246 relations: Aeolipile, Aerodynamics, Ahmad Y. al-Hassan, Air pollution, Airbreathing jet engine, Aircraft engine, Aldehyde, Alternating current, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Antikythera mechanism, Aqueduct (bridge), Atmospheric pressure, Ausonius, Automobile engine replacement, Automotive engine, Étienne Lenoir, Battering ram, Bearing (mechanical), Block and tackle, BMW, Bore (engine), Bugatti Veyron, Bulk modulus, Camshaft, Capstan (nautical), Car, Carbon dioxide, Carbon footprint, Carbon monoxide, Carbon monoxide poisoning, Catalytic converter, Catapult, Cattle, Centrifugal force, Chemical energy, Chemical substance, Citroën 2CV, Clockwork, Combustion, Combustion chamber, Compressed air, Connecting rod, Copper, Cotton gin, Crane (machine), Crank (mechanism), Cross product, Dam, Diesel engine, ..., Dynamo, Elastic energy, Electric battery, Electric generator, Electric locomotive, Electric motor, Electrical conductor, Electrical energy, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Emma Mærsk, Energy, Energy consumption, Engine displacement, Engine swap, Engineering tolerance, Eugenio Barsanti, Felice Matteucci, Fire engine, Fireworks, Fluid, Fluid mechanics, Foot-pound (energy), Force, Fossil fuel, François Isaac de Rivaz, Friction loss, Frontinus, Fuel, Fuel economy in automobiles, Fuel efficiency, Funicular, Gas turbine, Gear, Giovanni Branca, Global warming, Greenhouse effect, Hard disk drive, Heat, Heat engine, Heat exchanger, Hero of Alexandria, Hesselman engine, High-power rocketry, Homogeneous charge compression ignition, Honda, Horse, Hot-bulb engine, Hydraulic motor, Hydrocarbon, Hydrogen, Hydrogen peroxide, Induction motor, Inductor, Industrial Revolution, Internal combustion engine, Internal combustion engine cooling, IRIS engine, Islamic Golden Age, Ismail al-Jazari, James Watt, Johnson thermoelectric energy converter, Karl Benz, Kilowatt hour, Latin, Lever, Liquid, Liquid air cycle engine, Locomotive, Mace (bludgeon), Machine, Machine (mechanical), Magnetic field, Manual labour, Marine propulsion, Matthew Boulton, McGraw-Hill Education, Mechanical advantage, Mechanical energy, Mechanism (engineering), Mechanization, Military, Mill (grinding), Mining, Model engine, Model rocket motor classification, Molecular motor, Motion (physics), Motorcycle, Motorcycle engine, Muffler, Multifuel, Muscle, Myosin, Newcomen atmospheric engine, Newton (unit), Newton metre, Newton's laws of motion, Nicéphore Niépce, Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot, Nitric oxide, Nitrogen, Nitrous oxide, Noise pollution, Non-road engine, Oar, Old French, Organic Rankine cycle, Otto cycle, Outboard motor, Oxidizing agent, Oxygen, Parthian Empire, Particulates, Petrol engine, Phase (matter), Piston, Pliny the Elder, Pneumatic motor, Pound (force), Power (physics), Power tool, Power-to-weight ratio, Prehistory, Premium efficiency, Pressure, Propelling nozzle, Pulley, Pulse detonation engine, Pulsejet, Pump, Rail transport, Ramjet, Reaction engine, Reciprocating engine, Redox, Revolutions per minute, Rocket, Rocket engine, Roman Empire, Rope, Ropeway conveyor, Rotor (electric), Royal Society of Chemistry, SABRE (rocket engine), Scramjet, Ship, Siege engine, Simple machine, Sluice, Spacecraft propulsion, Specific impulse, Stator, Steam, Steam engine, Steam locomotive, Steam turbine, Steamroller, Steel, Stirling engine, Strabo, Sulfur dioxide, Synthetic molecular motor, Taqi ad-Din Muhammad ibn Ma'ruf, Temperature, Thermoacoustic heat engine, Thomas Savery, Thrust, Timeline of heat engine technology, Timeline of motor and engine technology, Torque, Traction engine, Traction motor, Transmission (mechanics), Treadwheel, Trebuchet, Turbine blade, Turbofan, Turboprop, Turboshaft, University of Aleppo, V8 engine, Vending machine, Vitruvius, Volkswagen Beetle, W16 engine, Water vapor, Water wheel, Watt, Watt steam engine, Wärtsilä-Sulzer RTA96-C, Wind, Wind-up toy, Windlass, Windmill, Work (physics), Working animal. Expand index (196 more) » « Shrink index
An aeolipile (or aeolipyle, or eolipile), also known as a Hero's engine, is a simple bladeless radial steam turbine which spins when the central water container is heated.
Aerodynamics, from Greek ἀήρ aer (air) + δυναμική (dynamics), is the study of the motion of air, particularly its interaction with a solid object, such as an airplane wing.
Ahmad Yousef Al-Hassan (أحمد يوسف الحسن) (June 25, 1925 – April 28, 2012) was a Palestinian/Syrian/Canadian historian of Arabic and Islamic science and technology, educated in Jerusalem, Cairo, and London with a PhD in Mechanical engineering from University College London.
Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.
An airbreathing jet engine (or ducted jet engine) is a jet engine propelled by a jet of hot exhaust gases formed from heated and expanded air that is drawn into the engine via a compressor, typically a centrifugal or axial type.
An aircraft engine is the component of the propulsion system for an aircraft that generates mechanical power.
An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.
Alternating current (AC) is an electric current which periodically reverses direction, in contrast to direct current (DC) which flows only in one direction.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
The Antikythera mechanism is an ancient Greek analogue computer and orrery used to predict astronomical positions and eclipses for calendar and astrological purposes decades in advance.
Bridges for conveying water, called aqueducts or water bridges, are constructed to convey watercourses across gaps such as valleys or ravines.
Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).
Decimus or Decimius Magnus Ausonius (– c. 395) was a Roman poet and teacher of rhetoric from Burdigala in Aquitaine, modern Bordeaux, France.
An automobile engine replacement is an engine or a major part of one that is sold individually without any other parts required to make a functional car (for example a drivetrain).
As of 2013 there were a wide variety of propulsion systems available or potentially available for automobiles and other vehicles.
Jean Joseph Étienne Lenoir also known as Jean J. Lenoir (12 January 1822 – 4 August 1900) was a Belgian engineer who developed the internal combustion engine in 1858.
A battering ram is a siege engine that originated in ancient times and designed to break open the masonry walls of fortifications or splinter their wooden gates.
A bearing is a machine element that constrains relative motion to only the desired motion, and reduces friction between moving parts.
A block and tackle is a system of two or more pulleys with a rope or cable threaded between them, usually used to lift heavy loads.
BMW (Bayerische Motoren Werke in German, or Bavarian Motor Works in English) is a German multinational company which currently produces luxury automobiles and motorcycles, and also produced aircraft engines until 1945.
The bore or cylinder bore is a part of a piston engine.
The Bugatti Veyron EB 16.4 is a mid-engined sports car, designed and developed in Germany by the Volkswagen Group and manufactured in Molsheim, France, by Bugatti.
The bulk modulus (K or B) of a substance is a measure of how resistant to compressibility that substance is.
A camshaft is a shaft to which a cam is fastened or of which a cam forms an integral part.
A capstan is a vertical-axled rotating machine developed for use on sailing ships to multiply the pulling force of seamen when hauling ropes, cables, and hawsers.
A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
A carbon footprint is historically defined as the total emissions caused by an individual, event, organisation, or product, expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Carbon monoxide poisoning typically occurs from breathing in too much carbon monoxide (CO).
A catalytic converter is an exhaust emission control device that converts toxic gases and pollutants in exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine into less-toxic pollutants by catalyzing a redox reaction (an oxidation and a reduction reaction).
A catapult is a ballistic device used to launch a projectile a great distance without the aid of explosive devices—particularly various types of ancient and medieval siege engines.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
In Newtonian mechanics, the centrifugal force is an inertial force (also called a "fictitious" or "pseudo" force) directed away from the axis of rotation that appears to act on all objects when viewed in a rotating frame of reference.
In chemistry, chemical energy is the potential of a chemical substance to undergo a transformation through a chemical reaction to transform other chemical substances.
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
The Citroën 2CV ("deux chevaux" i.e. "deux chevaux-vapeur" (lit. "two steam horses", "two tax horsepower") is an air-cooled front-engine, front-wheel-drive economy car introduced at the 1948 Paris Mondial de l'Automobile and manufactured by Citroën for model years 1948–1990. Conceived by Citroën Vice-President Pierre Boulanger to help motorise the large number of farmers still using horses and carts in 1930s France, the 2CV has a combination of innovative engineering and utilitarian, straightforward metal bodywork — initially corrugated for added strength without added weight. The 2CV featured low cost; simplicity of overall maintenance; an easily serviced air-cooled engine (originally offering 9 hp); low fuel consumption; and an extremely long-travel suspension offering a soft ride and light off-road capability. Often called "an umbrella on wheels", the fixed-profile convertible bodywork featured a full-width, canvas, roll-back sunroof, which accommodated oversized loads and until 1955 reached almost to the car's rear bumper. Notably, Michelin introduced and first commercialized the radial tyre with the introduction of the 2CV. Manufactured in France between 1948 and 1988 (and in Portugal from 1988 to 1990), more than 3.8 million 2CVs were produced, along with over 1.2 million small 2CV-based delivery vans known as fourgonnettes. Citroën ultimately offered several mechanically identical variants including the Ami (over 1.8 million); the Dyane (over 1.4 million); the Acadiane (over 250,000); and the Mehari (over 140,000). In total, Citroën manufactured almost 9 million 2CVs and variants. The purchase price of the 2CV was low relative to its competition. In West Germany during the 1960s, for example, it cost about half as much as a Volkswagen Beetle. From the mid-1950s economy car competition had increased – internationally in the form of the 1957 Fiat 500 and 1955 Fiat 600, and 1959 Austin Mini. By 1952, Germany produced a price competitive car – the Messerschmitt KR175, followed in 1955 by the Isetta – these were microcars, not complete four-door cars like the 2CV. On the French home market, from 1961, the small Simca 1000 using licensed Fiat technology, and the larger Renault 4 hatchback had become available. The R4 was the biggest threat to the 2CV, eventually outselling it. A 1953 technical review in Autocar described "the extraordinary ingenuity of this design, which is undoubtedly the most original since the Model T Ford". In 2011, The Globe and Mail called it a "car like no other". The motoring writer L. J. K. Setright described the 2CV as "the most intelligent application of minimalism ever to succeed as a car", and a car of "remorseless rationality".
Clockwork refers to the inner workings of either mechanical machines clocks (where it is also called a movement) or other mechanisms that works similarly, with a complex series of gears.
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
A combustion chamber is that part of an internal combustion engine (ICE) in which the fuel/air mix is burned.
Compressed air is air kept under a pressure that is greater than atmospheric pressure.
A connecting rod is a shaft which connects a piston to a crank or crankshaft in a reciprocating engine.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
A cotton gin is a machine that quickly and easily separates cotton fibers from their seeds, enabling much greater productivity than manual cotton separation.
A crane is a type of machine, generally equipped with a hoist rope, wire ropes or chains, and sheaves, that can be used both to lift and lower materials and to move them horizontally.
A crank is an arm attached at a right angle to a rotating shaft by which reciprocating motion is imparted to or received from the shaft.
In mathematics and vector algebra, the cross product or vector product (occasionally directed area product to emphasize the geometric significance) is a binary operation on two vectors in three-dimensional space \left(\mathbb^3\right) and is denoted by the symbol \times.
A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of water or underground streams.
The diesel engine (also known as a compression-ignition or CI engine), named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel which is injected into the combustion chamber is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due to mechanical compression (adiabatic compression).
A dynamo is an electrical generator that creates direct current using a commutator.
Elastic energy is the potential mechanical energy stored in the configuration of a material or physical system as work is performed to distort its volume or shape.
An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.
In electricity generation, a generator is a device that converts motive power (mechanical energy) into electrical power for use in an external circuit.
An electric locomotive is a locomotive powered by electricity from overhead lines, a third rail or on-board energy storage such as a battery or a supercapacitor.
An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions.
Electrical energy is the energy newly derived from electric potential energy or kinetic energy.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
Emma Mærsk is the first container ship in the E-class of eight owned by the A. P. Moller-Maersk Group.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Energy consumption is the amount of energy or power used.
Engine displacement is the swept volume of all the pistons inside the cylinders of a reciprocating engine in a single movement from top dead centre (TDC) to bottom dead centre (BDC).
An engine swap is the process of removing a car's original engine and replacing it with another.
Engineering tolerance is the permissible limit or limits of variation in.
Father Eugenio Barsanti (12 October 1821 – 19 April 1864), also named Nicolò, was an Italian engineer, who together with Felice Matteucci of Florence invented the first version of the internal combustion engine in 1853.
Felice Matteucci (February 12, 1808 – September 13, 1887) was an Italian hydraulic engineer who co-invented an internal combustion engine with Eugenio Barsanti.
A fire engine (also known in some territories as a fire truck or fire appliance) is a vehicle designed primarily for firefighting operations.
Fireworks are a class of low explosive pyrotechnic devices used for aesthetic and entertainment purposes.
In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress.
Fluid mechanics is a branch of physics concerned with the mechanics of fluids (liquids, gases, and plasmas) and the forces on them.
The foot pound-force (symbol: ft⋅lbf or ft⋅lb) is a unit of work or energy in the Engineering and Gravitational Systems in United States customary and imperial units of measure.
In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
François Isaac de Rivaz (Paris, December 19, 1752 – Sion, July 30, 1828) was an inventor and a politician.
In fluid flow, friction loss (or skin friction) is the loss of pressure or “head” that occurs in pipe or duct flow due to the effect of the fluid's viscosity near the surface of the pipe or duct.
Sextus Julius Frontinus (c. 40 – 103 AD) was a prominent Roman civil engineer, author, and politician of the late 1st century AD.
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work.
The fuel economy of an automobile is the relationship between the distance traveled and the amount of fuel consumed by the vehicle.
Fuel efficiency is a form of thermal efficiency, meaning the ratio from effort to result of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier (fuel) into kinetic energy or work.
A funicular is one of the modes of transport, along with a cable railway and an inclined elevator, which uses a cable traction for movement on a steep slope.
A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of continuous combustion, internal combustion engine.
A gear or cogwheel is a rotating machine part having cut like teeth, or cogs, which mesh with another toothed part to transmit torque.
Giovanni Branca (22 April 1571 – 24 January 1645) was an Italian engineer and architect, chiefly remembered today for what some commentators have taken to be an early steam turbine.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
The greenhouse effect is the process by which radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be without its atmosphere.
A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive or fixed disk is an electromechanical data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material.
In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.
In thermodynamics, a heat engine is a system that converts heat or thermal energy—and chemical energy—to mechanical energy, which can then be used to do mechanical work.
A heat exchanger is a device used to transfer heat between two or more fluids.
Hero of Alexandria (ἭρωνGenitive: Ἥρωνος., Heron ho Alexandreus; also known as Heron of Alexandria; c. 10 AD – c. 70 AD) was a mathematician and engineer who was active in his native city of Alexandria, Roman Egypt.
The Hesselman engine is a hybrid between a petrol engine and a Diesel engine introduced by Swedish engineer Jonas Hesselman in 1925.
High-power rocketry is a hobby similar to model rocketry.
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a form of internal combustion in which well-mixed fuel and oxidizer (typically air) are compressed to the point of auto-ignition.
is a Japanese public multinational conglomerate corporation primarily known as a manufacturer of automobiles, aircraft, motorcycles, and power equipment.
The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
The hot-bulb engine is a type of internal combustion engine in which fuel ignites by coming in contact with a red-hot metal surface inside a bulb, followed by the introduction of air (oxygen) compressed into the hot-bulb chamber by the rising piston.
A hydraulic motor is a mechanical actuator that converts hydraulic pressure and flow into torque and angular displacement (rotation).
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.
An induction motor or asynchronous motor is an AC electric motor in which the electric current in the rotor needed to produce torque is obtained by electromagnetic induction from the magnetic field of the stator winding.
An inductor, also called a coil, choke or reactor, is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores energy in a magnetic field when electric current flows through it.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.
Internal combustion engine cooling uses either air or a liquid to remove the waste heat from an internal combustion engine.
The IRIS Engine is a design for a new type of internal combustion engine.
The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.
Badīʿ az-Zaman Abū l-ʿIzz ibn Ismāʿīl ibn ar-Razāz al-Jazarī (1136–1206, بديع الزمان أَبُو اَلْعِزِ بْنُ إسْماعِيلِ بْنُ الرِّزاز الجزري) was a Muslim polymath: a scholar, inventor, mechanical engineer, artisan, artist and mathematician.
James Watt (30 January 1736 (19 January 1736 OS) – 25 August 1819) was a Scottish inventor, mechanical engineer, and chemist who improved on Thomas Newcomen's 1712 Newcomen steam engine with his Watt steam engine in 1781, which was fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world.
A Johnson thermoelectric energy converter or JTEC is a type of solid-state heat engine that uses the electrochemical oxidation and reduction of hydrogen in a two-cell, thermal cycle that approximates the Ericsson cycle.
Karl Friedrich Benz (25 November 1844 – 4 April 1929) was a German engine designer and automobile engineer.
The kilowatt hour (symbol kWh, kW⋅h or kW h) is a unit of energy equal to 3.6 megajoules.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A lever is a simple machine consisting of a beam or rigid rod pivoted at a fixed hinge, or fulcrum.
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.
A liquid air cycle engine (LACE) is a type of spacecraft propulsion engine that attempts to increase its efficiency by gathering part of its oxidizer from the atmosphere.
A locomotive or engine is a rail transport vehicle that provides the motive power for a train.
A mace is a blunt weapon, a type of club or virge that uses a heavy head on the end of a handle to deliver powerful blows.
A machine uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an intended action.
Machines employ power to achieve desired forces and movement (motion).
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
Manual labour (in British English, manual labor in American English) or manual work is physical work done by people, most especially in contrast to that done by machines, and to that done by working animals.
Marine propulsion is the mechanism or system used to generate thrust to move a ship or boat across water.
Matthew Boulton (3 September 1728 – 17 August 1809) was an English manufacturer and business partner of Scottish engineer James Watt.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
Mechanical advantage is a measure of the force amplification achieved by using a tool, mechanical device or machine system.
In physical sciences, mechanical energy is the sum of potential energy and kinetic energy.
A mechanism, in engineering, is a device that transforms input forces and movement into a desired set of output forces and movement.
Mechanization or mechanisation (British English) is the process of changing from working largely or exclusively by hand or with animals to doing that work with machinery.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
A mill is a device that breaks solid materials into smaller pieces by grinding, crushing, or cutting.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
In radio-controlled modeling, a model engine is an internal combustion engine used to power a radio-controlled aircraft, radio-controlled car or radio-controlled boat.
Motors for rockets and high-powered rockets (together, consumer rockets) are classified by total impulse into a set of letter-designated ranges, from ⅛A up to O. The total impulse is the integral of the thrust over burn time.
Molecular motors are biological molecular machines that are the essential agents of movement in living organisms.
In physics, motion is a change in position of an object over time.
A motorcycle, often called a bike, motorbike, or cycle, is a two-> or three-wheeled motor vehicle.
A motorcycle engine is an engine that powers a motorcycle.
A muffler (silencer in many non-US English speaking countries) is a device for decreasing the amount of noise emitted by the exhaust of an internal combustion engine.
Multifuel, sometimes spelled multi-fuel, is any type of engine, boiler, or heater or other fuel-burning device which is designed to burn multiple types of fuels in its operation.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
Myosins are a superfamily of motor proteins best known for their roles in muscle contraction and in a wide range of other motility processes in eukaryotes.
The atmospheric engine was invented by Thomas Newcomen in 1712, and is often referred to simply as a Newcomen engine.
The newton (symbol: N) is the International System of Units (SI) derived unit of force.
The newton metre (also newton-metre, symbol N m or N⋅m) is a unit of torque (also called "moment") in the SI system.
Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics.
Joseph Nicéphore Niépce (7 March 1765 – 5 July 1833) was a French inventor, now usually credited as the inventor of photography and a pioneer in that field.
Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (1 June 1796 – 24 August 1832) was a French military engineer and physicist, often described as the "father of thermodynamics".
Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas or nitrous, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula.
Sound pollution, also known as environmental noise or noise pollution, is the propagation of noise with harmful impact on the activity of human or animal life.
Non-road engine (which may include non-road equipment and non-road vehicle) is an internal combustion engine or a gas turbine engine used for other purposes than being an engine of a vehicle operated on public roadways.
An oar is an implement used for water-borne propulsion.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is named for its use of an organic, high molecular mass fluid with a liquid-vapor phase change, or boiling point, occurring at a lower temperature than the water-steam phase change.
An Otto cycle is an idealized thermodynamic cycle that describes the functioning of a typical spark ignition piston engine.
An outboard motor is a propulsion system for boats, consisting of a self-contained unit that includes engine, gearbox and propeller or jet drive, designed to be affixed to the outside of the transom.
In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.
Atmospheric aerosol particles, also known as atmospheric particulate matter, particulate matter (PM), particulates, or suspended particulate matter (SPM) are microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in Earth's atmosphere.
A petrol engine (known as a gasoline engine in American English) is an internal combustion engine with spark-ignition, designed to run on petrol (gasoline) and similar volatile fuels.
In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.
A piston is a component of reciprocating engines, reciprocating pumps, gas compressors and pneumatic cylinders, among other similar mechanisms.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
A pneumatic motor (air motor) or compressed air engine is a type of motor which does mechanical work by expanding compressed air.
The pound-force (symbol: lbf, sometimes lbf) is a unit of force used in some systems of measurement including English Engineering units and the British Gravitational System.
In physics, power is the rate of doing work, the amount of energy transferred per unit time.
A power tool is a tool that is actuated by an additional power source and mechanism other than the solely manual labor used with hand tools.
Power-to-weight ratio (or specific power or power-to-mass ratio) is a calculation commonly applied to engines and mobile power sources to enable the comparison of one unit or design to another.
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.
As part of a concerted effort worldwide to reduce energy consumption, CO2 emissions and the impact of industrial operations on the environment, various regulatory authorities in many countries have introduced, or are planning, legislation to encourage the manufacture and use of higher efficiency motors.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
A propelling nozzle is a nozzle that converts a gas turbine or gas generator into a jet engine.
A pulley is a wheel on an axle or shaft that is designed to support movement and change of direction of a taut cable or belt, or transfer of power between the shaft and cable or belt.
A pulse detonation engine (PDE) is a type of propulsion system that uses detonation waves to combust the fuel and oxidizer mixture.
A pulsejet engine (or pulse jet) is a type of jet engine in which combustion occurs in pulses.
A pump is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases), or sometimes slurries, by mechanical action.
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.
A ramjet, sometimes referred to as a flying stovepipe or an athodyd (an abbreviation of aero thermodynamic duct), is a form of airbreathing jet engine that uses the engine's forward motion to compress incoming air without an axial compressor or a centrifugal compressor.
A reaction engine is an engine or motor that produces thrust by expelling reaction mass, in accordance with Newton's third law of motion.
A reciprocating engine, also often known as a piston engine, is typically a heat engine (although there are also pneumatic and hydraulic reciprocating engines) that uses one or more reciprocating pistons to convert pressure into a rotating motion.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Revolutions per minute (abbreviated rpm, RPM, rev/min, r/min) is the number of turns in one minute.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
A rocket engine uses stored rocket propellant mass for forming its high-speed propulsive jet.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
A rope is a group of yarns, plies, fibers or strands that are twisted or braided together into a larger and stronger form.
A ropeway conveyor or material ropeway is essentially a subtype of gondola lift, from which containers for goods rather than passenger cars are suspended.
The rotor is a moving component of an electromagnetic system in the electric motor, electric generator, or alternator.
The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".
SABRE (Synergistic Air-Breathing Rocket Engine) is a concept under development by Reaction Engines Limited for a hypersonic precooled hybrid air-breathing rocket engine.
A scramjet ("supersonic combustion ramjet") is a variant of a ramjet airbreathing jet engine in which combustion takes place in supersonic airflow.
A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep waterways, carrying passengers or goods, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, research and fishing.
A siege engine is a device that is designed to break or circumvent heavy castle doors, thick city walls and other fortifications in siege warfare.
A simple machine is a mechanical device that changes the direction or magnitude of a force.
A sluice (from the Dutch "sluis") is a water channel controlled at its head by a gate.
Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to accelerate spacecraft and artificial satellites.
Specific impulse (usually abbreviated Isp) is a measure of how effectively a rocket uses propellant or jet engine uses fuel.
The stator is the stationary part of a rotary system, found in electric generators, electric motors, sirens, mud motors or biological rotors.
Steam is water in the gas phase, which is formed when water boils.
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.
A steam locomotive is a type of railway locomotive that produces its pulling power through a steam engine.
A steam turbine is a device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and uses it to do mechanical work on a rotating output shaft.
A steamroller (or steam roller) is a form of road roller – a type of heavy construction machinery used for leveling surfaces, such as roads or airfields – that is powered by a steam engine.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
A Stirling engine is a heat engine that operates by cyclic compression and expansion of air or other gas (the working fluid) at different temperatures, such that there is a net conversion of heat energy to mechanical work.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
Synthetic molecular motors are molecular machines capable of continuous directional rotation under an energy input.
Taqi al-Din Muhammad ibn Ma'ruf ash-Shami al-Asadi (Arabic: تقي الدين محمد بن معروف الشامي, Turkish: Takiyüddin or Taki) (1526–1585) was an Ottoman polymath active in Constantinople.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
Thermoacoustic engines (sometimes called "TA engines") are thermoacoustic devices which use high-amplitude sound waves to pump heat from one place to another, or conversely use a heat difference to induce high-amplitude sound waves.
Thomas Savery (c. 1650 – 1715) was an English inventor and engineer, born at Shilstone, a manor house near Modbury, Devon, England.
Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newton's third law.
This Timeline of heat engine technology describes how heat engines have been known since antiquity but have been made into increasingly useful devices since the 17th century as a better understanding of the processes involved was gained.
Timeline of motor and engine technology.
Torque, moment, or moment of force is rotational force.
A traction engine is a self-propelled steam engine used to move heavy loads on roads, plough ground or to provide power at a chosen location.
A traction motor is an electric motor used for propulsion of a vehicle, such as an electric locomotive or electric roadway vehicle.
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power.
A treadwheel, or treadmill, is a form of engine typically powered by humans.
A trebuchet (French trébuchet) is a type of siege engine.
A turbine blade is the individual component which makes up the turbine section of a gas turbine or steam turbine.
The turbofan or fanjet is a type of airbreathing jet engine that is widely used in aircraft propulsion.
A turboprop engine is a turbine engine that drives an aircraft propeller.
A turboshaft engine is a form of gas turbine that is optimized to produce shaft power rather than jet thrust.
University of Aleppo (جامعة حلب, also called Aleppo University) is a public university located in Aleppo, Syria.
A V8 engine is an eight-cylinder V configuration engine with the cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two sets (or banks) of four, with all eight pistons driving a common crankshaft.
A vending machine is an automated machine that provides items such as snacks, beverages, cigarettes and lottery tickets to consumers after money, a credit card, or specially designed card is inserted into the machine.
Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (c. 80–70 BC – after c. 15 BC), commonly known as Vitruvius, was a Roman author, architect, civil engineer and military engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled De architectura.
The Volkswagen Beetle – officially the Volkswagen Type 1, informally in German the Käfer (literally "beetle"), in parts of the English-speaking world the Bug, and known by many other nicknames in other languages – is a two-door, rear-engine economy car, intended for five passengers, that was manufactured and marketed by German automaker Volkswagen (VW) from 1938 until 2003.
A W16 engine is a sixteen cylinder piston internal combustion engine in a four-bank W configuration.
A water wheel is a machine for converting the energy of flowing or falling water into useful forms of power, often in a watermill.
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.
The Watt steam engine (alternatively known as the Boulton and Watt steam engine) was the first type of steam engine to make use of a separate condenser.
The Wärtsilä RT-flex96C is a two-stroke turbocharged low-speed diesel engine designed by the Finnish manufacturer Wärtsilä.
Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale.
A wind-up toy is a toy powered by a clockwork motor.
The windlass is an apparatus for moving heavy weights.
A windmill is a mill that converts the energy of wind into rotational energy by means of vanes called sails or blades.
In physics, a force is said to do work if, when acting, there is a displacement of the point of application in the direction of the force.
A working animal is an animal, usually domesticated, that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks.