240 relations: Aerospace manufacturer, Arms industry, Astronaut, Baikonur, Ballistic missile, BelKA, Blok D, Buran (spacecraft), Buran programme, Cargo spacecraft, Commercial Crew Development, Communications satellite, Dmitry Rogozin, Earth, Energia, Energia (corporation), Energy, Federation (spacecraft), Gazprom, Helium-3, Hero of the Russian Federation, Human spaceflight, Intercontinental ballistic missile, Intermediate-range ballistic missile, International Space Station, Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center, Kliper, Korabl-Sputnik 1, Korabl-Sputnik 2, Korabl-Sputnik 3, Korabl-Sputnik 4, Korabl-Sputnik 5, Korolyov, Moscow Oblast, Kosmos (rocket family), Kosmos 111, Kosmos 27, Kosmos 300, Kosmos 305, Kosmos 419, Kosmos 482, Kosmos 557, Kosmos 60, Launch vehicle, List of cosmonauts, List of spacecraft called Sputnik, LK (spacecraft), Luna (rocket), Luna 1, Luna 10, Luna 11, ..., Luna 12, Luna 13, Luna 14, Luna 15, Luna 16, Luna 17, Luna 18, Luna 19, Luna 2, Luna 20, Luna 21, Luna 22, Luna 23, Luna 24, Luna 3, Luna 4, Luna 5, Luna 6, Luna 7, Luna 8, Luna 9, Luna E-1 No.1, Luna E-1 No.2, Luna E-1 No.3, Luna E-1A No.1, Luna E-3 No.1, Luna E-3 No.2, Luna E-6 No.2, Luna E-6 No.3, Luna E-6 No.5, Luna E-6 No.6, Luna E-6 No.8, Luna E-6LS No.112, Luna E-8 No.201, Luna E-8-5 No. 402, Luna E-8-5 No. 405, Luna E-8-5M No. 412, Luna programme, Mars, Mars 1, Mars 1M, Mars 2, Mars 2M No.521, Mars 2M No.522, Mars 2MV-3 No.1, Mars 2MV-4 No.1, Mars 3, Mars 4, Mars 96, Mars program, Military Soyuz, Mir, MirCorp, Molniya (rocket), Molniya (satellite), Molniya-1 No.2, Moon, N1 (rocket), Nauka (ISS module), NewSpace, Nikolay Sevastyanov, NPO Energomash, NPO Mashinostroyeniya, OKB, Orbital Technologies Commercial Space Station, Order of Lenin, Order of the October Revolution, Outer space, Parom, Phobos program, Pirs (ISS module), Poisk (ISS module), Polyot (rocket), Progress (spacecraft), Progress 7K-TG, Progress-M, Progress-M1, Public company, R-1 (missile), R-2 (missile), R-5 Pobeda, R-7 (rocket family), R-7 Semyorka, R-7A Semyorka, R-9 Desna, Rassvet (ISS module), Remote sensing, RKK Energiya museum, Robotic spacecraft, Roscosmos, RT-1, RT-2, Russia, Russian Orbital Segment, Salyut 1, Salyut 2, Salyut 3, Salyut 4, Salyut 5, Salyut 6, Salyut 7, Salyut programme, Sea Launch, Sergei Korolev, Shenzhou program, Soviet crewed lunar programs, Soyuz (rocket family), Soyuz (rocket), Soyuz (spacecraft), Soyuz 7K-L1, Soyuz 7K-L1 No.4L, Soyuz 7K-L1 No.5L, Soyuz 7K-LOK, Soyuz 7K-OK, Soyuz 7K-OKS, Soyuz 7K-T, Soyuz 7K-TM, Soyuz programme, Soyuz TM-1, Soyuz-A, Soyuz-B, Soyuz-L, Soyuz-M, Soyuz-T, Soyuz-TM, Soyuz-TMA, Soyuz-V, Soyuz/Vostok, Space industry, Space industry of Russia, Space Shuttle retirement, Space station, Space tourism, Spacecraft, Sputnik (rocket), Sputnik 1, Sputnik 2, Sputnik 3, TsNIIMash, Tyazhely Sputnik, Ukraine, United Rocket and Space Corporation, Valentin Glushko, Vasily Mishin, Venera, Venera 1, Venera 10, Venera 11, Venera 12, Venera 13, Venera 14, Venera 15, Venera 16, Venera 2, Venera 2MV-1 No.1, Venera 2MV-1 No.2, Venera 2MV-2 No.1, Venera 3, Venera 4, Venera 5, Venera 6, Venera 7, Venera 8, Venera 9, Vladimir Chelomey, Voskhod (rocket), Voskhod (spacecraft), Voskhod programme, Vostok (rocket family), Vostok (spacecraft), Vostok 1, Vostok programme, Vostok-2 (rocket), Vostok-2M, Vostok-K, Vostok-L, Yamal (satellite constellation), Zarya, Zenit (rocket family), Zenit (satellite), Zond 1, Zond 2, Zond 3, Zond 4, Zond 5, Zond 6, Zond 7, Zond 8, Zond program, Zvezda (ISS module). Expand index (190 more) » « Shrink index
An aerospace manufacturer is a company or individual involved in the various aspects of designing, building, testing, selling, and maintaining aircraft, aircraft parts, missiles, rockets, or spacecraft.
The arms industry, also known as the defense industry or the arms trade, is a global industry responsible for the manufacturing and sales of weapons and military technology.
An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.
Baikonur (translit; translit), formerly known as Leninsk (also, see Tyuratam), is a city of republic significance in Kazakhstan on the Northern bank of the Syr Darya river, rented and administered by the Russian Federation.
A ballistic missile follows a ballistic trajectory to deliver one or more warheads on a predetermined target.
BelKA (an acronym from Belarusian: Беларускі Касмічны Апарат, Belarusian Cosmic Apparatus) was intended to be the first satellite of independent Belarus.
Blok D (Блок Д meaning Block D) is an upper stage used on Soviet and later Russian expendable launch systems, including the N1, Proton-K and Zenit.
Buran (Бура́н,, meaning "Snowstorm" or "Blizzard"; GRAU index serial number: "11F35 K1") was the first spaceplane to be produced as part of the Soviet/Russian Buran programme.
The Buran programme (Бура́н,, "Snowstorm" or "Blizzard"), also known as the "VKK Space Orbiter programme" ("VKK" is for Воздушно Космический Корабль, "Air Space Ship"), was a Soviet and later Russian reusable spacecraft project that began in 1974 at the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute in Moscow and was formally suspended in 1993.
Cargo spacecraft are robotic spacecraft that are designed to support space stations operation by transporting food, propellant and other supplies.
Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) is a multiphase, space technology development program that is funded by the U.S. government and administered by NASA.
A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth.
Dmitry Olegovich Rogozin (Дми́трий Оле́гович Рого́зин; born 21 December 1963) is a Russian politician, currently serve as Director General of, Roscosmos.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Energia (Энергия, Energiya, "Energy") (GRAU 11K25) was a Soviet rocket that was designed by NPO Energia to serve as a heavy-lift partially recoverable launch system for a variety of payloads including the Buran spacecraft.
PAO S. P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia (Raketno-kosmicheskaya korporatsiya “Energiya” im.), also known as RSC Energia (РКК «Энергия», RKK “Energiya”), is a Russian manufacturer of ballistic missile, spacecraft and space station components.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Federation (Федерация, Federatsiya), formerly called PPTS (Prospective Piloted Transport System, Перспективная Пилотируемая Транспортная Система, Perspektivnaya Pilotiruemaya Transportnaya Sistema) is a project by Roscosmos to develop a new-generation, partially reusable piloted spacecraft.
Public Joint Stock Company Gazprom (Публи́чное акционе́рное о́бщество «Газпром», Publichnoe Aktsionernoe Obshchestvo Gazprom, abbreviated PAO Gazprom, ПАО «Газпром») is a large Russian company founded in 1989, which carries on the business of extraction, production, transport, and sale of natural gas.
Helium-3 (He-3, also written as 3He, see also helion) is a light, non-radioactive isotope of helium with two protons and one neutron (common helium having two protons and two neutrons).
Hero of the Russian Federation (Герой Российской Федерации) is the highest honorary title of the Russian Federation.
Human spaceflight (also referred to as crewed spaceflight or manned spaceflight) is space travel with a crew or passengers aboard the spacecraft.
An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads).
An intermediate-range ballistic missile (IRBM) is a ballistic missile with a range of 3,000–5,500 km (1,864–3,418 miles), between a medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) and an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM).
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center (ГКНПЦ им. М. В. Хру́ничева in Russian) is a Moscow-based producer of spacecraft and space-launch systems, including the Proton and Rokot rockets.
Kliper (Клипер, English: Clipper) was an early-2000s proposed partly- reusable manned spacecraft concept by RSC Energia.
Korabl-Sputnik 1 (Корабль Спутник 1 meaning Ship Satellite 1, Boat Satellite 1, or Starship Satellite 1), also known as Sputnik 4 in the West, was the first test flight of the Soviet Vostok programme, and the first Vostok spacecraft.
Korabl-Sputnik 2 (Корабль-Спутник 2 meaning Ship-Satellite 2), also known incorrectly as Sputnik 5 in the West, was a Soviet artificial satellite, and the third test flight of the Vostok spacecraft.
Korabl-Sputnik 3 (Корабль-Спутник 3 meaning Ship-Satellite 3) or Vostok-1K No.3, also known as Sputnik 6 in the West, was a Soviet spacecraft which was launched in 1960.
Korabl-Sputnik 4 (Корабль-Спутник 4 meaning Ship-Satellite 4) or Vostok-3KA No.1, also known as Sputnik 9 in the West, was a Soviet spacecraft which was launched in 1961.
Korabl-Sputnik 5 (Корабль-Спутник 5 meaning Ship-Satellite 5) or Vostok-3KA No.2, also known as Sputnik 10 in the West, was a Soviet spacecraft which was launched in 1961, as part of the Vostok programme.
Korolyov or Korolev (p) is an industrial city in Moscow Oblast, Russia, well known as the cradle of Soviet and Russian space exploration.
The Kosmos (also spelled Cosmos, Russian: Ко́смос) rockets were a series of Soviet and subsequently Russian rockets, derived from the R-12 and R-14 missiles, the best known of which is the Kosmos-3M, which has made over 440 launches.
Kosmos 111 (Космос 111 meaning Cosmos 111) (E-6S series) was the first Soviet attempt to orbit a spacecraft around the Moon.
Kosmos 27 (Космос 27 meaning Cosmos 27), also known as Zond 3MV-1 No.3 was a space mission intended as a Venus flyby.
Kosmos 300 (Космос 300 meaning Cosmos 300) (Ye-8-5 series) was the fourth Soviet attempt at an unmanned lunar sample return.
Kosmos 305 (Космос 305 meaning Cosmos 305) (Ye-8-5 series) was the fifth Soviet attempt at an unmanned lunar sample return.
Kosmos 419 (Космос 419 meaning Cosmos 419), also known as 3MS No.170 was a failed Soviet spacecraft intended to visit Mars.
Kosmos 482 (Космос 482 meaning Cosmos 482), launched March 31, 1972 at 04:02:33 UTC, was an attempted Venus probe which failed to escape low Earth orbit.
Kosmos 557 (Космос 557 meaning Cosmos 557) was the designation given to DOS-3, the third space station in the Salyut program.
Kosmos 60 (Космос 60 meaning Cosmos 60) was an E-6 series probe, launched by the Soviet Union on March 12, 1965.
A launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a rocket used to carry a payload from Earth's surface through outer space, either to another surface point (suborbital), or into space (Earth orbit or beyond).
This is a list of cosmonauts who have taken part in the missions of the Soviet space program and the Russian Federal Space Agency, including ethnic Russians and people of other ethnicities.
Sputnik (Спутник, Russian for "satellite" or "fellow traveler") is a spacecraft launched under the Soviet space program.
The LK (ЛК, from Лунный корабль, "Lunniy korabl", meaning "Lunar craft"; GRAU index: 11F94) was a piloted lunar lander developed in the 1960s as a part of the Soviet attempts at human exploration of the Moon. Its role was analogous to the American Apollo Lunar Module (LM). Several LK articles were flown without crew in Earth orbit, but no LK ever reached the Moon. The development of the N1 launch vehicle required for the Moon flight suffered setbacks (including several launch failures), and the first Moon landings were achieved by US astronauts. As a result, both the N1 and the LK programs were cancelled without any further development.
The Luna 8K72 vehicles were carrier rockets used by the Soviet Union for nine space probe launch attempts in the Luna programme between 23 September 1958 and 16 April 1960.
Luna 1, also known as Mechta (Мечта, lit.: Dream), E-1 No.4 and First Lunar Rover, was the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Earth's Moon, and the first spacecraft to be placed in heliocentric orbit.
Luna 10 (E-6S series) was a 1966 Soviet Luna program, robotic spacecraft mission, also called Lunik 10.
Luna 11 (E-6LF series) was an unmanned space mission of the Soviet Union's Luna program.
Luna 12 (E-6LF series) was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 12.
Luna 13 (E-6M series) was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program.
Luna 14 (E-6LS series) was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program run by the Soviet Union.
Luna 15 was an unmanned space mission of the Soviet Luna programme.
Luna 16, also known as Lunik 16, was an unmanned space mission, part of the Soviet Luna program.
Luna 17 (Ye-8 series) was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program, also called Lunik 17.
Luna 18, part of the Ye-8-5 series, was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program.
Luna 19 (a.k.a. Lunik 19) (E-8-LS series), was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program.
Luna 2 (E-1A series) or Lunik 2 was the second of the Soviet Union's Luna programme spacecraft launched to the Moon.
Luna 20 was the second of three successful Soviet lunar sample return missions.
Luna 21 (Ye-8 series) was an unmanned space mission, and its spacecraft, of the Luna program, also called Lunik 21, in 1973.
Luna 22 (Ye-8-LS series) was an unmanned space mission, part of the Soviet Luna program, also called Lunik 22.
Luna 23 was an unmanned space mission of the Luna program.
Luna 24 was an unmanned space mission of the Soviet Union's Luna programme.
Luna 3, or E-2A No.1 was a Soviet spacecraft launched in 1959 as part of the Luna programme.
Luna 4, or E-6 No.4 was a Soviet spacecraft launched as part of the Luna program to attempt the first soft landing on the Moon.
Luna 5, or E-6 No.10, was an unmanned Soviet spacecraft intended to land on the Moon as part of the Luna programme.
Luna 6, or E-6 No.7 was an unmanned Soviet spacecraft which was intended to perform a landing on the Moon as part of the Luna program.
Luna 7 (E-6 series) was an unmanned space mission of the Soviet Luna program, also called Lunik 7.
Luna 8 (E-6 series), also known as Lunik 8, was a lunar space probe of the Luna program.
Luna 9 (Луна-9), internal designation Ye-6 No.13, was an unmanned space mission of the Soviet Union's Luna programme.
Luna E-1 No.1, sometimes identified by NASA as Luna 1958A, was a Soviet Luna E-1 spacecraft which was intended to impact the Moon.
Luna E-1 No.2, sometimes identified by NASA as Luna 1958B, was a Soviet spacecraft which was lost in a launch failure in 1958.
Luna E-1 No.3, sometimes identified by NASA as Luna 1958C, was a Soviet spacecraft which was lost in a launch failure in 1958.
Luna E-1A No.1 or E-1 No.5, sometimes identified by NASA as Luna 1959A, was a Soviet spacecraft which was lost in a launch failure in 1959.
Luna E-3 No.1, sometimes identified by NASA as Luna 1960A, was a Soviet spacecraft which was lost in a launch failure in 1960.
Luna E-3 No.2, sometimes identified by NASA as Luna 1960B, was a Soviet spacecraft which was lost in a launch failure in 1960.
Luna E-6 No.2, also identified as No.1, and sometimes known in the West as Sputnik 25, was a Soviet spacecraft which launched in 1963, but was placed into a useless orbit due to a problem with the upper stage of the rocket that launched it.
Luna E-6 No.3, also identified as No.2 and sometimes by NASA as Luna 1963B, was a Soviet spacecraft which was lost in a launch failure in 1963.
Luna E-6 No.5, sometimes identified by NASA as Luna 1964B, was a Soviet spacecraft which was lost in a launch failure in 1964.
Luna E-6 No.6, sometimes identified by NASA as Luna 1964A, was a Soviet spacecraft which was lost in a launch failure in 1964.
Molniya-L Luna E-6 No.8, sometimes identified by NASA as Luna 1965A, was a Soviet spacecraft which was lost in a launch failure in 1965.
Luna E-6LS No.112, sometimes identified by NASA as Luna 1968A, was a Soviet spacecraft which was lost in a launch failure in 1968.
Luna E-8 No.201, also known as Luna Ye-8 No.201, and sometimes identified by NASA as Luna 1969A, was a Soviet spacecraft which was lost in a launch failure in 1969.
Luna E-8-5 No.402, also known as Luna Ye-8-5 No.402, and sometimes identified by NASA as Luna 1969C, was a Soviet spacecraft under Luna programme which was lost in a launch failure in 1969.
Luna E-8-5 No.405, also known as Luna Ye-8-5 No.405, and sometimes identified by NASA as Luna 1970A, was a Soviet spacecraft which was lost in a launch failure in 1970.
Luna E-8-5M No.412, also known as Luna Ye-8-5M No.412, and sometimes identified by NASA as Luna 1975A, was a Soviet spacecraft which was lost in a launch failure in 1975.
The Luna programme (from the Russian word Луна "Luna" meaning "Lunar" or "Moon"), occasionally called Lunik or Lunnik by western media, was a series of robotic spacecraft missions sent to the Moon by the Soviet Union between 1959 and 1976.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
Mars 1 Mars 1, also known as 1962 Beta Nu 1, Mars 2MV-4 and Sputnik 23, was an automatic interplanetary station launched in the direction of Mars on November 1, 1962, the first of the Soviet Mars probe program, with the intent of flying by the planet at a distance of about.
Mars 1M was a series of two unmanned spacecraft which were used in the first Soviet missions to explore Mars.
The Mars 2 was an unmanned space probe of the Mars program, a series of unmanned Mars landers and orbiters launched by the Soviet Union May 19, 1971.
Mars 2M No.521, also known as Mars M-69 No.521 and sometimes identified by NASA as Mars 1969A, was a Soviet spacecraft which was lost in a launch failure in 1969.
Mars 2M No.522, also known as Mars M-69 No.522 and sometimes identified by NASA as Mars 1969B, was a Soviet spacecraft which was lost in a launch failure in 1969.
Mars 2MV-3 No.1 also known as Sputnik 24 in the West, was a Soviet spacecraft, which was launched in 1962 as part of the Mars program, and was intended to land on the surface of Mars.
Mars 2MV-4 No.1 also known as Sputnik 22 in the West, was a Soviet spacecraft, which was launched in 1962 as part of the Mars programme, and was intended to make a flyby of Mars, and transmit images of the planet back to Earth.
Mars 3 was an unmanned space probe of the Soviet Mars program which spanned the years between 1960 and 1973.
Mars 4, also known as 3MS No.52S was a Soviet spacecraft intended to explore Mars.
Mars 96 (sometimes called Mars 8) was a failed Mars mission launched in 1996 to investigate Mars by the Russian Space Forces and not directly related to the Soviet Mars probe program of the same name.
The Mars program was a series of unmanned spacecraft launched by the Soviet Union between 1960 and 1973.
The Soviet Union planned several military Soyuz spacecraft models.
Mir (Мир,; lit. peace or world) was a space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, operated by the Soviet Union and later by Russia.
MirCorp was a commercial space company created in 1999 by space entrepreneurs and involving the Russian space program that successfully undertook a number of firsts in the business of space exploration by using the aging Russian space station Mir as a commercial platform.
The Molniya (Молния, meaning "lightning"), GRAU Index 8K78, was a modification of the well-known R-7 Semyorka rocket and had four stages.
Molniya (a, "Lightning") were military communications satellites used by the Soviet Union.
Molniya-1 No.2, was the first Soviet communications satellite to be launched.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
The N1 (Russian: Н1, from Ракета-носитель, Raketa-Nositel, carrier) was a super heavy-lift launch vehicle intended to deliver payloads beyond low Earth orbit, acting as the Soviet counterpart to the US Saturn V. It was designed with crewed extra-orbital travel in mind.
Nauka (Нау́ка; lit. Science), also known as the Multipurpose Laboratory Module (MLM), (Russian: Многофункциональный лабораторный модуль, or МЛМ), is a component of the International Space Station (ISS) which has not yet been launched into space.
NewSpace—formerly alt.space; also new space, entrepreneurial space, astropreneurship, and commercial space—are umbrella terms for a movement and philosophy encompassing a globally emerging, private spaceflight industry.
Nikolai Sevastianov (born 1961, Chelyabinsk, USSR (now Russia)) graduated from the Aerodynamics and Space Exploration Department of the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology in 1984.
NPO Energomash “V.
NPO Mashinostroyeniya (НПО машиностроения) is a rocket design bureau based in Reutov, Russia.
OKB is a transliteration of the Russian initials of "Опытное конструкторское бюро" – Opytnoye Konstruktorskoye Buro, meaning Experimental Design Bureau.
The Orbital Technologies Commercial Space Station is a proposed orbital space station intended for commercial clients.
The Order of Lenin (Orden Lenina), named after the leader of the Russian October Revolution, was established by the Central Executive Committee on April 6, 1930.
The Order of the October Revolution (Орден Октябрьской Революции, Orden Oktyabr'skoy Revolyutsii) was instituted on October 31, 1967, in time for the 50th anniversary of the October Revolution.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
The Parom (ferry in Russian) is a space tug that has been proposed by RKK Energia.
The Phobos (Фобос, Fobos, Φόβος) program was an unmanned space mission consisting of two probes launched by the Soviet Union to study Mars and its moons Phobos and Deimos.
Pirs (Пирс, meaning "pier") – also called "Stykovochny Otsek 1" ("SO-1") (Стыковочный отсек, "docking module" and DC-1 (docking compartment) – is a Russian module on the International Space Station (ISS). Pirs was launched in August 2001. It provides the ISS with one docking port for Soyuz and Progress spacecraft, and allows egress and ingress for spacewalks by cosmonauts using Russian Orlan space suits. A second docking compartment, "Stykovochniy Otsek 2" or SO-2, was planned with the same design. However, when the Russian segment of the ISS was redesigned in 2001, the new design no longer included the SO-2, and its construction was canceled. After another change of plans the SO-2 module finally evolved into the ''Poisk'' module, which was added to the ISS in 2009. Pirs was scheduled to be detached from the ISS and deorbited in 2017 by Progress MS-06, to make room for the Russian Multipurpose Laboratory Module ''Nauka'', however due to the repetitive delays with the laboratory module, this maneuver was postponed for Progress MS-09 in 2018.
Poisk (По́иск; lit. Search), also known as the Mini-Research Module 2 (MRM 2), Малый исследовательский модуль 2, or МИМ 2, is a docking module of the International Space Station.
The Polyot (Also known as Sputnik, GRAU index 11A59) was an interim orbital carrier rocket, built to test ASAT spacecraft.
The Progress (Прогресс) is a Russian expendable cargo spacecraft.
Progress 7K-TG (Прогресс 7К-ТГ, GRAU index 11F615A15), was a Soviet unmanned spacecraft used to resupply space stations in low Earth orbit.
Progress-M (Прогресс-М, GRAU indices 11F615A55 and 11F615A60), also known as Progress 7K-TGM, is a Russian, previously Soviet spacecraft which is used to resupply space stations.
Progress-M1 (Прогресс-М1, GRAU indices 11F615A55 and 11F615A70), also known as Progress 7K-TGM1, is a Russian spacecraft which is used to resupply space stations.
A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company, publicly listed company, or public corporation is a corporation whose ownership is dispersed among the general public in many shares of stock which are freely traded on a stock exchange or in over the counter markets.
The R-1 rocket (NATO reporting name SS-1 Scunner, Soviet code name SA11, GRAU index 8A11) was a short-range ballistic missile manufactured in the Soviet Union based on the German V-2 rocket.
R-2 The R-2 Short-range ballistic missile (NATO reporting name SS-2 Sibling, GRAU index 8Zh38) was developed based on the R-1 design.
The R-5 Pobeda (Побе́да, "Victory") was a theatre ballistic missile developed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
The R-7 family of rockets (Р-7) is a series of rockets, derived from the Soviet R-7 Semyorka, the world's first ICBM.
The R-7 (Р-7 "Семёрка") was a Soviet missile developed during the Cold War, and the world's first intercontinental ballistic missile.
The R-7A Semyorka, GRAU index 8K74, was an early Soviet intercontinental ballistic missile derived from the earlier R-7 Semyorka.
The R-9 (NATO reporting name: SS-8 Sasin) was a two-stage ICBM of the Soviet Union, in service from 1964 to 1976.
Rassvet (Рассве́т; lit. "dawn"), also known as the Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) (Малый исследовательский модуль, МИМ 1) and formerly known as the Docking Cargo Module (DCM), is a component of the International Space Station (ISS).
Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation.
The RKK Energiya museum is a museum dedicated to the early achievements of Russian space exploration programmes.
A robotic spacecraft is an uncrewed spacecraft, usually under telerobotic control.
The Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities (Государственная корпорация по космической деятельности «Роскосмос»), commonly known as Roscosmos (Роскосмос), is a state corporation responsible for the space flight and cosmonautics program for the Russian Federation.
The RT-1 was an early intercontinental ballistic missile design that was tested but not deployed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
The RT-2 was an intercontinental ballistic missile deployed by the Soviet Union, which was in service from December 1968 until 1976.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Orbital Segment (ROS) is the name given to the components of the International Space Station (ISS) constructed in Russia and operated by the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos).
Salyut 1 (DOS-1) (Салют-1; English translation: Salute 1) was the first space station of any kind, launched into low Earth orbit by the Soviet Union on April 19, 1971.
Salyut 2 (OPS-1) (Салют-2 meaning Salute 2) was a Soviet space station which was launched in 1973 as part of the Salyut programme.
Salyut 3 (Салют-3; Salute 3; also known as OPS-2 or Almaz 2Portree (1995).) was a Soviet space station launched on 25 June 1974.
Salyut 4 (DOS 4) (Салют-4; English translation: Salute 4) was a Salyut space station launched on December 26, 1974 into an orbit with an apogee of 355 km, a perigee of 343 km and an orbital inclination of 51.6 degrees.
Salyut 5 (Салют-5 meaning Salute 5), also known as OPS-3, was a Soviet space station.
Salyut 6 (Салют-6; lit. Salute 6), DOS-5, was a Soviet orbital space station, the eighth flown as part of the Salyut programme.
Salyut 7 (Салют-7; Salute 7) (a.k.a. DOS-6) was a space station in low Earth orbit from April 1982 to February 1991.
The Salyut programme (Салю́т,, meaning "salute" or "fireworks") was the first space station programme, undertaken by the Soviet Union.
Sea Launch is a multinational spacecraft launch service that used a mobile maritime launch platform for equatorial launches of commercial payloads on specialized Zenit-3SL rockets through 2014.
Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (a,, also transliterated as Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov, Сергій Павлович Корольов Serhiy Pavlovych Korolyov; – 14 January 1966) worked as the lead Soviet rocket engineer and spacecraft designer during the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union in the 1950s and 1960s.
The Shenzhou program is a manned spaceflight initiative by China.
The Soviet crewed lunar programs were a series of unsuccessful programs pursued by the Soviet Union to land a man on the Moon, in competition with the United States Apollo program to achieve the same goal set publicly by President John F. Kennedy on May 25, 1961.
Soyuz (Союз, meaning "union", GRAU index 11A511) is a family of expendable launch systems developed by OKB-1 and manufactured by Progress Rocket Space Centre in Samara, Russia.
The Soyuz (Союз, meaning "union", GRAU index 11A511) was a Soviet expendable carrier rocket designed in the 1960s by OKB-1 and manufactured by State Aviation Plant No. 1 in Kuybyshev, Soviet Union.
Soyuz is a series of spacecraft designed for the Soviet space program by the Korolev Design Bureau (now RKK Energia) in the 1960s that remains in service today.
The Soyuz 7K-L1 "Zond" spacecraft was designed to launch men from the Earth to circle the Moon without going into lunar orbit in the context of the Soviet manned moon-flyby program in the Moon race.
Soyuz 7K-L1 No.4L, sometimes identified by NASA as Zond 1967A, was a Soviet spacecraft which was launched in 1967 as part of the Zond programme.
Soyuz 7K-L1 No.5L, sometimes identified by NASA as Zond 1967B, was a Soviet spacecraft which was launched in 1967 as part of the Zond programme.
The Soyuz 7K-LOK, or simply LOK (translit meaning "Lunar Orbital Craft") was a Soviet manned spacecraft designed to launch men from Earth to orbit the Moon, developed in parallel to the 7K-L1.
Soyuz 7K-OK was the first generation of Soyuz spacecraft in use from 1967 to 1971.
Soyuz 7K-OKS (also known as Soyuz 7KT-OK) is a version of the Soyuz spacecraft and was the first spacecraft designed for space station flights.
The second generation of the Soyuz spacecraft, the Soyuz Ferry or Soyuz 7K-T, comprised Soyuz 12 through Soyuz 40 (1973-1981).
The 1975 Apollo–Soyuz Test Project version of the Soyuz spacecraft (Soyuz 7K-TM) served as a technological bridge to the third generation Soyuz-T (T - транспортный, Transportnyi meaning transport) spacecraft (1976–1986).
The Soyuz programme (Союз, meaning "Union") is a human spaceflight programme that was initiated by the Soviet Union in the early 1960s, originally part of a Moon landing project intended to put a Soviet cosmonaut on the Moon.
Soyuz TM-1 was an unmanned test flight of the Soyuz-TM spacecraft, intended for use in the Mir space station program.
Sergei Korolev initially promoted the Soyuz A-B-V circumlunar complex (7K-9K-11K) concept (also known as L1) in which a two-man craft Soyuz 7K would rendezvous with other components (9K and 11K) in Earth orbit to assemble a lunar excursion vehicle, the components being delivered by the proven R-7 rocket.
Soyuz-B (Союз-Б meaning Union-B) or Soyuz 9K (Союз 9К) was a proposed Soviet spacecraft, which was designed for use as an orbital tug.
The Soyuz-L (Союз, meaning "union"), GRAU index 11A511L was a Soviet expendable carrier rocket designed by OKB-1 and manufactured by State Aviation Plant No. 1 in Samara, Russia.
The Soyuz-M (Союз, meaning "Union"), GRAU index 11A511M was a Soviet expendable carrier rocket designed by OKB-1 and manufactured by State Aviation Plant No. 1 in Samara, Russia.
The Soyuz-T (Союз-T, Union-T) spacecraft was the third generation Soyuz spacecraft, in service for seven years from 1979 to 1986.
The Soyuz-TM crew transports (T - транспортный - Transportnyi - meaning transport, M - модифицированный - Modifitsirovannyi - meaning modified) were fourth generation (1986–2002) Soyuz spacecraft used for ferry flights to the Mir and ISS space stations.
The Soyuz-TMA is a revision of the Soyuz spacecraft, superseded in 2010 by the Soyuz TMA-M. (T – транспортный – Transportnyi – meaning transport, M – модифицированный – Modifitsirovannyi – meaning modified, A – антропометрический, – Antropometricheskii meaning anthropometric).
Soyuz-V (Союз-В meaning Union-V) or Soyuz 11K (Союз 11К), sometimes known in the west as Soyuz-C, was a proposed Soviet spacecraft, which was designed for use as a fuel tanker.
The Soyuz/Vostok, also known as just Soyuz or Vostok, or by its GRAU index, 11A510 was an interim expendable carrier rocket used by the Soviet Union in 1965 and 1966.
Space industry refers to economic activities related to manufacturing components that go into Earth's orbit or beyond, delivering them to those regions, and related services.
Space industry of Russia consists of over 100 companies and employs 250,000 people.
The retirement of NASA's Space Shuttle fleet took place from March to July 2011.
A space station, also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a spacecraft capable of supporting crewmembers, which is designed to remain in space (most commonly as an artificial satellite in low Earth orbit) for an extended period of time and for other spacecraft to dock.
Space tourism is space travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes.
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.
The Sputnik rocket was an unmanned orbital carrier rocket designed by Sergei Korolev in the Soviet Union, derived from the R-7 Semyorka ICBM.
Sputnik 1 (or; "Satellite-1", or "PS-1", Простейший Спутник-1 or Prosteyshiy Sputnik-1, "Elementary Satellite 1") was the first artificial Earth satellite.
Sputnik 2 (Спутник-2, Satellite 2), or Prosteyshiy Sputnik 2 (PS-2, italic, Elementary Satellite 2) was the second spacecraft launched into Earth orbit, on 3 November 1957, and the first to carry a living animal, a Soviet space dog named Laika, who died a few hours after the launch.
Sputnik 3 (Спутник-3, Satellite 3) was a Soviet satellite launched on May 15, 1958 from Baikonur Cosmodrome by a modified R-7/SS-6 ICBM.
TsNIIMash (ЦНИИмаш) is a Russian rocket and spacecraft scientific center, dealing with all phases of development from conceptual design to flight test.
Tyazhely Sputnik, (Тяжелый Спутник meaning Heavy Satellite), also known by its development name as Venera 1VA No.1, and in the West as Sputnik 7, was a Soviet spacecraft, which was intended to be the first spacecraft to explore Venus.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The United Rocket and Space Corporation (Объединенная ракетно-космическая корпорация) or URSC was a Russian joint-stock corporation formed by the Russian government in 2013 to renationalize the Russian space sector.
Valentin Petrovich Glushko (Валенти́н Петро́вич Глушко́, Valentin Petrovich Glushko; Валентин Петрович Глушко, Valentyn Petrovych Hlushko; born 2 September 1908 – 10 January 1989), was a Soviet engineer, and designer of rocket engines during the Soviet/American Space Race.
Vasily Pavlovich Mishin (Василий Павлович Мишин) (January 18, 1917 – October 10, 2001) was a Soviet engineer and a prominent rocketry pioneer, best remembered for the failures in the Soviet Space program that took place under his leadership.
The Venera series space probes were developed by the Soviet Union between 1961 and 1984 to gather data from Venus, Venera being the Russian name for Venus.
Venera 1 (Венера-1 meaning Venus 1), also known as Venera-1VA No.2 and occasionally in the West as Sputnik 8 was the first spacecraft to fly past Venus, as part of the Soviet Union's Venera programme.
Venera 10 (Венера-10 meaning Venus 10), or 4V-1 No.
The Venera 11 (Венера-11 meaning Venus 11) was a Soviet unmanned space mission part of the Venera program to explore the planet Venus.
The Venera 12 (Венера-12 meaning Venus 12) was a Soviet unmanned space mission to explore the planet Venus.
Venera 13 (Венера-13 meaning Venus 13) was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus.
Venera 14 (Венера-14 meaning Venus 14) was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus.
Venera 15 (Венера-15 meaning Venus 15) was a spacecraft sent to Venus by the Soviet Union.
Venera 16 (Венера-16 meaning Venus 16) was a spacecraft sent to Venus by the Soviet Union.
Venera 2 (Венера-2 meaning Venus 2), also known as 3MV-4 No.4 was a Soviet spacecraft intended to explore Venus.
Venera 2MV-1 No.1, also known as Sputnik 19 in the West, was a Soviet spacecraft, which was launched in 1962 as part of the Venera programme, and was intended to become the first spacecraft to land on Venus.
Venera 2MV-1 No.2, also known as Sputnik 20 in the Western world, was a Soviet spacecraft, which was launched in 1962 as part of the Venera programme, and was intended to become the first spacecraft to land on Venus.
Venera 2MV-2 No.1, also known as Sputnik 21 in the West, was a Soviet spacecraft, which was launched in 1962 as part of the Venera programme, and was intended to make a flyby of Venus.
Venera 3 (Венера-3 meaning Venus 3) was a Venera program space probe that was built and launched by the Soviet Union to explore the surface of Venus.
Venera 4 (Венера-4 meaning Venus 4), also designated 1V (V-67) s/n 310 was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus.
Venera 5 (Венера-5 meaning Venus 5) was a space probe in the Soviet space program ''Venera'' for the exploration of Venus.
Venera 6 (Венера-6 meaning Venus 6), or 2V (V-69) No.331, was a Soviet spacecraft, launched towards Venus to obtain atmospheric data.
Venera 7 (Венера-7, meaning Venus 7) was a Soviet spacecraft, part of the Venera series of probes to Venus.
Venera 8 (Венера-8 meaning Venus 8) was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus and was the first robotic space probe to conduct a successful landing on the surface of Venus.
Venera 9 (Венера-9 meaning Venus 9), manufacturer's designation: 4V-1 No.
Vladimir Nikolayevich Chelomey (Russian: Влади́мир Никола́евич Челоме́й; Ukrainian: Володимир Миколайович Челомей; 30 June 1914 – 8 December 1984) was a Soviet mechanics scientist, aviation and missile engineer.
The Voskhod rocket (Восход, "ascent", "dawn") was a derivative of the Soviet R-7 ICBM designed for the human spaceflight programme but later used for launching Zenit reconnaissance satellites.
The Voskhod ("Sunrise") was a spacecraft built by the Soviet Union's space program for human spaceflight as part of the Voskhod programme.
The Voskhod programme (Восхо́д,, Ascent or Dawn) was the second Soviet human spaceflight project.
Vostok (Russian: Восток, translated as "East") was a family of rockets derived from the Soviet R-7 Semyorka ICBM designed for the human spaceflight programme.
The Vostok (Восток, translated as "East") was a type of spacecraft built by the Soviet Union.
Vostok 1 (Восто́к, East or Orient 1) was the first spaceflight of the Vostok programme and the first manned spaceflight in history.
The Vostok programme (Восто́к,, Orient or East) was a Soviet human spaceflight project to put the first Soviet citizens into low Earth orbit and return them safely.
The Vostok-2 (Восток meaning "East"), GRAU index 8A92 was an expendable carrier rocket used by the Soviet Union between 1962 and 1967.
The Vostok-2M (Восток meaning "East"), GRAU index 8A92M was an expendable carrier rocket used by the Soviet Union between 1964 and 1991.
The Vostok-K (Восток meaning "East"), GRAU index 8K72K was an expendable carrier rocket used by the Soviet Union for thirteen launches between 1960 and 1964, six of which were manned.
The Vostok-L (Восток meaning "East"), GRAU index 8K72 was a rocket used by the Soviet Union to conduct several early tests of the Vostok spacecraft.
Yamal (Яма́л) is a communication and broadcasting system developed and operated by Gazprom Space Systems.
Zarya (Dawn), also known as the Functional Cargo Block or FGB (from the Funktsionalno-gruzovoy blok or ФГБ), is the first module of the International Space Station to be launched.
Zenit (Зеніт, Зени́т; meaning Zenith) is a family of space launch vehicles designed by the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau in Dnipro, Ukraine, which was then part of the Soviet Union.
Zenit (Зени́т,, Zenith) was a series of military photoreconnaissance satellites launched by the Soviet Union between 1961 and 1994.
Zond 1 was a spacecraft of the Soviet Zond program.
Zond 2 was a Soviet space probe, a member of the Zond program, and was the fifth Soviet spacecraft to attempt a flyby of Mars.
Zond 3 was a 1965 space probe which performed a flyby of the Moon far side, taking a number of quality photographs for its time.
Zond 4, part of the Soviet Zond program and an unmanned version of Soyuz 7K-L1 manned Moon-flyby spacecraft, was one of the first Soviet experiments towards manned circumlunar spaceflight.
Zond 5, a member of the Soviet Zond program, was an unmanned spacecraft that in September 1968 became the second ship to travel to and circle the Moon, and the first to return safely to Earth.
Zond 6, a formal member of the Soviet Zond program and unmanned version of Soyuz 7K-L1 manned moon-flyby spacecraft, was launched on a lunar flyby mission from a parent satellite (68-101B) in Earth parking orbit.
Zond 7, a formal member of the Soviet Zond program and unmanned version of Soyuz 7K-L1 manned moon-flyby spacecraft, the first truly successful test of L1, was launched towards the Moon from a mother spacecraft (69-067B) on a mission of further studies of the Moon and circumlunar space, to obtain color photography of Earth and the Moon from varying distances, and to flight test the spacecraft systems.
Zond 8, a formal member of the Soviet Zond program and unmanned version of Soyuz 7K-L1 manned Moon-flyby spacecraft, was launched from an Earth orbiting platform, Tyazheliy Sputnik, towards the Moon.
Zond (Зонд; Russian for "probe") was the name given to two distinct series of Soviet unmanned space program undertaken from 1964 to 1970.
Zvezda (Звезда́, meaning "star"), DOS-8, also known as the Zvezda Service Module, is a component of the International Space Station (ISS).
Energiya Rocket and Space Complex, GOZ-1, Korolev Design Bureau, Korolev design bureau, NPO Energia, NPO Energiya, OAO Energia, OAO S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia, OAO S.P. Korolyov Rocket and Space Corporation Energia, OKB-1, OKB-1 of NII-88, RKK Energia, RKK Energiya, RKKE, RSC Energia, Raketno-kosmicheskaya korporatsiya "Energiya" im. S.P.Korolyova, S P Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia, S. P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia, S. P. Korolev design bureau, S.P. Korolev Rocket & Space Corporation Energia, S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia, S.P. Korolyov RSC Energia, SP Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia, Special Design Bureau number 1 of R&D Institute number 88, TsKBEM, ОКБ-1 НИИ-88, Ракетно-космическая корпорация "Энергия" им. С.П.Королёва.