65 relations: Angiocrine growth factors, Angiogenesis, Angiopoietin, Antithrombin, Apelin, Arginine, Asymmetric dimethylarginine, Atherosclerosis, Blood, Blood pressure, Blood vessel, Capillary, Caveolae, Cellular dewetting, Circulatory system, Coagulation, Cofactor (biochemistry), Coronary artery disease, Diabetes mellitus, Edema, Endocardium, Endothelial activation, Endothelial dysfunction, Endothelial progenitor cell, Endothelium-derived relaxing factor, Epithelium, Fibrinolysis, Glomerulus, Heart, Hemostasis, Heparan sulfate, Hypercholesterolemia, Hypertension, Inflammation, Informa, Keratin, Lumen (anatomy), Lymph, Lymphatic vessel, MAPK7, Mesoderm, Micrograph, Microvesicles, Microvessel, Muscle tone, Neutrophil, Nitric oxide, Nitric oxide synthase, Reactive oxygen species, Red blood cell, ..., Robert F. Furchgott, Susac's syndrome, Thrombosis, Tobacco smoking, Transmission electron microscopy, Tunica intima, Ultrafiltration, University of Washington, Vasoconstriction, Vasodilation, VE-cadherin, Vimentin, Von Willebrand factor, Weibel–Palade body, White blood cell. Expand index (15 more) » « Shrink index
Angiocrine growth factors are molecules found in blood vessels' endothelial cells that can stimulate organ-specific repair activities in damaged or diseased organs.
Angiogenesis is the physiological process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels.
Angiopoietin is part of a family of vascular growth factors that play a role in embryonic and postnatal angiogenesis.
Antithrombin (AT) is a small protein molecule that inactivates several enzymes of the coagulation system.
Apelin (also known as APLN) is a peptide that in humans is encoded by the APLN gene.
Arginine (symbol Arg or R) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a naturally occurring chemical found in blood plasma.
Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick.
In biology, caveolae (Latin for "little caves"; singular, caveola), which are a special type of lipid raft, are small (50–100 nanometer) invaginations of the plasma membrane in many vertebrate cell types, especially in endothelial cells, adipocytes and embryonic notochord cells.
Cellular dewetting refers to the process of nucleation and enlargement of transendothelial cell macroaperture (TEM) tunnels in endothelial cells (Figure 1).
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot.
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.
The endocardium is the innermost layer of tissue that lines the chambers of the heart.
Endothelial activation is a proinflammatory and procoagulant state of the endothelial cells lining the lumen of blood vessels.
In vascular diseases, endothelial dysfunction is a systemic pathological state of the endothelium.
Endothelial progenitor cell (or EPC) is a term that has been applied to multiple different cell types that play roles in the regeneration of the endothelial lining of blood vessels.
Endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) is produced and released by the endothelium to promote smooth muscle relaxation.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
Fibrinolysis is a process that prevents blood clots from growing and becoming problematic.
Glomerulus is a common term used in anatomy to describe globular structures of entwined vessels, fibers, or neurons.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Hemostasis or haemostasis is a process which causes bleeding to stop, meaning to keep blood within a damaged blood vessel (the opposite of hemostasis is hemorrhage).
Heparan sulfate (HS) is a linear polysaccharide found in all animal tissues.
Hypercholesterolemia, also called high cholesterol, is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Informa plc is a multinational events and publishing company with its head office and registered office in London.
Keratin is one of a family of fibrous structural proteins.
In biology, a lumen (plural lumina) is the inside space of a tubular structure, such as an artery or intestine.
Lymph is the fluid that circulates throughout the lymphatic system.
The lymphatic vessels (or lymph vessels or lymphatics) are thin-walled vessels structured like blood vessels, that carry lymph.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 7 also known as MAP kinase 7 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPK7 gene.
In all bilaterian animals, the mesoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.
A micrograph or photomicrograph is a photograph or digital image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item.
Microvesicles (circulating microvesicles, or microparticles) are a type of extracellular vesicle, between 50 and 1,000 nanometers (nm) in diameter, found in many types of body fluids as well as the interstitial space between cells.
Microvessel or microvasculature refers to the smallest systems of blood vessels in a body, including those responsible for microcirculation, the system of smaller blood vessels that distribute blood within tissues.
In physiology, medicine, and anatomy, muscle tone (residual muscle tension or tonus) is the continuous and passive partial contraction of the muscles, or the muscle's resistance to passive stretch during resting state.
Neutrophils (also known as neutrocytes) are the most abundant type of granulocytes and the most abundant (40% to 70%) type of white blood cells in most mammals.
Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.
Nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) are a family of enzymes catalyzing the production of nitric oxide (NO) from L-arginine.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
Robert Francis Furchgott (June 4, 1916 – May 19, 2009) was a Nobel Prize-winning American biochemist who contributed to the discovery of nitric oxide as a transient cellular signal in mammalian systems.
Susac's syndrome (retinocochleocerebral vasculopathy) is a very rare form of microangiopathy characterized by encephalopathy, branch retinal artery occlusions and hearing loss.
Thrombosis (from Ancient Greek θρόμβωσις thrómbōsis "clotting”) is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system.
Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, also sometimes conventional transmission electron microscopy or CTEM) is a microscopy technique in which a beam of electrons is transmitted through a specimen to form an image.
The tunica intima (New Latin "inner coat"), or intima for short, is the innermost tunica (layer) of an artery or vein.
Ultrafiltration (UF) is a variety of membrane filtration in which forces like pressure or concentration gradients lead to a separation through a semipermeable membrane.
The University of Washington (commonly referred to as UW, simply Washington, or informally U-Dub) is a public research university in Seattle, Washington.
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.
Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels.
Cadherin 5, type 2 or VE-cadherin (vascular endothelial cadherin) also known as CD144 ('''C'''luster of '''D'''ifferentiation 144), is a type of cadherin.
Vimentin is a structural protein that in humans is encoded by the VIM gene.
Von Willebrand factor (vWF) is a blood glycoprotein involved in hemostasis.
Weibel–Palade bodies are the storage granules of endothelial cells, the cells that form the inner lining of the blood vessels and heart.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.