231 relations: Activation energy, Adenosine diphosphate, Adenosine triphosphate, Advection, Albert Einstein, Antimatter, Aristotle, Arrhenius equation, Atmosphere, Basal metabolic rate, Big Bang, Biosphere, British thermal unit, Caloric theory, Calorie, Carbohydrate, Carbon dioxide, Carbon fixation, Carnot's theorem (thermodynamics), Casimir effect, Catabolism, Cell (biology), Centimetre–gram–second system of units, Chemical energy, Chemical explosive, Chemical potential, Chemical reaction, Classical field theory, Classical mechanics, Classical physics, Climate, Closed system, Combustion, Conjugate variables, Conservation law, Conservation of energy, Conservative force, Conserved quantity, Continental drift, Coulomb's law, Crystal, Degrees of freedom (physics and chemistry), Distribution (mathematics), Earthquake, Ecological niche, Ecology, Ecosystem, Elastic energy, Electric charge, Electric field, ..., Electric generator, Electrical energy, Electromagnetism, Electron, Electron acceptor, Electronvolt, Endergonic reaction, Energy, Energy conversion efficiency, Energy industry, Energy level, Energy transformation, Entropy, Environmental degradation, Enzyme, Equipartition theorem, Erg, Exergonic process, Exergy, Field (physics), First law of thermodynamics, Food chain, Food energy, Foot-pound (energy), Force, Fossil fuel, Four-momentum, Frame of reference, Frequency, Friction, Friedrich Hasenöhrl, Fundamental interaction, Gamma-ray burst, Gaspard-Gustave de Coriolis, Geothermal energy, Glucose, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Gravitational collapse, Gravitational energy, Gravitational field, Hail, Hamiltonian (quantum mechanics), Hamiltonian mechanics, Harmonic oscillator, Heat, Heat death of the universe, Heat engine, Henri Poincaré, Human equivalent, Imperial and US customary measurement systems, Index of energy articles, Index of wave articles, Internal energy, International System of Units, Invariant mass, Irreversible process, Isolated system, J. J. Thomson, James Prescott Joule, Josef Stefan, Joseph-Louis Lagrange, Josiah Willard Gibbs, Joule, Kilowatt hour, Kinetic energy, Lagrangian mechanics, Lattice energy, Line integral, Lipid, Lorentz scalar, Lorentz transformation, Machine, Magnetic field, Mass, Mass–energy equivalence, Matter, Mechanical energy, Metabolic pathway, Metabolism, Meteorology, Metre, Mitochondrion, Momentum, Motion (physics), Mountain, Newton (unit), Noether's theorem, Nova, Nuclear force, Nuclear fuel, Nuclear fusion, Nuclear physics, Nuclear weapon, Nucleosynthesis, Operator (physics), Orders of magnitude (energy), Organelle, Organism, Orogeny, Oxygen, Pair production, Particle physics, Pendulum, Photon, Photosynthesis, Physical body, Physical property, Physical quantity, Physics, Planck constant, Planck–Einstein relation, Plate tectonics, Population, Positron, Potential, Potential energy, Potentiality and actuality, Power (physics), Power station, Pressure, Principle of maximum entropy, Properties of water, Protein, Quantum, Quantum mechanics, Quasar, Radiant energy, Radioactive decay, Renewable energy, Respiration (physiology), Reversible process (thermodynamics), Richard Feynman, Rudolf Clausius, Schrödinger equation, Scientific American, Second law of thermodynamics, SI derived unit, Solar energy, Space, Spacetime, Special relativity, Speed, Speed of light, Spontaneous fission, Star, Statistical mechanics, Stearin, Stress–energy tensor, Supernova, System, Temperature, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Thermal efficiency, Thermal energy, Thermodynamic equilibrium, Thermodynamic free energy, Thermodynamics, Thomas Young (scientist), Thorium, Tornado, Transducer, Translational symmetry, Tropical cyclone, Turbine, Uncertainty principle, Uranium, Van der Waals force, Virtual particle, Vis viva, Volcano, Walther Nernst, Waste heat, Watt, Wave function, Weak interaction, Weighing scale, William John Macquorn Rankine, William Rowan Hamilton, William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, Work (physics), Work (thermodynamics). Expand index (181 more) » « Shrink index
In chemistry and physics, activation energy is the energy which must be available to a chemical or nuclear system with potential reactants to result in: a chemical reaction, nuclear reaction, or other various other physical phenomena.
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is essential to the flow of energy in living cells.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
In the field of physics, engineering, and earth sciences, advection is the transport of a substance by bulk motion.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
In modern physics, antimatter is defined as a material composed of the antiparticle (or "partners") to the corresponding particles of ordinary matter.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
The Arrhenius equation is a formula for the temperature dependence of reaction rates.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest.
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.
The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.
The British thermal unit (Btu or BTU) is a traditional unit of heat; it is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit.
The caloric theory is an obsolete scientific theory that heat consists of a self-repellent fluid called caloric that flows from hotter bodies to colder bodies.
A calorie is a unit of energy.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon fixation or сarbon assimilation is the conversion process of inorganic carbon (carbon dioxide) to organic compounds by living organisms.
Carnot's theorem, developed in 1824 by Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot, also called Carnot's rule, is a principle that specifies limits on the maximum efficiency any heat engine can obtain.
In quantum field theory, the Casimir effect and the Casimir–Polder force are physical forces arising from a quantized field.
Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The centimetre–gram–second system of units (abbreviated CGS or cgs) is a variant of the metric system based on the centimetre as the unit of length, the gram as the unit of mass, and the second as the unit of time.
In chemistry, chemical energy is the potential of a chemical substance to undergo a transformation through a chemical reaction to transform other chemical substances.
The vast majority of explosives are chemical explosives.
In thermodynamics, chemical potential of a species is a form of energy that can be absorbed or released during a chemical reaction or phase transition due to a change of the particle number of the given species.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
A classical field theory is a physical theory that predicts how one or more physical fields interact with matter through field equations.
Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies.
Classical physics refers to theories of physics that predate modern, more complete, or more widely applicable theories.
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
A closed system is a physical system that does not allow certain types of transfers (such as transfer of mass and energy transfer) in or out of the system.
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
Conjugate variables are pairs of variables mathematically defined in such a way that they become Fourier transform duals, or more generally are related through Pontryagin duality.
In physics, a conservation law states that a particular measurable property of an isolated physical system does not change as the system evolves over time.
In physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant, it is said to be ''conserved'' over time.
A conservative force is a force with the property that the total work done in moving a particle between two points is independent of the taken path.
In mathematics, a conserved quantity of a dynamical system is a function of the dependent variables whose value remains constant along each trajectory of the system.
Continental drift is the movement of the Earth's continents relative to each other, thus appearing to "drift" across the ocean bed.
Coulomb's law, or Coulomb's inverse-square law, is a law of physics for quantifying the amount of force with which stationary electrically charged particles repel or attract each other.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
In physics, a degree of freedom is an independent physical parameter in the formal description of the state of a physical system.
Distributions (or generalized functions) are objects that generalize the classical notion of functions in mathematical analysis.
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.
In ecology, a niche (CanE, or) is the fit of a species living under specific environmental conditions.
Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Elastic energy is the potential mechanical energy stored in the configuration of a material or physical system as work is performed to distort its volume or shape.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.
In electricity generation, a generator is a device that converts motive power (mechanical energy) into electrical power for use in an external circuit.
Electrical energy is the energy newly derived from electric potential energy or kinetic energy.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
An electron acceptor is a chemical entity that accepts electrons transferred to it from another compound.
In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).
In chemical thermodynamics, an endergonic reaction (also called a heat absorb nonspontaneous reaction or an unfavorable reaction) is a chemical reaction in which the standard change in free energy is positive, and energy is absorbed.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Energy conversion efficiency (η) is the ratio between the useful output of an energy conversion machine and the input, in energy terms.
The energy industry is the totality of all of the industries involved in the production and sale of energy, including fuel extraction, manufacturing, refining and distribution.
A quantum mechanical system or particle that is bound—that is, confined spatially—can only take on certain discrete values of energy.
Energy transformation, also termed as energy conversion, is the process of changing energy from one of its forms into another.
In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.
Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems; habitat destruction; the extinction of wildlife; and pollution.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
In classical statistical mechanics, the equipartition theorem relates the temperature of a system to its average energies.
The erg is a unit of energy and work equal to 10−7 joules.
An exergonic process is one in which there is a positive flow of energy from the system to the surroundings.
In thermodynamics, the exergy (in older usage, available work or availability) of a system is the maximum useful work possible during a process that brings the system into equilibrium with a heat reservoir.
In physics, a field is a physical quantity, represented by a number or tensor, that has a value for each point in space and time.
The first law of thermodynamics is a version of the law of conservation of energy, adapted for thermodynamic systems.
A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).
Food energy is chemical energy that animals (including humans) derive from food through the process of cellular respiration.
The foot pound-force (symbol: ft⋅lbf or ft⋅lb) is a unit of work or energy in the Engineering and Gravitational Systems in United States customary and imperial units of measure.
In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
In special relativity, four-momentum is the generalization of the classical three-dimensional momentum to four-dimensional spacetime.
In physics, a frame of reference (or reference frame) consists of an abstract coordinate system and the set of physical reference points that uniquely fix (locate and orient) the coordinate system and standardize measurements.
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.
Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.
Friedrich Hasenöhrl (30 November 1874 – 7 October 1915), was an Austrian physicist.
In physics, the fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces, are the interactions that do not appear to be reducible to more basic interactions.
In gamma-ray astronomy, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are extremely energetic explosions that have been observed in distant galaxies.
Gaspard-Gustave de Coriolis (21 May 1792 – 19 September 1843) was a French mathematician, mechanical engineer and scientist.
Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.
Gravitational collapse is the contraction of an astronomical object due to the influence of its own gravity, which tends to draw matter inward toward the center of gravity.
Gravitational energy is the potential energy a body with mass has in relation to another massive object due to gravity.
In physics, a gravitational field is a model used to explain the influence that a massive body extends into the space around itself, producing a force on another massive body.
Hail is a form of solid precipitation.
In quantum mechanics, a Hamiltonian is an operator corresponding to the total energy of the system in most of the cases.
Hamiltonian mechanics is a theory developed as a reformulation of classical mechanics and predicts the same outcomes as non-Hamiltonian classical mechanics.
In classical mechanics, a harmonic oscillator is a system that, when displaced from its equilibrium position, experiences a restoring force, F, proportional to the displacement, x: where k is a positive constant.
In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.
The heat death of the universe is a plausible ultimate fate of the universe in which the universe has diminished to a state of no thermodynamic free energy and therefore can no longer sustain processes that increase entropy.
In thermodynamics, a heat engine is a system that converts heat or thermal energy—and chemical energy—to mechanical energy, which can then be used to do mechanical work.
Jules Henri Poincaré (29 April 1854 – 17 July 1912) was a French mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer, and philosopher of science.
The term human equivalent is used in a number of different contexts.
The imperial and US customary systems of measurement are two closely inter-related systems of measurement both derived from earlier English system of measurement units which can be traced back to Ancient Roman units of measurement, and Carolingian and Saxon units of measure.
This is an index of energy articles.
This is a list of Wave topics.
In thermodynamics, the internal energy of a system is the energy contained within the system, excluding the kinetic energy of motion of the system as a whole and the potential energy of the system as a whole due to external force fields.
The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.
The invariant mass, rest mass, intrinsic mass, proper mass, or in the case of bound systems simply mass, is the portion of the total mass of an object or system of objects that is independent of the overall motion of the system.
In science, a process that is not reversible is called irreversible.
In physical science, an isolated system is either of the following.
Sir Joseph John Thomson (18 December 1856 – 30 August 1940) was an English physicist and Nobel Laureate in Physics, credited with the discovery and identification of the electron; and with the discovery of the first subatomic particle.
James Prescott Joule (24 December 1818 11 October 1889) was an English physicist, mathematician and brewer, born in Salford, Lancashire.
Josef Stefan (Jožef Štefan; 24 March 1835 – 7 January 1893) was an ethnic Carinthian Slovene physicist, mathematician, and poet of the Austrian Empire.
Joseph-Louis Lagrange (or;; born Giuseppe Lodovico Lagrangia, Encyclopædia Britannica or Giuseppe Ludovico De la Grange Tournier, Turin, 25 January 1736 – Paris, 10 April 1813; also reported as Giuseppe Luigi Lagrange or Lagrangia) was an Italian Enlightenment Era mathematician and astronomer.
Josiah Willard Gibbs (February 11, 1839 – April 28, 1903) was an American scientist who made important theoretical contributions to physics, chemistry, and mathematics.
The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
The kilowatt hour (symbol kWh, kW⋅h or kW h) is a unit of energy equal to 3.6 megajoules.
In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.
Lagrangian mechanics is a reformulation of classical mechanics, introduced by the Italian-French mathematician and astronomer Joseph-Louis Lagrange in 1788.
The lattice energy of a crystalline solid is often defined as the energy of formation of a crystal from infinitely-separated ions and as such is invariably negative.
In mathematics, a line integral is an integral where the function to be integrated is evaluated along a curve.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
In a relativistic theory of physics, a Lorentz scalar is an expression, formed from items of the theory, which evaluates to a scalar, invariant under any Lorentz transformation.
In physics, the Lorentz transformations (or transformation) are coordinate transformations between two coordinate frames that move at constant velocity relative to each other.
A machine uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an intended action.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
In physics, mass–energy equivalence states that anything having mass has an equivalent amount of energy and vice versa, with these fundamental quantities directly relating to one another by Albert Einstein's famous formula: E.
In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.
In physical sciences, mechanical energy is the sum of potential energy and kinetic energy.
In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.
The metre (British spelling and BIPM spelling) or meter (American spelling) (from the French unit mètre, from the Greek noun μέτρον, "measure") is the base unit of length in some metric systems, including the International System of Units (SI).
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.
In physics, motion is a change in position of an object over time.
A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak.
The newton (symbol: N) is the International System of Units (SI) derived unit of force.
Noether's (first) theorem states that every differentiable symmetry of the action of a physical system has a corresponding conservation law.
A nova (plural novae or novas) or classical nova (CN, plural CNe) is a transient astronomical event that causes the sudden appearance of a bright, apparently "new" star, that slowly fades over several weeks or many months.
The nuclear force (or nucleon–nucleon interaction or residual strong force) is a force that acts between the protons and neutrons of atoms.
Nuclear fuel is a substance that is used in nuclear power stations to produce heat to power turbines.
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
Nucleosynthesis is the process that creates new atomic nuclei from pre-existing nucleons, primarily protons and neutrons.
In physics, an operator is a function over a space of physical states to another space of physical states.
This list compares various energies in joules (J), organized by order of magnitude.
In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
An orogeny is an event that leads to a large structural deformation of the Earth's lithosphere (crust and uppermost mantle) due to the interaction between plate tectonics.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Pair production is the creation of an elementary particle and its antiparticle from a neutral boson.
Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.
A pendulum is a weight suspended from a pivot so that it can swing freely.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
In physics, a physical body or physical object (or simply a body or object) is an identifiable collection of matter, which may be constrained by an identifiable boundary, and may move as a unit by translation or rotation, in 3-dimensional space.
A physical property is any property that is measurable, whose value describes a state of a physical system.
A physical quantity is a physical property of a phenomenon, body, or substance, that can be quantified by measurement.or we can say that quantities which we come across during our scientific studies are called as the physical quantities...
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
The Planck constant (denoted, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action, central in quantum mechanics.
The Planck–Einstein relationFrench & Taylor (1978), pp.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.
The positron or antielectron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron.
Potential generally refers to a currently unrealized ability.
In physics, potential energy is the energy possessed by an object because of its position relative to other objects, stresses within itself, its electric charge, or other factors.
In philosophy, potentiality and actuality are principles of a dichotomy which Aristotle used to analyze motion, causality, ethics, and physiology in his Physics, Metaphysics, Nicomachean Ethics and De Anima, which is about the human psyche.
In physics, power is the rate of doing work, the amount of energy transferred per unit time.
A power station, also referred to as a power plant or powerhouse and sometimes generating station or generating plant, is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
The principle of maximum entropy states that the probability distribution which best represents the current state of knowledge is the one with largest entropy, in the context of precisely stated prior data (such as a proposition that expresses testable information).
Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. Water is amphoteric, meaning that it is both an acid and a base—it produces + and - ions by self-ionization.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is the minimum amount of any physical entity (physical property) involved in an interaction.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
A quasar (also known as a QSO or quasi-stellar object) is an extremely luminous active galactic nucleus (AGN).
In physics, and in particular as measured by radiometry, radiant energy is the energy of electromagnetic and gravitational radiation.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
In physiology, respiration is defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.
In thermodynamics, a reversible process is a process whose direction can be "reversed" by inducing infinitesimal changes to some property of the system via its surroundings, with no increase in entropy.
Richard Phillips Feynman (May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) was an American theoretical physicist, known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model.
Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius (2 January 1822 – 24 August 1888) was a German physicist and mathematician and is considered one of the central founders of the science of thermodynamics.
In quantum mechanics, the Schrödinger equation is a mathematical equation that describes the changes over time of a physical system in which quantum effects, such as wave–particle duality, are significant.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
The second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time.
SI derived units are units of measurement derived from the seven base units specified by the International System of Units (SI).
Solar energy is radiant light and heat from the Sun that is harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, solar architecture, molten salt power plants and artificial photosynthesis.
Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction.
In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum.
In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.
In everyday use and in kinematics, the speed of an object is the magnitude of its velocity (the rate of change of its position); it is thus a scalar quantity.
The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.
Spontaneous fission (SF) is a form of radioactive decay that is found only in very heavy chemical elements.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
Statistical mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics.
Stearin, or tristearin, or glyceryl tristearate is a triglyceride derived from three units of stearic acid.
The stress–energy tensor (sometimes stress–energy–momentum tensor or energy–momentum tensor) is a tensor quantity in physics that describes the density and flux of energy and momentum in spacetime, generalizing the stress tensor of Newtonian physics.
A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.
A system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming an integrated whole.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
The Feynman Lectures on Physics is a physics textbook based on some lectures by Richard P. Feynman, a Nobel laureate who has sometimes been called "The Great Explainer".
In thermodynamics, the thermal efficiency (\eta_ \) is a dimensionless performance measure of a device that uses thermal energy, such as an internal combustion engine, a steam turbine or a steam engine, a boiler, furnace, or a refrigerator for example.
Thermal energy is a term used loosely as a synonym for more rigorously-defined thermodynamic quantities such as the internal energy of a system; heat or sensible heat, which are defined as types of transfer of energy (as is work); or for the characteristic energy of a degree of freedom in a thermal system kT, where T is temperature and k is the Boltzmann constant.
Thermodynamic equilibrium is an axiomatic concept of thermodynamics.
The thermodynamic free energy is the amount of work that a thermodynamic system can perform.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.
Thomas Young FRS (13 June 1773 – 10 May 1829) was a British polymath and physician.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
A tornado is a rapidly rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the Earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud.
A transducer is a device that converts energy from one form to another.
In geometry, a translation "slides" a thing by a: Ta(p).
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.
A turbine (from the Latin turbo, a vortex, related to the Greek τύρβη, tyrbē, meaning "turbulence") is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work.
In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle (also known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle) is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
In molecular physics, the van der Waals forces, named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, are distance-dependent interactions between atoms or molecules.
In physics, a virtual particle is a transient fluctuation that exhibits some of the characteristics of an ordinary particle, but whose existence is limited by the uncertainty principle.
Vis viva (from the Latin for "living force") is a historical term used for the first (known) description of what we now call kinetic energy in an early formulation of the principle of conservation of energy.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
Walther Hermann Nernst, (25 June 1864 – 18 November 1941) was a German chemist who is known for his work in thermodynamics; his formulation of the Nernst heat theorem helped pave the way for the third law of thermodynamics, for which he won the 1920 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Waste heat is heat that is produced by a machine, or other process that uses energy, as a byproduct of doing work.
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.
A wave function in quantum physics is a mathematical description of the quantum state of an isolated quantum system.
In particle physics, the weak interaction (the weak force or weak nuclear force) is the mechanism of interaction between sub-atomic particles that causes radioactive decay and thus plays an essential role in nuclear fission.
Weighing scales (or weigh scales or scales) are devices to measure weight.
Prof William John Macquorn Rankine LLD (5 July 1820 – 24 December 1872) was a Scottish mechanical engineer who also contributed to civil engineering, physics and mathematics.
Sir William Rowan Hamilton MRIA (4 August 1805 – 2 September 1865) was an Irish mathematician who made important contributions to classical mechanics, optics, and algebra.
William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, (26 June 1824 – 17 December 1907) was a Scots-Irish mathematical physicist and engineer who was born in Belfast in 1824.
In physics, a force is said to do work if, when acting, there is a displacement of the point of application in the direction of the force.
In thermodynamics, work performed by a system is the energy transferred by the system to its surroundings, that is fully accounted for solely by macroscopic forces exerted on the system by factors external to it, that is to say, factors in its surroundings.
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