53 relations: Active transport, Adipocyte, Antibody, AP2 adaptor complex, Apoptosis, ARHGAP26, Élie Metchnikoff, Barbara Pearse, Bulk cargo, Caveolae, Caveolin, Cell (biology), Cell membrane, Chemical polarity, Chemical substance, Cholesterol, Christian de Duve, Clathrin, Clathrin adaptor protein, Cytosis, Cytosol, Dynamin, Eisosome, Electron microscope, Emperipolesis, Endosome, Endothelium, Energy, Epidermal growth factor, Exocytosis, Fibroblast, Glycolipid, Growth factor, Hydrophobe, Joseph L. Goldstein, LDL receptor, Low-density lipoprotein, Lysosome, Mannose 6-phosphate, Michael Stuart Brown, Microorganism, Molecule, Passive transport, Phagocytosis, Phagosome, Pinocytosis, Potocytosis, Pulmonary alveolus, Receptor (biochemistry), Receptor-mediated endocytosis, ..., Smooth muscle tissue, Transferrin, Vacuole. Expand index (3 more) » « Shrink index
Active transport is the movement of molecules across a membrane from a region of their lower concentration to a region of their higher concentration—in the direction against the concentration gradient.
Adipocytes, also known as lipocytes and fat cells, are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
The AP2 adaptor complex is a multimeric protein that works on the cell membrane to internalize cargo in clathrin-mediated endocytosis.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Rho GTPase activating protein 26 (ARHGAP26) also known as GTPase Regulator Associated with Focal Adhesion Kinase (GRAF) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARHGAP26 gene.
Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (Илья́ Ильи́ч Ме́чников, also written as Élie Metchnikoff; 15 July 1916) was a Russian zoologist best known for his pioneering research in immunology.
Barbara Mary Frances Pearse FRS (born 24 March 1948, Wraysbury, Buckinghamshire, England) is a British biological scientist.
Bulk cargo is commodity cargo that is transported unpackaged in large quantities.
In biology, caveolae (Latin for "little caves"; singular, caveola), which are a special type of lipid raft, are small (50–100 nanometer) invaginations of the plasma membrane in many vertebrate cell types, especially in endothelial cells, adipocytes and embryonic notochord cells.
In molecular biology Caveolins are a family of integral membrane proteins that are the principal components of caveolae membranes and involved in receptor-independent endocytosis.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
Christian René Marie Joseph, Viscount de Duve (2 October 1917 – 4 May 2013) was a Nobel Prize-winning Belgian cytologist and biochemist.
Clathrin is a protein that plays a major role in the formation of coated vesicles.
Clathrin adaptor proteins, also known as adaptins, are vesicular transport adaptor proteins associated with clathrin.
Cytosis is a transport mechanism for the movement of large quantities of molecules into and out of cells.
The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.
Dynamin is a GTPase responsible for endocytosis in the eukaryotic cell.
Eisosomes ('eis' meaning into or portal and 'soma', meaning body) are large, heterodimeric, immobile protein complexes at the plasma membrane which mark the site of endocytosis in some eukaryotes, and were discovered in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in 2006.
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.
In medicine, emperipolesis is the presence of an intact cell within the cytoplasm of another cell.
In cell biology, an endosome is a membrane-bound compartment inside eukaryotic cells.
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates cell growth and differentiation by binding to its receptor, EGFR.
Exocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (e.g., neurotransmitters and proteins) out of the cell (exo- + cytosis) by expelling them through an energy-dependent process.
A fibroblast is a type of biological cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, the structural framework (stroma) for animal tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing.
Glycolipids are lipids with a carbohydrate attached by a glycosidic bond or covalently bonded.
A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
Joseph Leonard Goldstein (born April 18, 1940) is an American biochemist.
The Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Receptor (LDL-R) is a mosaic protein of 839 amino acids (after removal of 21-amino acid signal peptide) that mediates the endocytosis of cholesterol-rich LDL.
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is one of the five major groups of lipoprotein which transport all fat molecules around the body in the extracellular water.
A lysosome is a membrane-bound organelle found in nearly all animal cells.
Mannose-6-phosphate (M6P) is a molecule bound by lectin in the immune system.
Michael Stuart Brown (born April 13, 1941) is an American geneticist and Nobel laureate.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Passive transport is a movement of ions and other atomic or molecular substances across cell membranes without need of energy input.
In cell biology, phagocytosis is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome.
In cell biology, a phagosome is a vesicle formed around a particle engulfed by a phagocyte via phagocytosis.
In cellular biology, pinocytosis, otherwise known as fluid endocytosis and bulk-phase pinocytosis, is a mode of endocytosis in which small particles suspended in extracellular fluid are brought into the cell through an invagination of the cell membrane, resulting in a suspension of the particles within a small vesicle inside the cell.
Potocytosis is a type of receptor-mediated endocytosis in which small molecules are transported across the plasma membrane of a cell.
A pulmonary alveolus (plural: alveoli, from Latin alveolus, "little cavity") is a hollow cavity found in the lung parenchyma, and is the basic unit of ventilation.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME), also called clathrin-mediated endocytosis, is a process by which cells absorb metabolites, hormones, other proteins – and in some cases viruses – by the inward budding of plasma membrane vesicles containing proteins with receptor sites specific to the molecules being absorbed (endocytosis).
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
Transferrins are iron-binding blood plasma glycoproteins that control the level of free iron (Fe) in biological fluids.
A vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal and bacterial cells.