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Endoplasmic reticulum

Index Endoplasmic reticulum

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae. [1]

91 relations: Albert Claude, Alzheimer's disease, Amino acid, Asparagine, Binding immunoglobulin protein, Calnexin, Calreticulin, Cellular stress response, Chaperone (protein), Cisterna, Clathrin, COPI, COPII, Crohn's disease, Cytoskeleton, Cytosol, Detoxification, Electron microscope, Eukaryote, Gluconeogenesis, Glucose, Glucose 6-phosphatase, Glucose 6-phosphate, Glycoprotein, Glycosylation, Golgi apparatus, Gonad, Hepatocyte, Hsp70, Integral membrane protein, KDEL (amino acid sequence), KDELR1, KDELR2, KDELR3, Keith R. Porter, KKXX (amino acid sequence), Large intestine, Lipid, Lipid bilayer, Liver, Lumen (anatomy), Lysosome, Mannose, Mannose 6-phosphate, McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology, Membrane contact site, Messenger RNA, Mitochondrion, Multistorey car park, Muscle contraction, ..., Myocyte, Neurodegeneration, Nitrogen, Nuclear envelope, Oligosaccharyltransferase, Optical microscope, Organelle, Orientations of Proteins in Membranes database, Ovary, Peptide, Phospholipid, Prion, Protease, Protein, Protein disulfide-isomerase, Protein folding, Protein targeting, Rab (G-protein), Red blood cell, Redox, Ribosome, Ribosome-nascent chain complex, Sebaceous gland, Secretion, Serine, Signal peptide, Signal recognition particle, SNAP25, SNARE (protein), Spermatozoon, Steroid, Steroid hormone, Structural motif, Testicle, Threonine, Translation (biology), Translocon, Unfolded protein response, Vesicle (biology and chemistry), Vesicular transport adaptor protein, XBP1. Expand index (41 more) »

Albert Claude

Albert Claude (24 August 1899 – 22 May 1983) was a Belgian medical doctor and cell biologist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1974 with Christian de Duve and George Emil Palade.

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Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Asparagine (symbol Asn or N), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Binding immunoglobulin protein

Binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) also known as 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP-78) or heat shock 70 kDa protein 5 (HSPA5) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HSPA5 gene.

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Calnexin (CNX) is a integral protein (that appears variously as a 90kDa, 80kDa, or 75kDa band on western blotting depending on the source of the antibody) of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER).

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Calreticulin also known as calregulin, CRP55, CaBP3, calsequestrin-like protein, and endoplasmic reticulum resident protein 60 (ERp60) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CALR gene.

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Cellular stress response

Cellular stress response is the wide range of molecular changes that cells undergo in response to environmental stressors, including extremes of temperature, exposure to toxins, and mechanical damage.

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Chaperone (protein)

In molecular biology, molecular chaperones are proteins that assist the covalent folding or unfolding and the assembly or disassembly of other macromolecular structures.

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A cisterna (plural cisternae) is a flattened membrane disk of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus.

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Clathrin is a protein that plays a major role in the formation of coated vesicles.

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COPI is a coatomer, a protein complex that coats vesicles transporting proteins from the cis end of the Golgi complex back to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where they were originally synthesized, and between Golgi compartments.

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COPII is a coatomer, a type of vesicle coat protein that transports proteins from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus.

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Crohn's disease

Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus.

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A cytoskeleton is present in all cells of all domains of life (archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes).

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The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.

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Detoxification or detoxication (detox for short) is the physiological or medicinal removal of toxic substances from a living organism, including the human body, which is mainly carried out by the liver.

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Electron microscope

An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.

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Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).

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Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates.

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Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.

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Glucose 6-phosphatase

Glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase) is an enzyme that hydrolyzes glucose-6-phosphate, resulting in the creation of a phosphate group and free glucose.

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Glucose 6-phosphate

Glucose 6-phosphate (sometimes called the Robison ester) is a glucose sugar phosphorylated at the hydroxy group on carbon 6.

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Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.

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Glycosylation (see also chemical glycosylation) is the reaction in which a carbohydrate, i.e. a glycosyl donor, is attached to a hydroxyl or other functional group of another molecule (a glycosyl acceptor).

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Golgi apparatus

The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.

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A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism.

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A hepatocyte is a cell of the main parenchymal tissue of the liver.

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The 70 kilodalton heat shock proteins (Hsp70s or DnaK) are a family of conserved ubiquitously expressed heat shock proteins.

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Integral membrane protein

An integral membrane protein (IMP) is a type of membrane protein that is permanently attached to the biological membrane.

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KDEL (amino acid sequence)

KDEL is a target peptide sequence in the amino acid structure of a protein which prevents the protein from being secreted from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and facilitates its return if it is accidentally exported.

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KDEL (Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu) endoplasmic reticulum protein retention receptor 1, also known as KDELR1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the KDELR1 gene.

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ER lumen protein retaining receptor 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KDELR2 gene.

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ER lumen protein retaining receptor 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KDELR3 gene.

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Keith R. Porter

Keith Roberts Porter (June 11, 1912 – May 2, 1997) was a Canadian-American cell biologist.

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KKXX (amino acid sequence)

KKXX and for some proteins XKXX is a target peptide motif located in the C terminus in the amino acid structure of a protein responsible for retrieval of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane proteins from the Golgi apparatus.

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Large intestine

The large intestine, also known as the large bowel or colon, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates.

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In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.

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Lipid bilayer

The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules.

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The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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Lumen (anatomy)

In biology, a lumen (plural lumina) is the inside space of a tubular structure, such as an artery or intestine.

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A lysosome is a membrane-bound organelle found in nearly all animal cells.

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Mannose, packaged as the nutritional supplement "d-mannose", is a sugar monomer of the aldohexose series of carbohydrates.

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Mannose 6-phosphate

Mannose-6-phosphate (M6P) is a molecule bound by lectin in the immune system.

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McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology

The McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology is an English-language multivolume encyclopedia, specifically focused on scientific and technical subjects, and published by McGraw-Hill Education.

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Membrane contact site

Membrane contact sites (MCS) are close appositions between two organelles.

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Messenger RNA

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.

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The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.

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Multistorey car park

A multistorey car park (UK English) or parking garage (US English; also called a multistorey, parkade (mainly Canadian), parking structure, parking ramp, parking building, parking deck or indoor parking) is a building designed for car parking and where there are a number of floors or levels on which parking takes place.

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Muscle contraction

Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers.

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A myocyte (also known as a muscle cell) is the type of cell found in muscle tissue.

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Neurodegeneration is the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons, including death of neurons.

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Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Nuclear envelope

The nuclear envelope, also known as the nuclear membrane, is made up of two lipid bilayer membranes which surrounds the nucleus, and in eukaryotic cells it encases the genetic material.

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Oligosaccharyltransferase or OST is a membrane protein complex that transfers a 14-sugar oligosaccharide from dolichol to nascent protein.

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Optical microscope

The optical microscope, often referred to as the light microscope, is a type of microscope that uses visible light and a system of lenses to magnify images of small subjects.

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In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.

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Orientations of Proteins in Membranes database

Orientations of Proteins in Membranes (OPM) database provides spatial positions of membrane protein structures with respect to the lipid bilayer.

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The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.

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Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.

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Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes.

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Prions are misfolded proteins that are associated with several fatal neurodegenerative diseases in animals and humans.

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A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme that performs proteolysis: protein catabolism by hydrolysis of peptide bonds.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein disulfide-isomerase

Protein disulfide isomerase, or PDI, is an enzyme in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in eukaryotes and the periplasm of bacteria that catalyzes the formation and breakage of disulfide bonds between cysteine residues within proteins as they fold.

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Protein folding

Protein folding is the physical process by which a protein chain acquires its native 3-dimensional structure, a conformation that is usually biologically functional, in an expeditious and reproducible manner.

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Protein targeting

Protein targeting or protein sorting is the biological mechanism by which proteins are transported to the appropriate destinations in the cell or outside it.

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Rab (G-protein)

The Rab family of proteins is a member of the Ras superfamily of monomeric G proteins.

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Red blood cell

Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.

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Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

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The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).

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Ribosome-nascent chain complex

Ribosome-nascent chain complex (RNC) refers to the collection of molecules that constitute a ribosome attached to the polypeptide (protein) that it is synthesising.

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Sebaceous gland

Sebaceous glands are microscopic exocrine glands in the skin that secrete an oily or waxy matter, called sebum, to lubricate and waterproof the skin and hair of mammals.

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Secretion is the movement of material from one point to another, e.g. secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland.

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Serine (symbol Ser or S) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Signal peptide

A signal peptide (sometimes referred to as signal sequence, targeting signal, localization signal, localization sequence, transit peptide, leader sequence or leader peptide) is a short peptide (usually 16-30 amino acids long) present at the N-terminus of the majority of newly synthesized proteins that are destined towards the secretory pathway.

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Signal recognition particle

The signal recognition particle (SRP) is an abundant, cytosolic, universally conserved ribonucleoprotein (protein-RNA complex) that recognizes and targets specific proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum in eukaryotes and the plasma membrane in prokaryotes.

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Synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25) is a t-SNARE protein that is encoded by the SNAP25 gene in humans.

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SNARE (protein)

SNARE proteins (an acronym derived from "SNAP (Soluble NSF(N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor) Attachment Protein) REceptor)" are a large protein complex consisting of at least 24 members in yeasts and more than 60 members in mammalian cells.

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A spermatozoon (pronounced, alternate spelling spermatozoön; plural spermatozoa; from σπέρμα "seed" and ζῷον "living being") is a motile sperm cell, or moving form of the haploid cell that is the male gamete.

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A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.

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Steroid hormone

A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone.

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Structural motif

In a chain-like biological molecule, such as a protein or nucleic acid, a structural motif is a supersecondary structure, which also appears in a variety of other molecules.

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The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.

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Threonine (symbol Thr or T) is an amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Translation (biology)

In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.

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The translocon (commonly known as a translocator or translocation channel) is a complex of proteins associated with the translocation of polypeptides across membranes.

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Unfolded protein response

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a cellular stress response related to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress.

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Vesicle (biology and chemistry)

In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer.

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Vesicular transport adaptor protein

No description.

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X-box binding protein 1, also known as XBP1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the XBP1 gene.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endoplasmic_reticulum

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