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Energy drink

Index Energy drink

An energy drink is a type of beverage containing stimulant drugs, usually including caffeine, which is marketed as providing mental and physical stimulation (marketed as "energy", but distinct from food energy). [1]

123 relations: Açaí palm, Alcoholic drink, American Heart Association, Amino acid, Amp Energy, Anxiety, Asda, B vitamins, Bacchus-F, Bomb shot, Brand, Buckfast Tonic Wine, Caffeinated alcoholic drink, Caffeine, Carbonated water, Carbonation, Carnitine, Chechnya, Coca, Coca-Cola, Cocaine, Coffee, Cola, Comparison of English dictionaries, Consumer organization, Consumer Reports, Cott, Creatine, Depressant, Dietary supplement, Dietrich Mateschitz, Diuretic, Dr. Enuf, Drank (soda), Drink, Drink mixer, Elixir, Emergency department, Empty calorie, Energy gel, Energy shot, European Court of Justice, European Food Safety Authority, Extract, Fireball Cinnamon Whisky, Food energy, Food Standards Australia New Zealand, Four Loko, Frucor, Gateway drug theory, ..., Gennady Onishchenko, Ginkgo biloba, Ginseng, Glucuronolactone, Guarana, Head teacher, Heart arrhythmia, High-fructose corn syrup, Hove, Hype Energy Drinks, Indigestion, Ingredient, Inositol, Ireland, Jägerbomb, Johnson City, Tennessee, Jolt Cola, Joose, Josta, Kola nut, Krating Daeng, Latvia, Lava Cola, Lipovitan, List of energy drinks, Lucozade, Maltodextrin, Mary Jane's Relaxing Soda, Mayo Clinic, Melatonin, Merriam-Webster, Ministry of Social Protection (Colombia), Mixed drink, Monster Beverage, Monster Energy, Myocardial infarction, New York City, New Zealand, Oxted, Palpitations, Pepsi, PepsiCo, Phobia, Product testing, Pupillary response, Ramzan Kadyrov, Red Bull, Rum and Coke, Russia, Sainsbury's, Salaryman, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Slow Cow, Soft drink, Sports drink, Stimulant, Sucralose, Sugar, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, Taurine, Tea, Tesco, The New York Times, The New York Times Company, Theanine, United Kingdom, United States v. Forty Barrels & Twenty Kegs of Coca-Cola, V (drink), Vitamin, Vitamin B12, Vodka Red Bull, Xanthine, Yerba mate. Expand index (73 more) »

Açaí palm

The açaí palm (from Tupi-Guarani asaí), Euterpe oleracea, is a species of palm tree (Arecaceae) cultivated for its fruit (açaí berries or simply açaí), hearts of palm (a vegetable), leaves and trunk wood.

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Alcoholic drink

An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.

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American Heart Association

The American Heart Association (AHA) is a non-profit organization in the United States that fosters appropriate cardiac care in an effort to reduce disability and deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Amp Energy

Amp Energy (or simply Amp) is an energy drink brand produced and owned by PepsiCo.

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Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.

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Asda Stores Ltd. trading as Asda, is a British supermarket retailer, headquartered in Leeds, West Yorkshire.

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B vitamins

B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism.

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Bacchus (박카스) is a non-carbonated South Korean energy drink, first launched in 1963.

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Bomb shot

A bomb shot, depth charge, or drop shot (Western Canada), is a mixed drink that is made by mixing two drinks.

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A brand is a name, term, design, symbol, or other feature that distinguishes an organization or product from its rivals in the eyes of the customer.

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Buckfast Tonic Wine

Buckfast Tonic Wine is a caffeinated fortified wine that was originally made by monks at Buckfast Abbey in Devon, England.

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Caffeinated alcoholic drink

A caffeinated alcoholic drink, or caffeinated alcoholic beverage, is a drink that contains both alcohol (also known formally as ethanol) and caffeine.

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Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.

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Carbonated water

Carbonated water (bubbly water, fizzy water) is water into which carbon dioxide gas under pressure has been dissolved, either by technology or by a natural geologic source.

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Carbonation refers to reactions of carbon dioxide to give carbonates, bicarbonates, and carbonic acid.

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Carnitine (β-hydroxy-γ-N-trimethylaminobutyric acid, 3-hydroxy-4-N,N,N- trimethylaminobutyrate) is a quaternary ammonium compound involved in metabolism in most mammals, plants and some bacteria. Carnitine may exist in two isomers, labeled D-carnitine and L-carnitine, as they are optically active. At room temperature, pure carnitine is a white powder, and a water-soluble zwitterion with low toxicity. Carnitine only exists in animals as the L-enantiomer, and D-carnitine is toxic because it inhibits the activity of L-carnitine. Carnitine, derived from an amino acid, is found in nearly all organisms and animal tissue. Carnitine is the generic expression for a number of compounds that include L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine, and propionyl-L-carnitine. It is most accumulated in cardiac and skeletal muscles as it accounts for 0.1% of its dry matter. It was first derived from meat extracts in 1905, therefore the name carnitine is derived from Latin "carnus" or flesh. The body synthesizes enough carnitine from lysine side chains to keep up with the needs of energy production in the body as carnitine acts as a transporter of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria to be oxidized and produce energy. Some individuals with genetic or medical disorders (like preterm infants) cannot make enough, so this makes carnitine a conditionally essential nutrient for them.

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The Chechen Republic (tɕɪˈtɕɛnskəjə rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə; Нохчийн Республика, Noxçiyn Respublika), commonly referred to as Chechnya (p; Нохчийчоь, Noxçiyçö), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia.

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Coca is any of the four cultivated plants in the family Erythroxylaceae, native to western South America.

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Coca-Cola, or Coke (also Pemberton's Cola at certain Georgian vendors), is a carbonated soft drink produced by The Coca-Cola Company.

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Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.

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Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.

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Cola is a sweetened, carbonated soft drink, made from ingredients that contain caffeine from the kola nut and non-cocaine derivatives from coca leaves, flavored with vanilla and other ingredients.

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Comparison of English dictionaries

These tables compare modern and notable English dictionaries, split by market segment.

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Consumer organization

Consumer organizations are advocacy groups that seek to protect people from corporate abuse like unsafe products, predatory lending, false advertising, astroturfing and pollution.

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Consumer Reports

Consumer Reports is an American magazine published since 1930 by Consumers Union, a nonprofit organization dedicated to unbiased product testing, consumer-oriented research, public education, and advocacy.

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Cott Corporation is beverage and foodservice company based in Canada.

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Creatine is a nitrogenous organic acid that occurs naturally in vertebrates.

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A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain.

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Dietary supplement

A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.

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Dietrich Mateschitz

Dietrich Mateschitz (born 20 May 1944) is an Austrian billionaire businessman.

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A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine.

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Dr. Enuf


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Drank (soda)

Drank is a grape-flavored soft drink sold in the United States and Canada.

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A drink or beverage is a liquid intended for human consumption.

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Drink mixer

Drink mixers are the non-alcoholic ingredients in mixed drinks and cocktails.

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An elixir (from Arabic: إكسير Iksīr; from Greek ξήριον xērion "powder for drying wounds" from ξηρός xēros "dry") is a clear, sweet-flavored liquid used for medicinal purposes, to be taken orally and intended to cure one's illness.

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Emergency department

An emergency department (ED), also known as an accident & emergency department (A&E), emergency room (ER), emergency ward (EW) or casualty department, is a medical treatment facility specializing in emergency medicine, the acute care of patients who present without prior appointment; either by their own means or by that of an ambulance.

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Empty calorie

In human nutrition, the term empty calories applies to foods and beverages composed primarily or solely of sugar, fats or oils, or alcohol-containing beverages.

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Energy gel

Energy gels are carbohydrate gels that provide energy for exercise and promote recovery,About commonly used in endurance events such as running, cycling, and triathlons.

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Energy shot

Energy shots are a specialized kind of energy drink that contain a dose of the stimulant caffeine in a small amount of liquid.

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European Court of Justice

The European Court of Justice (ECJ), officially just the Court of Justice (Cour de Justice), is the supreme court of the European Union in matters of European Union law.

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European Food Safety Authority

The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) that provides independent scientific advice and communicates on existing and emerging risks associated with the food chain.

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An extract is a substance made by extracting a part of a raw material, often by using a solvent such as ethanol or water.

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Fireball Cinnamon Whisky

Fireball Cinnamon Whisky is a mixture of whisky, cinnamon flavoring and sweeteners that is produced by the Sazerac Company.

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Food energy

Food energy is chemical energy that animals (including humans) derive from food through the process of cellular respiration.

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Food Standards Australia New Zealand

Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) (Māori: Te Mana Kounga Kai - Ahitereiria me Aotearoa), formerly Australia New Zealand Food Authority (ANZFA), is the governmental body responsible for developing food standards for Australia and New Zealand.

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Four Loko

Four Loko is a line of alcoholic beverages sold by Phusion Projects of Chicago, Illinois, United States.

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Frucor is a Japanese-owned beverage company operating in Australasia, and headquartered in Auckland, New Zealand.

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Gateway drug theory

Gateway drug theory (alternatively, stepping-stone theory, escalation hypothesis, or progression hypothesis) is a comprehensive catchphrase for the medical theory that the use of a psychoactive drug can be coupled to an increased probability of the use of further drugs.

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Gennady Onishchenko

Gennadiy Grigoryevich Onishchenko (Геннадий Григорьевич Онищенко, born October 21, 1950, Kyrgyz SSR, Soviet Union) is a Russian government official.

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Ginkgo biloba

Ginkgo biloba, commonly known as ginkgo or gingko (both pronounced), also known as the maidenhair tree, is the only living species in the division Ginkgophyta, all others being extinct.

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Ginseng is the root of plants in the genus Panax, such as Korean ginseng (P. ginseng), South China ginseng (P. notoginseng), and American ginseng (P. quinquefolius), typically characterized by the presence of ginsenosides and gintonin.

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Glucuronolactone is a naturally occurring substance that is an important structural component of nearly all connective tissues.

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Guarana (from the Portuguese guaraná), Paullinia cupana, syns. P. crysan, P. sorbilis) is a climbing plant in the maple family, Sapindaceae, native to the Amazon basin and especially common in Brazil. Guarana has large leaves and clusters of flowers, and is best known for the seeds from its fruit, which are about the size of a coffee bean. As a dietary supplement or herb, guarana seed is an effective stimulant: it contains about twice the concentration of caffeine found in coffee seeds (about 2–4.5% caffeine in guarana seeds, compared to 1–2% for coffee seeds). The additive has gained notoriety for being used in energy drinks. As with other plants producing caffeine, the high concentration of caffeine is a defensive toxin that repels herbivores from the berry and its seeds. The colour of the fruit ranges from brown to red and they contain black seeds that are partly covered by white arils. The colour contrast when the fruit is split open has been compared with the appearance of eyeballs, and has become the basis of an origin myth among the Sateré-Mawé people.

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Head teacher

The head teacher,See American and British English spelling differences headmaster, headmistress, head, chancellor, principal or school director (sometimes another title is used) is the teacher with the greatest responsibility for the management of a school, college, or, in the case of the United States and India, an independent school.

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Heart arrhythmia

Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.

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High-fructose corn syrup

High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) (also called glucose-fructose, isoglucose and glucose-fructose syrup) is a sweetener made from corn starch that has been processed by glucose isomerase to convert some of its glucose into fructose.

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Hove is a town in East Sussex, England, immediately west of its larger neighbour Brighton, with which it forms the unitary authority Brighton and Hove.

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Hype Energy Drinks

Hype Energy Drinks is a range of energy drinks distributed in over 45 countries across the world.

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Indigestion, also known as dyspepsia, is a condition of impaired digestion.

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An ingredient is a substance that forms part of a mixture (in a general sense).

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Myo-inositol, or simply inositol, is a carbocyclic sugar that is abundant in brain and other mammalian tissues, mediates cell signal transduction in response to a variety of hormones, neurotransmitters and growth factors and participates in osmoregulation It is a sugar alcohol with half the sweetness of sucrose (table sugar).

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Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.

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The Jägerbomb is a bomb shot mixed drink that was originally mixed by dropping a shot of Jägermeister into a glass of beer.

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Johnson City, Tennessee

Johnson City is a city in Washington, Carter, and Sullivan counties in the U.S. state of Tennessee, with most of the city being in Washington County.

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Jolt Cola

Jolt Cola is a carbonated soft drink produced by The Jolt Company, Inc.

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Joose (phonetically pronounced like "juice") is a flavored malt beverage introduced by United Brands Co.

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Josta was a soft drink brand that was produced by PepsiCo and the first energy drink ever introduced by a major US beverage company.

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Kola nut

The kola nut is the fruit of the kola tree, a genus (Cola) of trees that are native to the tropical rainforests of Africa.

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Krating Daeng

Krating Daeng (กระทิงแดง), literally "red bull" or "red gaur") is a sweetened, non-carbonated energy drink developed by Chaleo Yoovidhya. The drink is sold in Southeast Asia, China, and 165 other countries. (Subscription required.) Chaleo took the name from the gaur (Thai: กระทิง krathing) a large wild bovine of Southeast Asia. The Krating Daeng logo underlies its branding, with two charging bulls representing power, red signifying perseverance, and the backdrop of the sun symbolising energy. Krating Daeng became the basis for the creation of the best selling energy drink in the world, Red Bull. When he died in 2012 at age 88, Chaleo was a multi-billionaire.

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Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.

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Lava Cola

Lava Cola (officially Lava Cola – Vanuatu Kava Cola) is a cola drink produced in Vanuatu by Vanuatu Beverage Ltd.

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, marketed in English-speaking countries under the name Libogen and Livita, is an energy drink manufactured by Taisho Pharmaceutical Co. and its licensee Osotspa.

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List of energy drinks

The following is a notable list of energy drinks, with a few coffee variants, and some soft drinks such as Coca-Cola, Mountain Dew, and Pepsi listed for comparison, and marked in a different color.

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Lucozade is a soft drink manufactured by the Japanese company Suntory and marketed as a range of sports and energy drinks.

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Maltodextrin is a polysaccharide that is used as a food additive.

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Mary Jane's Relaxing Soda

Mary Jane's Relaxing Soda is an American commercial soft drink containing kava, a plant root from the South Pacific that has sedative effects.

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Mayo Clinic

The Mayo Clinic is a nonprofit academic medical center based in Rochester, Minnesota focused on integrated clinical practice, education, and research.

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Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine, is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals and regulates sleep and wakefulness.

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Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.

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Ministry of Social Protection (Colombia)

The Ministry of Social Protection (Ministerio de la Protección Social) was a national executive ministry of the Government of Colombia responsible for coordinating and implementing the national policy and social services relating to employment, labour, health and social security; it operated from 2002 to 2012.

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Mixed drink

A mixed drink is a beverage in which two or more ingredients are mixed.

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Monster Beverage

Monster Beverage Corporation is an American beverage company that manufactures energy drinks including Monster Energy, Relentless and Burn.

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Monster Energy

Monster Energy is an energy drink introduced by Hansen Natural Company (now Monster Beverage Corporation (MNST)) in April 2002.

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Myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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New Zealand

New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

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Oxted is a town and civil parish in the Tandridge district of Surrey, England, at the foot of the North Downs.

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Palpitations are the perceived abnormality of the heartbeat characterized by awareness of cardiac muscle contractions in the chest: hard, fast and/or irregular beats.

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Pepsi is a carbonated soft drink produced and manufactured by PepsiCo.

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PepsiCo, Inc. is an American multinational food, snack, and beverage corporation headquartered in Purchase, New York.

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A phobia is a type of anxiety disorder, defined by a persistent and excessive fear of an object or situation.

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Product testing

Product testing, also called consumer testing or comparative testing, is a process of measuring the properties or performance of products.

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Pupillary response

Pupillary response is a physiological response that varies the size of the pupil, via the optic and oculomotor cranial nerve.

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Ramzan Kadyrov

Ramzan Akhmadovich Kadyrov (p, Къадар Ахьмат-кIант Рамзан Q̇adar Aẋmat-khant Ramzan; born 5 October 1976) is the Head of the Chechen Republic and a former member of the Chechen independence movement.

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Red Bull

Red Bull is an energy drink sold by Red Bull GmbH, an Austrian company created in 1987.

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Rum and Coke

Rum and Coke, or a Cuba Libre ("Free Cuba" ("free" here is an adjective, not a verb), is a highball cocktail consisting of cola, rum, and traditionally lime juice on ice. The cocktail originated in the early 20th century in Cuba, after the country won independence in the Spanish–American War. It quickly became popular across Cuba and in many other countries, and has been one of the world's most popular alcoholic drinks. Traditionally, the cola ingredient is Coca-Cola ("Coke"), and the alcohol is a Cuban light rum such as Bacardi. However, the drink may be made with various types of rums and cola brands, and lime juice may or may not be included.

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Sainsbury's is the second largest chain of supermarkets in the United Kingdom, with a 16.9% share of the supermarket sector in the United Kingdom.

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refers to a man whose income is salary based, particularly those working for corporations.

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Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.

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Slow Cow

Slow Cow is a relaxation drink Dubbed an "anti-energy" drink, produced in Quebec, Canada by the company Slow Cow Drink Inc.

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Soft drink

A soft drink (see terminology for other names) typically contains carbonated water (although some lemonades are not carbonated), a sweetener, and a natural or artificial flavoring.

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Sports drink

Sports drinks are beverages whose stated purpose is to help athletes replace water, electrolytes, and energy before and after training or competition, though their efficiency for that purpose has been questioned, particularly after exercise.

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Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.

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Sucralose is an artificial sweetener and sugar substitute.

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Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.

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Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program

The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), formerly known as the Food Stamp Program, provides food-purchasing assistance for low- and no-income people living in the United States.

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No description.

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Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub (bush) native to Asia.

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Tesco plc, trading as Tesco, is a British multinational groceries and general merchandise retailer with headquarters in Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire, England, United Kingdom.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The New York Times Company

The New York Times Company is an American media company which publishes its namesake, The New York Times.

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Theanine, also known as L-γ-glutamylethylamide and N5-ethyl-L-glutamine, is an amino acid analogue of the proteinogenic amino acids L-glutamate and L-glutamine and is found primarily in particular plant and fungal species.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States v. Forty Barrels & Twenty Kegs of Coca-Cola

United States v. Forty Barrels and Twenty Kegs of Coca-Cola,, was a federal suit under which the government unsuccessfully attempted to force The Coca-Cola Company to remove caffeine from its product.

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V (drink)

V is an energy drink brand produced by Frucor, a New Zealand-based beverage manufacturer.

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A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.

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Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body: it is a cofactor in DNA synthesis, and in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.

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Vodka Red Bull

The Vodka Red Bull cocktail is a caffeinated alcoholic beverage consisting of energy drink Red Bull and varying amounts of vodka.

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Xanthine (or; archaically xanthic acid) (3,7-dihydropurine-2,6-dione), is a purine base found in most human body tissues and fluids and in other organisms.

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Yerba mate

Yerba mate (from Spanish; erva-mate or; ka'a) is a species of the holly genus (Ilex), with the botanical name Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., named by the French botanist Auguste François César Prouvençal de Saint-Hilaire.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_drink

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