sub-disciplines, and related fields.
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.
A goitre or goiter is a swelling in the neck resulting from an enlarged thyroid gland.
Graves' disease, also known as toxic diffuse goiter, is an autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid.
Growth hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin (or as human growth hormone in its human form), is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals.
Gynaecology or gynecology (see spelling differences) is the medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive systems (vagina, uterus, and ovaries) and the breasts.
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.
Health administration or healthcare administration is the field relating to leadership, management, and administration of public health systems, health care systems, hospitals, and hospital networks.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is any form of hormone therapy wherein the patient, in the course of medical treatment, receives hormones, either to supplement a lack of naturally occurring hormones or to substitute other hormones for naturally occurring hormones.
A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment.
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.
Human development is the process of growing to maturity.
The human skin is the outer covering of the body.
Hyperandrogenism, also known as androgen excess, is a medical condition characterized by excessive levels of androgens (male sex hormones such as testosterone) in the female body and the associated effects of the elevated androgen levels.
Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.
Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.
In medical imaging, an incidental finding (commonly known as an "incidentaloma") is an unanticipated finding which is not related to the original diagnostic inquiry.
An inotrope is an agent that alters the force or energy of muscular contractions.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
Internal medicine or general medicine (in Commonwealth nations) is the medical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases.
Intracrine refers to a hormone that acts inside a cell, regulating intracellular events.
Josef, Baron von Mering (28 February 1849, in Cologne – 5 January 1908, at Halle an der Saale, Germany) was a German physician.
Carl Adolph von Basedow (28 March 1799 – 11 April 1854) was a German physician most famous for reporting the symptoms of what could later be dubbed Graves-Basedow disease, now technically known as exophthalmic goiter.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
A laboratory (informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.
Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young.
Leptin (from Greek λεπτός leptos, "thin"), "the hormone of energy expenditure", is a hormone predominantly made by adipose cells that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger.
Titus Lucretius Carus (15 October 99 BC – c. 55 BC) was a Roman poet and philosopher.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).
Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research), – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a ''preclinical'' understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Metabolic syndrome, sometimes known by other names, is a clustering of at least three of the five following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high serum triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Mineralocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which in turn are a class of steroid hormones.
In psychology, a mood is an emotional state.
Motor coordination is the combination of body movements created with the kinematic (such as spatial direction) and kinetic (force) parameters that result in intended actions.
Neuroendocrine cells are cells that receive neuronal input (neurotransmitters released by nerve cells or neurosecretory cells) and, as a consequence of this input, release message molecules (hormones) to the blood.
Neuroendocrinology is the branch of biology (specifically of physiology) which studies the interaction between the nervous system and the endocrine system, that is how the brain regulates the hormonal activity in the body.
A neurohormone is any hormone produced and released by neuroendocrine cells (also called neurosecretory cells) into the blood.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
Oskar Minkowski (13 January 1858 – 18 July 1931) held a professorship at the University of Breslau and is most famous for his research on diabetes.
Otto Loewi (3 June 1873 – 25 December 1961) was a German-born pharmacologist and psychobiologist who discovered the role of acetylcholine as an endogenous neurotransmitter. For his discovery he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1936, which he shared with Sir Henry Dale, who was a lifelong friend who helped to inspire the neurotransmitter experiment. Loewi met Dale in 1902 when spending some months in Ernest Starling's laboratory at University College, London.
The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
Paracrine signaling is a form of cell-to-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, altering the behavior of those cells.
Pediatric endocrinology (British: Paediatric) is a medical subspecialty dealing with disorders of the endocrine glands, such as variations of physical growth and sexual development in childhood, diabetes and many more.
Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents.
Peptide hormones or protein hormones are hormones whose molecules are peptides or proteins, respectively.
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
Phosphorylases are enzymes that catalyze the addition of a phosphate group from an inorganic phosphate (phosphate+hydrogen) to an acceptor.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
An explanation of the development of the pituitary gland (Hypophysis cerebri) & the congenital anomalies. In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.
Progestogens, also sometimes spelled progestagens or gestagens, are a class of steroid hormones that bind to and activate the progesterone receptor (PR).
Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".
Reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) is a surgical subspecialty of obstetrics and gynecology that trains physicians in reproductive medicine addressing hormonal functioning as it pertains to reproduction as well as the issue of infertility.
In physiology, respiration is defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.
Robert James Graves, F.R.C.S. (27 March 1796 – 20 March 1853) was an eminent Irish surgeon after whom Graves' disease takes its name.
Saponins are a class of chemical compounds found in particular abundance in various plant species.
Secretin is a hormone that regulates water homeostasis throughout the body and influences the environment of the duodenum by regulating secretions in the stomach, pancreas, and liver.
Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.
The Society for Endocrinology is an international membership organisation and registered charity representing scientists, clinicians and nurses who work with hormones.
A specialty, or speciality, in medicine is a branch of medical practice.
A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone.
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
A teacher (also called a school teacher or, in some contexts, an educator) is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values.
The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
Thomas Addison (April 179329 June 1860) was an English physician and scientist.
The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus.
Thyroid disease is a medical condition that affects the function of the thyroid gland (the endocrine organ found at the front of the neck that produces thyroid hormones).
Thyroid function tests (TFTs) is a collective term for blood tests used to check the function of the thyroid.
Thyroid hormones are two hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, namely triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as thyrotropin, thyrotropic hormone, TSH, or hTSH for human TSH) is a pituitary hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine (T4), and then triiodothyronine (T3) which stimulates the metabolism of almost every tissue in the body.
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), also called thyrotropin-releasing factor (TRF) or thyroliberin, is a releasing hormone, produced by the hypothalamus, that stimulates the release of thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH) and prolactin from the anterior pituitary.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Triiodothyronine, also known as T3, is a thyroid hormone.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
The vagus nerve, historically cited as the pneumogastric nerve, is the tenth cranial nerve or CN X, and interfaces with parasympathetic control of the heart, lungs, and digestive tract.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
Sir William Maddock Bayliss (2 May 1860 – 27 August 1924) was an English physiologist.