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A Midsummer Night's Dream is a comedy written by William Shakespeare in 1595/96.
The A1 is the longest numbered road in the UK, at.
An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, normally at a college or university.
Acid house is a subgenre of house music developed around the mid-1980s by DJs from Chicago.
The Acts of Supremacy are two acts of the Parliament of England passed in 1534 and 1559 which established King Henry VIII of England and subsequent monarchs as the supreme head of the Church of England.
The Acts of Union were two Acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland.
The Acts of Union 1800 (sometimes erroneously referred to as a single Act of Union 1801) were parallel acts of the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland which united the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland (previously in personal union) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
An administrative division, unit, entity, area or region, also referred to as a subnational entity, statoid, constituent unit, or country subdivision, is a portion of a country or other region delineated for the purpose of administration.
Aerospace is the human effort in science, engineering and business to fly in the atmosphere of Earth (aeronautics) and surrounding space (astronautics).
The aerospace industry of the United Kingdom is the fourth-largest national aerospace industry in the world and the third largest in Europe, with a global market share of 6.4% in 2016.
Dame Agatha Mary Clarissa Christie, Lady Mallowan, (born Miller; 15 September 1890 – 12 January 1976) was an English writer.
The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Aidan of Lindisfarne Irish: Naomh Aodhán (died 31 August 651) was an Irish monk and missionary credited with restoring Christianity to Northumbria.
Aintree Racecourse is a racecourse in Aintree, Liverpool, England.
Air travel is a form of travel in vehicles such as helicopters, hot air balloons, blimps, gliders, hang gliding, parachuting, airplanes, jets, or anything else that can sustain flight.
An aircraft engine is the component of the propulsion system for an aircraft that generates mechanical power.
Alan Mathison Turing (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and theoretical biologist.
Albion (Ἀλβιών) is the oldest known name of the island of Great Britain.
Alcuin of York (Flaccus Albinus Alcuinus; 735 – 19 May 804 AD)—also called Ealhwine, Alhwin or Alchoin—was an English scholar, clergyman, poet and teacher from York, Northumbria.
Aldous Leonard Huxley (26 July 1894 – 22 November 1963) was an English writer, novelist, philosopher, and prominent member of the Huxley family.
Aldridge is a town in the Metropolitan Borough of Walsall, West Midlands, England.
Alexander Pope (21 May 1688 – 30 May 1744) was an 18th-century English poet.
Alexandra Palace is a Grade II listed entertainment and sports venue in London, located between Muswell Hill and Wood Green.
Sir Alfred Joseph Hitchcock (13 August 1899 – 29 April 1980) was an English film director and producer, widely regarded as one of the most influential filmmakers in the history of cinema.
Alfred the Great (Ælfrēd, Ælfrǣd, "elf counsel" or "wise elf"; 849 – 26 October 899) was King of Wessex from 871 to 899.
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (commonly shortened to Alice in Wonderland) is an 1865 novel written by English author Charles Lutwidge Dodgson under the pseudonym Lewis Carroll.
Alison Nicholas MBE (born 6 March 1962) is an English professional golfer.
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
The America's Cup, affectionately known as the "Auld Mug", is a trophy awarded to the winner of the America's Cup match races between two sailing yachts.
Amir Iqbal Khan (عامر اقبال خان; born 8 December 1986) is a British professional boxer.
An amphitheatre or amphitheater is an open-air venue used for entertainment, performances, and sports.
The Analytical Engine was a proposed mechanical general-purpose computer designed by English mathematician and computer pioneer Charles Babbage.
Analytics is the discovery, interpretation, and communication of meaningful patterns in data.
Ancient Roman architecture adopted the external language of classical Greek architecture for the purposes of the ancient Romans, but differed from Greek buildings, becoming a new architectural style.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
"And did those feet in ancient time" is a poem by William Blake from the preface to his epic Milton: A Poem in Two Books, one of a collection of writings known as the Prophetic Books.
Andrew Lloyd Webber, Baron Lloyd-Webber Kt (born 22 March 1948) is an English composer and impresario of musical theatre.
Andrew Marvell (31 March 1621 – 16 August 1678) was an English metaphysical poet, satirist and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1659 and 1678.
Sir Andrew John Wiles (born 11 April 1953) is a British mathematician and a Royal Society Research Professor at the University of Oxford, specialising in number theory.
Andrew Clement Serkis (born 20 April 1964) is an English actor and film director.
Angeln (English and Latin: Anglia, German and Low Saxon: Angeln, Danish: Angel) is a small peninsula within the larger Jutland (Cimbric) Peninsula in the region of Southern Schleswig, which constitutes the Northern part of the northernmost German federal state of Schleswig-Holstein, protruding into the Bay of Kiel of the Baltic Sea.
The Angevin Empire (L'Empire Plantagenêt) is a collective exonym referring to the possessions of the Angevin kings of England, who also held lands in France, during the 12th and 13th centuries.
The Angles (Angli) were one of the main Germanic peoples who settled in Great Britain in the post-Roman period.
The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion with 85 million members, founded in 1867 in London, England.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
The terms Anglo-Catholicism, Anglican Catholicism, and Catholic Anglicanism refer to people, beliefs and practices within Anglicanism that emphasise the Catholic heritage and identity of the various Anglican churches.
Anglo-Celtic citizens are those of British or English and Celtic descent.
The Anglo-Frisian languages are the West Germanic languages which include Anglic (or English) and Frisian.
The term Anglo-Indians can refer to at least two groups of people: those with mixed Indian and British ancestry, and people of British descent born or living in the Indian subcontinent.
Anglo-Norman, also known as Anglo-Norman French, is a variety of the Norman language that was used in England and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere in the British Isles during the Anglo-Norman period.
Anglo-Norman literature is literature composed in the Anglo-Norman language developed during the period 1066–1204 when the Duchy of Normandy and England were united in the Anglo-Norman realm.
Anglo-Saxon architecture was a period in the history of architecture in England, and parts of Wales, from the mid-5th century until the Norman Conquest of 1066.
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of annals in Old English chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons.
The Anglo-Saxon model or Anglo-Saxon capitalism (so called because it is practiced in English-speaking countries such as the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, New Zealand, Australia and Ireland) is a capitalist model that emerged in the 1970s, based on the Chicago school of economics.
The Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain describes the process which changed the language and culture of most of what became England from Romano-British to Germanic.
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
The Anglo-Scottish border between England and Scotland runs for 96 miles (154 km) between Marshall Meadows Bay on the east coast and the Solway Firth in the west.
Ann Shirley Jones CBE (née Adrianne Haydon on 7 October 1938,. also known as Ann Haydon-Jones) is an English former table tennis and lawn tennis champion.
Anselm of Canterbury (1033/4-1109), also called (Anselmo d'Aosta) after his birthplace and (Anselme du Bec) after his monastery, was a Benedictine monk, abbot, philosopher and theologian of the Catholic Church, who held the office of archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109.
Sir Anthony van Dyck (many variant spellings; 22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Flemish Baroque artist who became the leading court painter in England, after enjoying great success in Italy and the Southern Netherlands.
An apple pie is a pie or a tart, in which the principal filling ingredient is apple.
Bridges for conveying water, called aqueducts or water bridges, are constructed to convey watercourses across gaps such as valleys or ravines.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury.
Archenfield (Old English: Ircingafeld) is the historic English name for an area of southern and western Herefordshire in England.
The medieval cathedrals of England, which date from between approximately 1040 and 1540, are a group of twenty-six buildings that constitute a major aspect of the country’s artistic heritage and are among the most significant material symbols of Christianity.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
The arms industry, also known as the defense industry or the arms trade, is a global industry responsible for the manufacturing and sales of weapons and military technology.
Arriva is a multinational public transport company headquartered in Sunderland, Tyne and Wear, United Kingdom.
Arthur Cayley F.R.S. (16 August 1821 – 26 January 1895) was a British mathematician.
Arthur Joseph Penty (17 March 1875 – 1937) was an English architect and writer on Guild socialism and distributism.
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and statesman who was one of the leading military and political figures of 19th-century Britain, serving twice as Prime Minister.
The artists of the Tudor court are the painters and limners engaged by the monarchs of England's Tudor dynasty and their courtiers between 1485 and 1603, from the reign of Henry VII to the death of Elizabeth I. Typically managing a group of assistants and apprentices in a workshop or studio, many of these artists produced works across several disciplines, including portrait miniatures, large-scale panel portraits on wood, illuminated manuscripts, heraldric emblems, and elaborate decorative schemes for masques, tournaments, and other events.
Astrium was an aerospace manufacturer subsidiary of the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS) that provided civil and military space systems and services from 2006 to 2013.
In chemistry and physics, atomic theory is a scientific theory of the nature of matter, which states that matter is composed of discrete units called atoms.
Augustine of Canterbury (born first third of the 6th century – died probably 26 May 604) was a Benedictine monk who became the first Archbishop of Canterbury in the year 597.
The Australia national cricket team is the joint oldest team in Test cricket history, having played in the first ever Test match in 1877.
Avebury is a Neolithic henge monument containing three stone circles, around the village of Avebury in Wiltshire, in southwest England.
Avienus was a Latin writer of the 4th century AD.
Æthelstan or Athelstan (Old English: Æþelstan, or Æðelstān, meaning "noble stone"; 89427 October 939) was King of the Anglo-Saxons from 924 to 927 and King of the English from 927 to 939.
A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin baccalaureus) or baccalaureate (from Modern Latin baccalaureatus) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to seven years (depending on institution and academic discipline).
Bacon is a type of salt-cured pork.
BAE Systems plc is a British multinational defence, security, and aerospace company.
The BAE Systems Hawk is a British single-engine, jet-powered advanced trainer aircraft.
Baked beans is a dish containing beans, sometimes baked but, despite the name, usually stewed, in a sauce.
A ballet dancer (ballerina fem., ballerino masc.) is a person who practices the art of classical ballet.
A balti or bāltī gosht (بالٹی گوشت, बाल्टी गोश्त) is a type of Lamb meat or goat meat curry served in a thin, pressed-steel wok called a "balti bowl".
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
Bangers and mash, also known as sausages and mash, is a traditional dish of Great Britain and Ireland comprising sausages served with mashed potatoes.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
The Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the model on which most modern central banks have been based.
Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).
Baroque music is a style of Western art music composed from approximately 1600 to 1750.
Barry Steven Frank Sheene (11 September 1950 – 10 March 2003) was a British professional motorcycle racer.
A basilica is a type of building, usually a church, that is typically rectangular with a central nave and aisles, usually with a slightly raised platform and an apse at one or both ends.
Bath Rugby (also known as just Bath) is an English professional rugby union club in Bath, Somerset.
Bath is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Somerset, England, known for its Roman-built baths.
The Battle of Badon (Latin: Bellum in monte Badonis or Mons Badonicus, Cad Mynydd Baddon, all literally meaning "Battle of Mount Badon" or "Battle of Badon Hill") was a battle thought to have occurred between Celtic Britons and Anglo-Saxons in the late 5th or early 6th century.
The Battle of Bosworth Field (or Battle of Bosworth) was the last significant battle of the Wars of the Roses, the civil war between the Houses of Lancaster and York that extended across England in the latter half of the 15th century.
The Battle of Watling Street took place in Roman Britain in AD 60 or 61 between an alliance of indigenous British peoples led by Boudica and a Roman army led by Gaius Suetonius Paulinus.
The Bay of Kiel or Kiel Bay is a bay in the southwestern Baltic Sea, off the shores of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany and the islands of Denmark.
BBC Cymru Wales is a division of the BBC, and the national broadcaster for Wales.
The Bell-Beaker culture (sometimes shortened to Beaker culture), is the term for a widely scattered archaeological culture of prehistoric western and Central Europe, starting in the late Neolithic or Chalcolithic and running into the early Bronze Age (in British terminology).
Bede (italic; 672/3 – 26 May 735), also known as Saint Bede, Venerable Bede, and Bede the Venerable (Bēda Venerābilis), was an English Benedictine monk at the monastery of St.
Beer in England has been brewed for hundreds of years.
Beeston is a town in Nottinghamshire, England, southwest of Nottingham city centre.
Sir Charles Benedict Ainslie, CBE (born 5 February 1977) is an English competitive sailor.
Benjamin Jonson (c. 11 June 1572 – 6 August 1637) was an English playwright, poet, actor, and literary critic, whose artistry exerted a lasting impact upon English poetry and stage comedy.
Benedict Timothy Carlton Cumberbatch (born 19 July 1976) is an English actor who has performed in film, television, theatre and radio.
The Benedictional of St.
Benefits Supervisor Sleeping is a 1995 oil on canvas painting by Lucian Freud depicting an obese, naked woman lying on a couch.
Benetton Formula Ltd., commonly referred to simply as Benetton, was a Formula One constructor that participated from to.
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
Edward Benjamin Britten, Baron Britten of Aldeburgh (22 November 1913 – 4 December 1976) was an English composer, conductor and pianist.
Bentley Motors Limited is a British manufacturer and marketer of luxury cars and SUVs—and a subsidiary of Volkswagen AG since 1998.
Beowulf is an Old English epic story consisting of 3,182 alliterative lines.
Sir Bernard Arthur Owen Williams, FBA (21 September 1929 – 10 June 2003) was an English moral philosopher.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.
The Beveridge Report, officially entitled Social Insurance and Allied Services, is a government report, published in November 1942, influential in the founding of the welfare state in the United Kingdom.
In 1999 the British Film Institute surveyed 1,000 people from the world of British film and television to produce the BFI 100 list of the greatest British films of the 20th century.
The Bill of Rights, also known as the English Bill of Rights, is an Act of the Parliament of England that deals with constitutional matters and sets out certain basic civil rights.
Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,101,360, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Birmingham Airport, formerly Birmingham International Airport and before that, Elmdon Airport, is an international airport located east southeast of Birmingham city centre, slightly north of Bickenhill in the Metropolitan Borough of Solihull, England.
Bison are large, even-toed ungulates in the genus Bison within the subfamily Bovinae.
Bitter is a British style of pale ale that varies in colour from gold to dark amber, and in strength from 3% to 7% alcohol by volume.
Black British are British citizens of Black origins or heritage, including those of African-Caribbean (sometimes called "Afro-Caribbean") background, and may include people with mixed ancestry.
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
The Black Death was a bubonic plague pandemic, which reached England in June 1348.
Black pudding is a type of blood sausage originating in Great Britain and Ireland.
Edward Teach or Edward Thatch (– 22 November 1718), better known as Blackbeard, was an English pirate who operated around the West Indies and the eastern coast of Britain's North American colonies.
Blackmail is a 1929 British thriller drama film directed by Alfred Hitchcock and starring Anny Ondra, John Longden, and Cyril Ritchard.
The Blackpool Tramway runs from Blackpool to Fleetwood on the Fylde Coast in Lancashire, England.
In heraldry and heraldic vexillology, a blazon is a formal description of a coat of arms, flag or similar emblem, from which the reader can reconstruct the appropriate image.
Blood transfusion is generally the process of receiving blood or blood products into one's circulation intravenously.
Robert James Fitzsimmons (26 May 1863 – 22 October 1917) was a British professional boxer who made boxing history as the sport's first three-division world champion.
Bogeyman (usually spelled boogeyman in the U.S.; also spelled bogieman or boogie man; see American and British English spelling differences) is a common allusion to a mythical creature in many cultures used by adults to frighten children into good behaviour.
Bolton (locally) is a town in Greater Manchester in North West England. A former mill town, Bolton has been a production centre for textiles since Flemish weavers settled in the area in the 14th century, introducing a wool and cotton-weaving tradition. The urbanisation and development of the town largely coincided with the introduction of textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution. Bolton was a 19th-century boomtown, and at its zenith in 1929 its 216 cotton mills and 26 bleaching and dyeing works made it one of the largest and most productive centres of cotton spinning in the world. The British cotton industry declined sharply after the First World War, and by the 1980s cotton manufacture had virtually ceased in Bolton. Close to the West Pennine Moors, Bolton is northwest of Manchester. It is surrounded by several smaller towns and villages that together form the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton, of which Bolton is the administrative centre. The town of Bolton has a population of 139,403, whilst the wider metropolitan borough has a population of 262,400. Historically part of Lancashire, Bolton originated as a small settlement in the moorland known as Bolton le Moors. In the English Civil War, the town was a Parliamentarian outpost in a staunchly Royalist region, and as a result was stormed by 3,000 Royalist troops led by Prince Rupert of the Rhine in 1644. In what became known as the Bolton Massacre, 1,600 residents were killed and 700 were taken prisoner. Bolton Wanderers football club play home games at the Macron Stadium and the WBA World light-welterweight champion Amir Khan was born in the town. Cultural interests include the Octagon Theatre and the Bolton Museum and Art Gallery, as well as one of the earliest public libraries established after the Public Libraries Act 1850.
Bootle (pronounced) is a town in the Metropolitan Borough of Sefton, Merseyside, England, which in 2001 had a population of 98,449.
Bottle-kicking is an old Leicestershire custom that takes place in the village of Hallaton each Easter Monday.
Boudica (Latinised as Boadicea or Boudicea, and known in Welsh as Buddug) was a queen of the British Celtic Iceni tribe who led an uprising against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire in AD 60 or 61, and died shortly after its failure, having supposedly poisoned herself.
Bowls or lawn bowls is a sport in which the objective is to roll biased balls called woods so that they stop close to a smaller ball called a "jack" or "kitty".
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.
Bradford is in the Metropolitan Borough of the City of Bradford in West Yorkshire, England, in the foothills of the Pennines west of Leeds, and northwest of Wakefield.
A brand is a name, term, design, symbol, or other feature that distinguishes an organization or product from its rivals in the eyes of the customer.
Brawn GP Formula One Team, then the trading name of Brawn GP Limited, was a Formula One world championship-winning motor racing team and constructor, created by a management buyout of Honda Racing F1 Team led by Ross Brawn, but using a Mercedes engine.
The Bridgewater Canal connects Runcorn, Manchester and Leigh, in North West England.
Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of 456,000.
The Bristol Built-Up Area is a term used by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) to refer to a conurbation in based around the city of Bristol, in South West England.
The Bristol Channel (Môr Hafren) is a major inlet in the island of Great Britain, separating South Wales from Devon and Somerset in South West England.
British Arabs (عرب بريطانيا) are citizens or residents of the United Kingdom that are of Arab ethnic, cultural and linguistic heritage or identity from Arab countries.
British Asians (also referred as South Asians in the United Kingdom, Asian British people or Asian Britons) are persons of South Asian descent who reside in the United Kingdom.
British Chinese (also known as Chinese British, Chinese Britons) are people of Chineseparticularly Han Chineseancestry who reside in the United Kingdom, constituting the second or third largest group of overseas Chinese in Europe apart from the Chinese diaspora in France and the overseas Chinese community in Russia.
The British Darts Organisation (BDO) is a darts organisation founded on 7 January 1973 by Olly Croft.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British Invasion was a cultural phenomenon of the mid-1960s when rock and pop music acts from the United Kingdom and other aspects of British culture, became popular in the United States and significant to rising "counterculture" on both sides of the Atlantic.
The British Iron Age is a conventional name used in the archaeology of Great Britain, referring to the prehistoric and protohistoric phases of the Iron Age culture of the main island and the smaller islands, typically excluding prehistoric Ireland, which had an independent Iron Age culture of its own.
The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.
The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and the largest national library in the world by number of items catalogued.
British literature is literature in the English language from the United Kingdom, Isle of Man, and Channel Islands.
British migration to Spain has resulted in Spain being home to one of the largest British-born populations outside the United Kingdom in the world, and the largest in Europe.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
There were more than a thousand British narrow-gauge railways ranging from large, historically significant common carriers to small, short-lived industrial railways.
The British people, or the Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, and the Crown dependencies.
Britishness is the state or quality of being British, or of embodying British characteristics.
Britpop is a UK based music and culture movement in the mid 1990s which emphasised "Britishness", and produced brighter, catchier alternative rock, partly in reaction to the popularity of the darker lyrical themes of the US-led grunge music, an alternative rock genre, and to the UK's own shoegazing music scene.
Brockworth is a village in Gloucestershire, England, situated on the old Roman road that connects the City of Gloucester with Barnwood, Hucclecote and Cirencester.
Brogdale is a hamlet in Kent, England, located beside the M2 motorway south of Faversham.
The Brontës (commonly) were a nineteenth-century literary family, born in the village of Thornton and later associated with the village of Haworth in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
Brown ale is a style of beer with a dark amber or brown colour.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Bury is a town in Greater Manchester, England, on the River Irwell east of Bolton, southwest of Rochdale and northwest of Manchester.
Clive Staples Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963) was a British novelist, poet, academic, medievalist, literary critic, essayist, lay theologian, broadcaster, lecturer, and Christian apologist.
The Cabinet of the United Kingdom is the collective decision-making body of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, composed of the Prime Minister and 21 cabinet ministers, the most senior of the government ministers.
In the course of his Gallic Wars, Julius Caesar invaded Britain twice: in 55 and 54 BC.
Calculus (from Latin calculus, literally 'small pebble', used for counting and calculations, as on an abacus), is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations.
Camelot is a castle and court associated with the legendary King Arthur.
Canal & River Trust was launched on 12 July 2012, taking over the guardianship of British Waterways (the previous government-owned operator) canals, rivers reservoirs and docks in England and Wales.
Toffee apples, also known as candy apples in North America, are whole apples covered in a hard toffee or sugar candy coating, with a stick inserted as a handle.
Canterbury Cathedral in Canterbury, Kent, is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England.
Caratacus (Brythonic *Caratācos, Middle Welsh Caratawc; Welsh Caradog; Breton Karadeg; Greek Καράτακος; variants Latin Caractacus, Greek Καρτάκης) was a 1st-century AD British chieftain of the Catuvellauni tribe, who led the British resistance to the Roman conquest.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
Carl Martin Froch, (born 2 July 1977) is a British former professional boxer who competed from 2002 to 2014, and has since worked as a boxing analyst and commentator for Sky Sports.
Carlton is a suburb to the east of the city of Nottingham in the borough of Gedling.
A castle (from castellum) is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages by predominantly the nobility or royalty and by military orders.
The stone circle at Castlerigg (alternatively Keswick Carles, Carles, Carsles, Castle-rig or Druids' Circle) is situated near Keswick in Cumbria, North West England.
Castles have played an important military, economic and social role in Great Britain and Ireland since their introduction following the Norman invasion of England in 1066.
In the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, the Latin word castrum (plural castra) was a building, or plot of land, used as a fortified military camp.
A cat's eye is a retroreflective safety device used in road marking and was the first of a range of raised pavement markers.
Catherine of Aragon (16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536), was Queen of England from June 1509 until May 1533 as the first wife of King Henry VIII; she was previously Princess of Wales as the wife of Henry's elder brother Arthur.
Catherine of Braganza (Catarina; 25 November 1638 – 31 December 1705) was queen consort of England, of Scotland and of Ireland from 1662 to 1685, as the wife of King Charles II.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Church in England and Wales is part of the worldwide Catholic Church in full communion with the Pope.
Catholic emancipation or Catholic relief was a process in the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in the late 18th century and early 19th century that involved reducing and removing many of the restrictions on Roman Catholics introduced by the Act of Uniformity, the Test Acts and the penal laws.
The Catuvellauni were a Celtic tribe or state of southeastern Britain before the Roman conquest, attested by inscriptions into the 4th century.
The term Cavalier was first used by Roundheads as a term of abuse for the wealthier Royalist supporters of King Charles I and his son Charles II of England during the English Civil War, the Interregnum, and the Restoration (1642 – c. 1679).
Cave paintings, also known as parietal art, are painted drawings on cave walls or ceilings, mainly of prehistoric origin, beginning roughly 40,000 years ago (around 38,000 BCE) in Eurasia.
Cædmon (fl. c. AD 657–684) is the earliest English (Northumbrian) poet whose name is known.
The Britons, also known as Celtic Britons or Ancient Britons, were Celtic people who inhabited Great Britain from the British Iron Age into the Middle Ages, at which point their culture and language diverged into the modern Welsh, Cornish and Bretons (among others).
Celtic Christianity or Insular Christianity refers broadly to certain features of Christianity that were common, or held to be common, across the Celtic-speaking world during the Early Middle Ages.
Celtic field is an old name for traces of early (prehistoric) agricultural field systems found in North-West Europe, i.e. Britain, Ireland, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland and the Baltic states.
The Celtic Sea (An Mhuir Cheilteach; Y Môr Celtaidd; An Mor Keltek; Ar Mor Keltiek; La mer Celtique) is the area of the Atlantic Ocean off the south coast of Ireland bounded to the east by Saint George's Channel; other limits include the Bristol Channel, the English Channel, and the Bay of Biscay, as well as adjacent portions of Wales, Cornwall, Devon, and Brittany.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.
The ceremonial counties, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England, are areas of England to which a Lord Lieutenant is appointed.
The Channel Tunnel (Le tunnel sous la Manche; also nicknamed the Chunnel) is a rail tunnel linking Folkestone, Kent, in the United Kingdom, with Coquelles, Pas-de-Calais, near Calais in northern France, beneath the English Channel at the Strait of Dover.
Charles Babbage (26 December 1791 – 18 October 1871) was an English polymath.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
Charles John Huffam Dickens (7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic.
Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham, 2nd Baron Howard of Effingham (1536 – 14 December 1624), known as Howard of Effingham, was an English statesman and Lord High Admiral under Elizabeth I and James I. He was commander of the English forces during the battles against the Spanish Armada and was chiefly responsible after Francis Drake for the victory that saved England from invasion by the Spanish Empire.
Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.
Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948) is the heir apparent to the British throne as the eldest child of Queen Elizabeth II.
Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin (16 April 1889 – 25 December 1977) was an English comic actor, filmmaker, and composer who rose to fame in the era of silent film.
Chartism was a working-class movement for political reform in Britain that existed from 1838 to 1857.
Cheddar cheese is a relatively hard, off-white (or orange if spices such as annatto are added), sometimes sharp-tasting, natural cheese.
The Cheviot Hills (/'tʃiːvɪət/) are a range of rolling hills straddling the Anglo-Scottish border between Northumberland and the Scottish Borders.
Chichester is a cathedral city in West Sussex, in South-East England.
Chicken tikka masala is a dish of chunks of roasted marinated chicken (chicken tikka) in a spiced curry sauce.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
The Chiltern Hills form a chalk escarpment in South East England.
Christopher Livingstone Eubank (born 8 August 1966), is a British former professional boxer who competed from 1985 to 1998.
A Christian state is a country that recognizes a form of Christianity as its official religion and often has a state church, which is a Christian denomination that supports the government and is supported by the government.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Christopher Marlowe, also known as Kit Marlowe (baptised 26 February 156430 May 1593), was an English playwright, poet and translator of the Elizabethan era.
Christopher Edward Nolan (born 30 July 1970) is an English film director, screenwriter, and producer who holds both British and American citizenship.
Sir Christopher Wren PRS FRS (–) was an English anatomist, astronomer, geometer, and mathematician-physicist, as well as one of the most highly acclaimed English architects in history.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
Cider is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of apples.
The City of Bradford is a local government district of West Yorkshire, England, with the status of a city and metropolitan borough.
The City of Leeds is a local government district of West Yorkshire, England, governed by Leeds City Council, with the status of a city and metropolitan borough.
The City of London is a city and county that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London.
The City of London Corporation, officially and legally the Mayor and Commonalty and Citizens of the City of London, is the municipal governing body of the City of London, the historic centre of London and the location of much of the UK's financial sector.
City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the monarch of the United Kingdom to a select group of communities:, there are 69 cities in the United Kingdom – 51 in England, six in Wales, seven in Scotland and five in Northern Ireland.
In England, a civil parish is a territorial designation which is the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority.
Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies.
Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for a classical period, classical antiquity in the Western tradition, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate.
Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October 54 AD) was Roman emperor from 41 to 54.
The climate of south-west England is classed as oceanic (Cfb) according to the Köppen climate classification.
Cnut the GreatBolton, The Empire of Cnut the Great: Conquest and the Consolidation of Power in Northern Europe in the Early Eleventh Century (Leiden, 2009) (Cnut se Micela, Knútr inn ríki. Retrieved 21 January 2016. – 12 November 1035), also known as Canute—whose father was Sweyn Forkbeard (which gave him the patronym Sweynsson, Sveinsson)—was King of Denmark, England and Norway; together often referred to as the North Sea Empire.
A co-production is a joint venture between two or more different production companies for the purpose of film production, television production, video game development, and so on.
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard.
Coel (Old Welsh: Coil) or Coel Hen ("Coel the Old") is a figure prominent in Welsh literature and legend since the Middle Ages.
Common Brittonic was an ancient Celtic language spoken in Britain.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
The Commonwealth Games are an international multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations.
The Commonwealth was the period from 1649 to 1660 when England and Wales, later along with Ireland and Scotland, was ruled as a republic following the end of the Second English Civil War and the trial and execution of Charles I. The republic's existence was declared through "An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth", adopted by the Rump Parliament on 19 May 1649.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
A comprehensive school is a secondary school that is a state school and does not select its intake on the basis of academic achievement or aptitude, in contrast to the selective school system, where admission is restricted on the basis of selection criteria.
Congregational churches (also Congregationalist churches; Congregationalism) are Protestant churches in the Reformed tradition practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs.
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.
The Cooper's Hill Cheese-Rolling and Wake is an annual event held on the Spring Bank Holiday at Cooper's Hill, near Gloucester in England.
Cornish (Kernowek) is a revived language that became extinct as a first language in the late 18th century.
The Cornish people or Cornish (Kernowyon) are an ethnic group native to, or associated with Cornwall: and a recognised national minority in the United Kingdom, which can trace its roots to the ancient Britons who inhabited southern and central Great Britain before the Roman conquest.
Cornwall (Kernow) is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom.
A coronation anthem is a piece of choral music written to accompany the coronation of a monarch.
The coronation of the British monarch is a ceremony (specifically, initiation rite) in which the monarch of the United Kingdom is formally invested with regalia and crowned at Westminster Abbey.
The Corpus Aristotelicum is the collection of Aristotle's works that have survived from antiquity through medieval manuscript transmission.
The Cotswolds is an area in south central England containing the Cotswold Hills, a range of rolling hills which rise from the meadows of the upper Thames to an escarpment, known as the Cotswold Edge, above the Severn Valley and Evesham Vale.
The United Kingdom (UK) comprises four countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.
A country is a region that is identified as a distinct national entity in political geography.
The County Championship, currently known as the Specsavers County Championship for sponsorship reasons, is the domestic first-class cricket competition in England and Wales and is organised by the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB).
A county council is the elected administrative body governing an area known as a county.
The Court of Appeal (COA, formally "Her Majesty's Court of Appeal in England") is the highest court within the Senior Courts of England and Wales, and second only to the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom.
The Courts of England and Wales, supported administratively by Her Majesty's Courts and Tribunals Service, are the civil and criminal courts responsible for the administration of justice in England and Wales.
Covent Garden is a district in Greater London, on the eastern fringes of the West End, between Charing Cross Road and Drury Lane.
Coventry is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England.
Creswell Crags is an enclosed limestone gorge on the border between Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire, England, near the villages of Creswell and Whitwell.
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular pitch with a target at each end called the wicket (a set of three wooden stumps upon which two bails sit).
The ICC Cricket World Cup is the international championship of One Day International (ODI) cricket.
The Crown Court of England and Wales is, together with the High Court of Justice and the Court of Appeal, one of the constituent parts of the Senior Courts of England and Wales.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
Cue sports (sometimes written cuesports), also known as billiard sports, are a wide variety of games of skill generally played with a cue stick, which is used to strike billiard balls and thereby cause them to move around a cloth-covered billiards table bounded by elastic bumpers known as.
Culham is a village and civil parish in a bend of the River Thames, south of Abingdon in Oxfordshire.
The culture of ancient Rome existed throughout almost 1200-year history of the civilization of Ancient Rome.
Cumbria is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in North West England.
Curry (sometimes, plural curries) is an umbrella term referring to a number of dishes originating in the cuisine of the Indian subcontinent.
Custard is a variety of culinary preparations based on a cooked mixture of milk or cream and egg yolk.
Cuthbert (c. 634 – 20 March 687) is a saint of the early Northumbrian church in the Celtic tradition.
Cyril Walker (September 18, 1892 – August 6, 1948) was an English professional golfer born in Manchester who emigrated to the United States in 1914.
Herman Melville, Friedrich Nietzsche, Arthur Schopenhauer, Lev Shestov, Walt Whitman | influenced.
Damon Graham Devereux Hill, (born 17 September 1960) is a British former racing driver.
Dance music is music composed specifically to facilitate or accompany dancing.
The Danelaw (also known as the Danelagh; Dena lagu; Danelagen), as recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, is a historical name given to the part of England in which the laws of the Danes held sway and dominated those of the Anglo-Saxons.
The Danes were a North Germanic tribe inhabiting southern Scandinavia, including the area now comprising Denmark proper, during the Nordic Iron Age and the Viking Age.
Daniel Wroughton Craig (born 2 March 1968) is an English actor. He trained at the National Youth Theatre and graduated from the Guildhall School of Music and Drama in 1991, before beginning his career on stage. His film debut was in the drama The Power of One (1992). Other early appearances were in the historical television war drama Sharpe's Eagle (1993), Disney family film A Kid in King Arthur's Court (1995), the drama serial Our Friends in the North (1996) and the biographical film Elizabeth (1998). Craig's appearances in the British television film Love Is the Devil: Study for a Portrait of Francis Bacon (1998), the indie war film The Trench (1999), and the drama Some Voices (2000) attracted the film industry's attention. This led to roles in bigger productions such as the action film Lara Croft: Tomb Raider (2001), the crime thriller Road to Perdition (2002), the crime thriller Layer Cake (2004), and the Steven Spielberg historical drama Munich (2005). Craig achieved international fame when chosen as the sixth actor to play the role of Ian Fleming's British secret agent character James Bond in the film series, taking over from Pierce Brosnan in 2005. His debut film as Bond, Casino Royale, was released internationally in November 2006 and was highly acclaimed, earning him a BAFTA award nomination. Casino Royale became the highest-grossing in the series at the time. Quantum of Solace followed two years later. Craig's third Bond film, Skyfall, premiered in 2012 and is currently the highest-grossing film in the series and the fifteenth highest-grossing film of all time; it was also the highest-grossing film in the United Kingdom until 2015. Craig's fourth Bond film, Spectre, premiered in 2015. He also made a guest appearance as Bond in the opening ceremony of the London 2012 Olympic Games, alongside Queen Elizabeth II. Since taking the role of Bond, Craig has continued to star in other films, including the fantasy film The Golden Compass (2007), World War II film Defiance (2008), science fiction western Cowboys & Aliens (2011), the English-language adaptation of Stieg Larsson's mystery thriller The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo (2011), and the heist film Logan Lucky (2017).
Sir Daniel Michael Blake Day-Lewis (born 29 April 1957) is a retired English actor who holds both British and Irish citizenship.
Gabriel Charles Dante Rossetti (12 May 1828 – 9 April 1882), generally known as Dante Gabriel Rossetti, was a British poet, illustrator, painter and translator, and a member of the Rossetti family.
The "Dark Ages" is a historical periodization traditionally referring to the Middle Ages, that asserts that a demographic, cultural, and economic deterioration occurred in Western Europe following the decline of the Roman Empire.
Dartmoor is a moor in southern Devon, England.
Darts is a sport in which small missiles/torpedoes/arrows/darts are thrown at a circular dartboard fixed to a wall.
David Deron Haye (born 13 October 1980) is a British former professional boxer who competed from 2002 to 2018.
Sir David Lean, CBE (25 March 190816 April 1991) was an English film director, producer, screenwriter and editor, responsible for large-scale epics such as The Bridge on the River Kwai (1957), Lawrence of Arabia (1962), Doctor Zhivago (1965) and A Passage to India (1984).
David Yates (born) is an English filmmaker who has directed feature films, short films, and television productions.
The Davis Cup is the premier international team event in men's tennis.
Decolonization (American English) or decolonisation (British English) is the undoing of colonialism: where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over one or more other territories.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Canada, including population density, ethnicity, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population, the People of Canada.
The demography of Australia covers basic statistics, most populous cities, ethnicity and religion.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
The Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) was a ministerial department of the United Kingdom Government created on 5 June 2009 by the merger of the Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills (DIUS) and the Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform (BERR).
The Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) is a department of the United Kingdom government, with responsibility for culture and sport in England, and some aspects of the media throughout the whole UK, such as broadcasting and internet.
The Department for Education (DfE) is a department of Her Majesty's Government responsible for child protection, education (compulsory, further and higher education), apprenticeships and wider skills in England.
The Department for Transport (DfT) is the government department responsible for the English transport network and a limited number of transport matters in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland that have not been devolved.
The Department of Health and Social Care (DHSC) is a department of Her Majesty's Government, responsible for government policy on health and adult social care matters in England, along with a few elements of the same matters which are not otherwise devolved to the Scottish Government, Welsh Government or Northern Ireland Executive.
Derby is a city and unitary authority area in Derbyshire, England.
Derbyshire is a county in the East Midlands of England.
The Devil's Arrows are three standing stones or menhirs in an alignment erected near where the A1 road now crosses the River Ure at Boroughbridge in North Yorkshire, England.
Devolution is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to govern at a subnational level, such as a regional or local level.
A devolved English parliament or assembly is a proposed institution that would give separate decision-making powers to representatives for voters in England, similar to the representation given by the National Assembly for Wales, Scottish Parliament and the Northern Ireland Assembly.
Richard "Dick" Turpin (bapt. 21 September 1705 – 7 April 1739) was an English highwayman whose exploits were romanticised following his execution in York for horse theft.
The divine right of kings, divine right, or God's mandate is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy.
Doctor of the Church (Latin doctor "teacher") is a title given by the Catholic Church to saints whom they recognize as having been of particular importance, particularly regarding their contribution to theology or doctrine.
The Doge of Genoa (Ligurian: Dûxe, pron. /'dy:ʒe/; Januensium dux et populi defensor, "Commander of the Genoese and Defender of the People") was the ruler of the Republic of Genoa, a communal republic, from 1339 until the state's extinction in 1797.
Domesday Book (or; Latin: Liber de Wintonia "Book of Winchester") is a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William the Conqueror.
A double-decker bus is a bus that has two storeys or decks.
A double-track railway usually involves running one track in each direction, compared to a single-track railway where trains in both directions share the same track.
A drop kick is a type of kick in various codes of football.
Druidry, sometimes termed Druidism, is a modern spiritual or religious movement that generally promotes harmony, connection, and reverence for the natural world.
Drum and bass (also written as "drum 'n' bass" or "drum & bass"; commonly abbreviated as "D&B", "DnB" or "D'n'B"), is a genre and branch of electronic music which emerged from rave and jungle scenes in Britain during the early 1990s.
Dubstep is a genre of electronic dance music that originated in South London in the late 1990s.
The Duchy of Aquitaine (Ducat d'Aquitània,, Duché d'Aquitaine) was a historical fiefdom in western, central and southern areas of present-day France to the south of the Loire River, although its extent, as well as its name, fluctuated greatly over the centuries, at times comprising much of what is now southwestern France (Gascony) and central France.
Dudley is a large town in the county of West Midlands, England, south-east of Wolverhampton and north-west of Birmingham.
Durham Castle is a Norman castle in the city of Durham, England, which has been wholly occupied since 1840 by University College, Durham.
The Cathedral Church of Christ, Blessed Mary the Virgin and St Cuthbert of Durham, commonly known as Durham Cathedral and home of the Shrine of St Cuthbert, is a cathedral in the city of Durham, United Kingdom, the seat of the Anglican Bishop of Durham.
The Dutch Empire (Het Nederlandse Koloniale Rijk) comprised the overseas colonies, enclaves, and outposts controlled and administered by Dutch chartered companies, mainly the Dutch West India and the Dutch East India Company, and subsequently by the Dutch Republic (1581–1795), and the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands since 1815.
In Germanic mythology, a dwarf is a human-shaped entity that dwells in mountains and in the earth, and is variously associated with wisdom, smithing, mining, and crafting.
Eadred (also Edred) (923 – 23 November 955) was King of the English from 946 until his death.
Ealing Studios is a television and film production company and facilities provider at Ealing Green in west London.
Early Christian art and architecture or Paleochristian art is the art produced by Christians or under Christian patronage from the earliest period of Christianity to, depending on the definition used, sometime between 260 and 525.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
Early Modern English, Early New English (sometimes abbreviated to EModE, EMnE or EME) is the stage of the English language from the beginning of the Tudor period to the English Interregnum and Restoration, or from the transition from Middle English, in the late 15th century, to the transition to Modern English, in the mid-to-late 17th century.
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.
The Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) is a term defined in Section 39 of the British government's Childcare Act 2006.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
The East Midlands is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes.
The East of England is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes.
Eastleigh is a town in Hampshire, England, between Southampton and Winchester in South Hampshire.
Ebenezer Cobb Morley (16 August 1831 – 20 November 1924) was an English sportsman and is regarded as the father of the Football Association and modern football.
Eboracum (Latin /ebo'rakum/, English or) was a fort and city in the Roman province of Britannia.
An Eccles cake is a small, round cake filled with currants and made from flaky pastry with butter, sometimes topped with demerara sugar.
The Ecclesiastical History of the English People (Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum), written by the Venerable Bede in about AD 731, is a history of the Christian Churches in England, and of England generally; its main focus is on the conflict between the pre-Schism Roman Rite and Celtic Christianity.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
The economy of the United Kingdom is highly developed and market-oriented.
Edgar Ætheling (also spelt Æþeling, Aetheling, Atheling or Etheling) or Edgar II (c. 1051 – c. 1126) was the last male member of the royal house of Cerdic of Wessex (see House of Wessex family tree).
Edgmond is a village in the borough of Telford and Wrekin and ceremonial county of Shropshire, England.
The Edict of Expulsion was a royal decree issued by King Edward I of England on 18 July 1290, expelling all Jews from the Kingdom of England.
Edmund Burke (12 January 17309 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman born in Dublin, as well as an author, orator, political theorist and philosopher, who after moving to London in 1750 served as a member of parliament (MP) between 1766 and 1794 in the House of Commons with the Whig Party.
Edmund Spenser (1552/1553 – 13 January 1599) was an English poet best known for The Faerie Queene, an epic poem and fantastical allegory celebrating the Tudor dynasty and Elizabeth I. He is recognized as one of the premier craftsmen of nascent Modern English verse, and is often considered one of the greatest poets in the English language.
Edmund the Martyr (also known as St Edmund or Edmund of East Anglia, died 20 November 869) was king of East Anglia from about 855 until his death.
Sir Edward William Elgar, 1st Baronet (2 June 1857 – 23 February 1934) was an English composer, many of whose works have entered the British and international classical concert repertoire.
Edward I (17/18 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots (Malleus Scotorum), was King of England from 1272 to 1307.
Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from January 1327 until his death; he is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II.
Edward Jenner, FRS FRCPE (17 May 1749 – 26 January 1823) was an English physician and scientist who was the pioneer of smallpox vaccine, the world's first vaccine.
Edward the Confessor (Ēadƿeard Andettere, Eduardus Confessor; 1003 – 5 January 1066), also known as Saint Edward the Confessor, was among the last Anglo-Saxon kings of England.
An electric light is a device that produces visible light from electric current.
An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
The eleven-plus (11-plus) is an examination administered to some students in England and Northern Ireland in their last year of primary education, which governs admission to grammar schools and other secondary schools which use academic selection.
An elf (plural: elves) is a type of human-shaped supernatural being in Germanic mythology and folklore.
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
The Elizabethan era is the epoch in the Tudor period of the history of England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558–1603).
Elizabethan literature refers to bodies of work produced during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558–1603), and is one of the most splendid ages of English literature.
Dame Ellen Patricia MacArthur, DBE (born 8 July 1976) is a retired English sailor, from Whatstandwell near Matlock in Derbyshire, now based in Cowes, Isle of Wight.
Elstree Studios is a generic term which can refer to several current and defunct British film studios and television studios based in or around the towns of Borehamwood and Elstree in Hertfordshire.
Sir Elton Hercules John (born Reginald Kenneth Dwight; 25 March 1947) is an English singer, pianist, and composer.
Ely is a cathedral city in Cambridgeshire, England, about north-northeast of Cambridge and about by road from London.
Emma Charlotte Duerre Watson (born 15 April 1990) is an English actress, model, and activist.
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
Microsoft Encarta was a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation from 1993 to 2009.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The end of Roman rule in Britain was the transition from Roman Britain to post-Roman Britain.
England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom.
The England cricket team represents England and Wales (and, until 1992, also Scotland) in international cricket.
The England national football team represents England in international football and is controlled by The Football Association, the governing body for football in England.
The England national rugby league team represents England in international rugby league.
The England national rugby union team competes in the annual Six Nations Championship with France, Ireland, Scotland, Italy, and Wales.
The England–Wales border, sometimes the Wales–England border or the Anglo-Welsh border, is the border between England and Wales, two constituent countries of the United Kingdom.
English Americans, also referred to as Anglo-Americans, are Americans whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England, a country that is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
English as a second or foreign language is the use of English by speakers with different native languages.
English Baroque is a term sometimes used to refer to the developments in English architecture that were parallel to the evolution of Baroque architecture in continental Europe between the Great Fire of London (1666) and the Treaty of Utrecht (1713).
English Canadians or Anglo-Canadians (Canadiens anglais) refers to either Canadians of English ethnic origin and heritage, or to English-speaking, or Anglophone, Canadians of any ethnic origin; it is used primarily in contrast with French Canadians.
The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
English Chileans (Spanish: Anglochilenos) are citizens of Chile who are descended from English people who have emigrated.
The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.
The English Football League (EFL) is a league competition featuring professional football clubs from England and Wales.
English Gothic is an architectural style originating in France, before then flourishing in England from about 1180 until about 1520.
English Heritage (officially the English Heritage Trust) is a registered charity that manages the National Heritage Collection.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
English law is the common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.
The English Lowlands beech forests are a terrestrial ecoregion in Northern Europe, as defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and the European Environment Agency (EEA).
English nationalism is the nationalism that asserts that the English are a nation and promotes the cultural unity of English people.
The English are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn ("family of the Angles"). Their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens. Historically, the English population is descended from several peoples the earlier Celtic Britons (or Brythons) and the Germanic tribes that settled in Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans, including Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become England (from the Old English Englaland) along with the later Danes, Anglo-Normans and other groups. In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain. Over the years, English customs and identity have become fairly closely aligned with British customs and identity in general. Today many English people have recent forebears from other parts of the United Kingdom, while some are also descended from more recent immigrants from other European countries and from the Commonwealth. The English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system, the common law system and numerous major sports such as cricket, football, rugby union, rugby league and tennis. These and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire.
The English Reformation was a series of events in 16th century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church.
The English Renaissance was a cultural and artistic movement in England dating from the late 15th century to the early 17th century.
Enid Mary Blyton (11 August 1897 – 28 November 1968) was an English children's writer whose books have been among the world's best-sellers since the 1930s, selling more than 600 million copies.
Equestrianism (from Latin equester, equestr-, equus, horseman, horse), more often known as riding, horse riding (British English) or horseback riding (American English), refers to the skill of riding, driving, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses.
ESPNcricinfo (formerly known as Cricinfo or CricInfo) is a sports news website exclusively for the game of cricket.
Eton College is an English independent boarding school for boys in Eton, Berkshire, near Windsor.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
The European Champion Clubs' Cup, also known as Coupe des Clubs Champions Européens, or simply the European Cup, is a trophy awarded annually by UEFA to the football club that wins the UEFA Champions League.
The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The United Kingdom's component of the 2014 European Parliament election was held on Thursday 22 May 2014, coinciding with the 2014 local elections in England and Northern Ireland.
The European Rugby Champions Cup (known as the Heineken Champions Cup for sponsorship reasons) is an annual rugby union tournament organised by European Professional Club Rugby (EPCR).
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Excalibur, or Caliburn, is the legendary sword of King Arthur, sometimes also attributed with magical powers or associated with the rightful sovereignty of Britain.
Exmoor is loosely defined as an area of hilly open moorland in west Somerset and north Devon in South West England.
The FA Cup, known officially as The Football Association Challenge Cup, is an annual knockout football competition in men's domestic English football.
Fairleigh Dickinson University Press (FDU Press) is a publishing house under the operation and oversight of Fairleigh Dickinson University, the largest private university in New Jersey with international campuses in Vancouver, British Columbia and Wroxton, Oxfordshire.
A faith school is a school in the United Kingdom that teaches a general curriculum but which has a particular religious character or formal links with a religious organisation.
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.
Fareham is a market town at the north-west tip of Portsmouth Harbour, between the cities of Portsmouth and Southampton in the south east of Hampshire, England.
The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA; French for "International Federation of Association Football") is an association which describes itself as an international governing body of association football, futsal, and beach soccer.
A film score (also sometimes called background score, background music, film soundtrack, film music, or incidental music) is original music written specifically to accompany a film.
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
Fireworks are a class of low explosive pyrotechnic devices used for aesthetic and entertainment purposes.
Fish and chips is a hot dish of English origin consisting of fried battered fish and hot potato chips.
The flag of England is derived from St George's Cross (heraldic blazon: Argent, a cross gules).
The folk music of England is tradition-based music, which has existed since the later medieval period.
Folkestone is a port town on the English Channel, in Kent, south-east England.
A foreign language is a language originally from another country.
Formula One (also Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) and owned by the Formula One Group.
A four-centred arch, also known as a depressed arch or Tudor arch, is a low, wide type of arch with a pointed apex.
Fox hunting is an activity involving the tracking, chase and, if caught, the killing of a fox, traditionally a red fox, by trained foxhounds or other scent hounds, and a group of unarmed followers led by a "master of foxhounds" ("master of hounds"), who follow the hounds on foot or on horseback.
Framestore is a British visual effects company based near Oxford Street in London.
The Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (FCNM) is a multilateral treaty of the Council of Europe aimed at protecting the rights of minorities.
Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, (22 January 15619 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author.
Sir Francis Charles Chichester KBE (17 September 1901 – 26 August 1972) was a pioneering aviator and solo sailor.
Francis Harry Compton Crick (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004) was a British molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist, most noted for being a co-discoverer of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953 with James Watson, work which was based partly on fundamental studies done by Rosalind Franklin, Raymond Gosling and Maurice Wilkins.
See Francis Johnston (architect) for Irish architect of similar name. Francis Frederick Johnson CBE, (18 April 1911 – 29 September 1995), was an English architect, born in Bridlington in the East Riding of Yorkshire.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.
Franklin Roy "Frank" Bruno, (born 16 November 1961) is a British former professional boxer who competed from 1982 to 1996.
Air Commodore Sir Frank Whittle (1 June 1907 – 9 August 1996) was a British Royal Air Force air officer.
Fred Perry (18 May 1909 – 2 February 1995) was a British tennis and table tennis player from England and former World No. 1 who won 10 Majors including eight Grand Slams and two Pro Slams single titles, as well as six Major doubles titles.
Sir Frederick William Mallandaine Ashton (17 September 190418 August 1988) was a British ballet dancer and choreographer.
Frederick Theodore Albert Delius, CH (29 January 186210 June 1934) was an English composer.
In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
A full breakfast is a breakfast meal that typically includes bacon, sausages, eggs and a beverage such as coffee or tea.
Further education (often abbreviated FE) in the United Kingdom and Ireland is education in addition to that received at secondary school, that is distinct from the higher education (HE) offered in universities and other academic institutions.
George Douglas Howard Cole (25 September 1889 – 14 January 1959) was an English political theorist, economist, writer and historian.
Godfrey Harold Hardy (7 February 1877 – 1 December 1947) was an English mathematician, known for his achievements in number theory and mathematical analysis.
Gilbert Keith Chesterton, KC*SG (29 May 1874 – 14 June 1936), was an English writer, poet, philosopher, dramatist, journalist, orator, lay theologian, biographer, and literary and art critic.
The Gaels (Na Gaeil, Na Gàidheil, Ny Gaeil) are an ethnolinguistic group native to northwestern Europe.
Gary Leonard OldmanBirths, Marriages & Deaths Index of England & Wales, 1916–2005. (born 21 March 1958) is an English actor and filmmaker who has performed in theatre, film and television.
Gateshead is a town in Tyne and Wear, England, on the southern bank of the River Tyne opposite Newcastle upon Tyne.
The A Level (Advanced Level) is a subject-based qualification conferred as part of the General Certificate of Education, as well as a school leaving qualification offered by the educational bodies in the United Kingdom and the educational authorities of British Crown dependencies to students completing secondary or pre-university education.
The General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) is an academic qualification, generally taken in a number of subjects by pupils in secondary education in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
Geoffrey Ernest Duke (29 March 1923 – 1 May 2015) was a British multiple motorcycle Grand Prix road racing world champion.
Sir Geoffrey Charles Hurst (born 8 December 1941) is a former England international footballer.
Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1343 – 25 October 1400), known as the Father of English literature, is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages.
Geoffrey of Monmouth (Galfridus Monemutensis, Galfridus Arturus, Gruffudd ap Arthur, Sieffre o Fynwy; c. 1095 – c. 1155) was a British cleric and one of the major figures in the development of British historiography and the popularity of tales of King Arthur.
The Geography (Γεωγραφικὴ Ὑφήγησις, Geōgraphikḕ Hyphḗgēsis, "Geographical Guidance"), also known by its Latin names as the Geographia and the Cosmographia, is a gazetteer, an atlas, and a treatise on cartography, compiling the geographical knowledge of the 2nd-century Roman Empire.
The United Kingdom is a sovereign state located off the north-western coast of continental Europe.
George Boole (2 November 1815 – 8 December 1864) was a largely self-taught English mathematician, philosopher and logician, most of whose short career was spent as the first professor of mathematics at Queen's College, Cork in Ireland.
Mary Anne Evans (22 November 1819 – 22 December 1880; alternatively "Mary Ann" or "Marian"), known by her pen name George Eliot, was an English novelist, poet, journalist, translator, and one of the leading writers of the Victorian era.
George Frideric (or Frederick) Handel (born italic; 23 February 1685 (O.S.) – 14 April 1759) was a German, later British, Baroque composer who spent the bulk of his career in London, becoming well-known for his operas, oratorios, anthems, and organ concertos.
George II (George Augustus; Georg II.; 30 October / 9 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 (O.S.) until his death in 1760.
George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.
Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950), better known by his pen name George Orwell, was an English novelist, essayist, journalist and critic whose work is marked by lucid prose, awareness of social injustice, opposition to totalitarianism and outspoken support of democratic socialism.
George Stephenson (9 June 1781 – 12 August 1848) was a British civil engineer and mechanical engineer.
Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1714 and 1830.
The Georgian era is a period in British history from 1714 to, named eponymously after kings George I, George II, George III and George IV.
The Germania, written by the Roman historian Publius Cornelius Tacitus around 98 and originally entitled On the Origin and Situation of the Germans (De Origine et situ Germanorum), was a historical and ethnographic work on the Germanic tribes outside the Roman Empire.
The Germanic peoples underwent gradual Christianization in the course of late antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Germans have been coming to live in the United Kingdom for hundreds of years.
The Germany national football team (deutsche Fußballnationalmannschaft or Die Mannschaft) is the men's football team that has represented Germany in international competition since 1908.
Giants (from Latin and Ancient Greek: "gigas", cognate giga-) are beings of human appearance, but prodigious size and strength common in the mythology and legends of many different cultures.
GKN plc is a British multinational automotive and aerospace components company headquartered in Redditch, Worcestershire.
Glam rock is a style of rock that developed in the United Kingdom in the early 1970s performed by musicians who wore outrageous costumes, makeup, and hairstyles, particularly platform shoes and glitter.
Glastonbury Festival is a five-day festival of contemporary performing arts that takes place near Pilton, Somerset, England.
A global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, is a city which is a primary node in the global economic network.
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.
The Go-Ahead Group plc is a provider of passenger transport in the UK, with over one billion journeys made on its bus and trains services each year.
A goblin is a monstrous creature from European folklore, first attested in stories from the Middle Ages.
God Rest You Merry, Gentlemen is an English traditional Christmas carol.
"God Save the Queen" (alternatively "God Save the King", depending on the gender of the reigning monarch) is the national or royal anthem in a number of Commonwealth realms, their territories, and the British Crown dependencies.
Sir Godfrey Kneller, 1st Baronet (born Gottfried Kniller; 8 August 1646 – 19 October 1723), was the leading portrait painter in England during the late 17th and early 18th centuries, and was court painter to English and British monarchs from Charles II to George I. His major works include The Chinese Convert (1687; Royal Collection, London); a series of four portraits of Isaac Newton painted at various junctures of the latter's life; a series of ten reigning European monarchs, including King Louis XIV of France; over 40 "kit-cat portraits" of members of the Kit-Cat Club; and ten "beauties" of the court of William III, to match a similar series of ten beauties of the court of Charles II painted by his predecessor as court painter, Sir Peter Lely.
Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible.
Golf in Scotland was first recorded in the 15th century, and the modern game of golf was first developed and established in the country.
Gosport is a town in Hampshire on the south coast of England.
Gothic art was a style of medieval art that developed in Northern France out of Romanesque art in the 12th century AD, led by the concurrent development of Gothic architecture.
Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic or neo-Gothic) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England.
Gothic rock (alternately called goth-rock or goth) is a style of rock music that emerged from post-punk in the late 1970s.
There has not been a government of England since 1707 when the Kingdom of England ceased to exist as a sovereign state, as it merged with the Kingdom of Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Government Offices for the English Regions (GOs) were established in 1994 by the John Major administration.
Norman Graham Hill (15 February 1929 – 29 November 1975) was a British racing driver and team owner from England, who was twice Formula One World Champion.
A grammar school is one of several different types of school in the history of education in the United Kingdom and other English-speaking countries, originally a school teaching Latin, but more recently an academically-oriented secondary school, differentiated in recent years from less academic Secondary Modern Schools.
The Grand National is a National Hunt horse race held annually at Aintree Racecourse in Liverpool, England.
Grand Prix motorcycle racing refers to the premier class of motorcycle racing events held on road circuits sanctioned by FIM.
The Grand Slam tournaments, also called majors, are the four most important annual tennis events.
Gravy is a sauce often made from the juices of meats that run naturally during cooking and thickened with wheat flour or cornstarch for added texture.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
The Great Britain Davis Cup team is the men's national tennis team and has represented the United Kingdom internationally since 1900.
The Great Britain national rugby league team represents Great Britain in rugby league.
The Great Fire of London was a major conflagration that swept through the central parts of the English city of London from Sunday, 2 September to Thursday, 6 of September 1666.
The Great Western Railway (GWR) was a British railway company that linked London with the south-west and west of England, the Midlands, and most of Wales.
Greater London is a region of England which forms the administrative boundaries of London, as well as a county for the purposes of the lieutenancies.
The Greater London Authority referendum of 1998 was a referendum held in Greater London on 7 May 1998, asking whether there was support for the creation of a Greater London Authority, composed of a directly elected Mayor of London and a London Assembly to scrutinise the Mayor's actions.
The Greater London Built-up Area, or Greater London Urban Area, is a conurbation in south-east England that constitutes the continuous urban area of London and includes surrounding adjacent urban towns as defined by the Office for National Statistics.
The Greater Manchester Built-up Area is an area of land defined by the Office for National Statistics (ONS), consisting of the large conurbation that encompasses the urban element of the city of Manchester and the continuous metropolitan area that spreads outwards from it, forming much of Greater Manchester in North West England.
The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It is also better known as the Classical Civilisation. In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e. one wherein the cultural perceptions, ideas and sensitivities of these peoples were dominant. This process was aided by the universal adoption of Greek as the language of intellectual culture and commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and of Latin as the tongue for public management and forensic advocacy, especially in the Western Mediterranean. Though the Greek and the Latin never became the native idioms of the rural peasants who composed the great majority of the empire's population, they were the languages of the urbanites and cosmopolitan elites, and the lingua franca, even if only as corrupt or multifarious dialects to those who lived within the large territories and populations outside the Macedonian settlements and the Roman colonies. All Roman citizens of note and accomplishment regardless of their ethnic extractions, spoke and wrote in Greek and/or Latin, such as the Roman jurist and Imperial chancellor Ulpian who was of Phoenician origin, the mathematician and geographer Claudius Ptolemy who was of Greco-Egyptian origin and the famous post-Constantinian thinkers John Chrysostom and Augustine who were of Syrian and Berber origins, respectively, and the historian Josephus Flavius who was of Jewish origin and spoke and wrote in Greek.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Green Party of England and Wales (GPEW; Plaid Werdd Cymru a Lloegr) is a green, left-wing political party in England and Wales.
"Greensleeves" is a traditional English folk song and tune, over a ground either of the form called a romanesca; or its slight variant, the passamezzo antico; or the passamezzo antico in its verses and the romanesca in its reprise; or of the Andalusian progression in its verses and the romanesca or passamezzo antico in its reprise.
The Gregorian missionJones "Gregorian Mission" Speculum p. 335 or Augustinian missionMcGowan "Introduction to the Corpus" Companion to Anglo-Saxon Literature p. 17 was a Christian mission sent by Pope Gregory the Great in 596 to convert Britain's Anglo-Saxons.
Greyhound racing is an organized, competitive sport in which greyhound dogs are raced around a track.
Guild socialism is a political movement advocating workers' control of industry through the medium of trade-related guilds "in an implied contractual relationship with the public".
Gujarati (ગુજરાતી) is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat.
The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension the North Atlantic Drift, is a warm and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and stretches to the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean.
The Gunpowder Plot of 1605, in earlier centuries often called the Gunpowder Treason Plot or the Jesuit Treason, was a failed assassination attempt against King James I of England and VI of Scotland by a group of provincial English Catholics led by Robert Catesby.
Gustav Theodore Holst (born Gustavus Theodore von Holst; 21 September 1874 – 25 May 1934) was an English composer, arranger and teacher.
Guy Fawkes (13 April 1570 – 31 January 1606), also known as Guido Fawkes, the name he adopted while fighting for the Spanish, was a member of a group of provincial English Catholics who planned the failed Gunpowder Plot of 1605.
Guy Fawkes Night, also known as Guy Fawkes Day, Bonfire Night and Firework Night, is an annual commemoration observed on 5 November, primarily in Great Britain.
Guy Ritchie (born 10 September 1968) is an English filmmaker known for his crime films.
Herbert George Wells.
Hadrian's Wall (Vallum Aelium), also called the Roman Wall, Picts' Wall, or Vallum Hadriani in Latin, was a defensive fortification in the Roman province of Britannia, begun in AD 122 in the reign of the emperor Hadrian.
A hagiography is a biography of a saint or an ecclesiastical leader.
Halifax is a minster town in the Metropolitan Borough of Calderdale in West Yorkshire, England.
The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Western and Central European culture of Early Iron Age Europe from the 8th to 6th centuries BC, developing out of the Urnfield culture of the 12th century BC (Late Bronze Age) and followed in much of its area by the La Tène culture.
The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, often shortened to Hamlet, is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare at an uncertain date between 1599 and 1602.
Hans Holbein the Younger (Hans Holbein der Jüngere) (– between 7 October and 29 November 1543) was a German artist and printmaker who worked in a Northern Renaissance style, known as one of the greatest portraitists of the 16th century.
Hard rock is a loosely defined subgenre of rock music that began in the mid-1960s, with the garage, psychedelic and blues rock movements.
Harrow School is an independent boarding school for boys in Harrow, London, England.
Harry Potter is a British-American film series based on the Harry Potter novels by author J. K. Rowling.
A hat-trick or hat trick is the achievement of a positive feat three times in a game, or another achievement based on the number three.
Havant is a town in the south east corner of Hampshire, England approximately midway between Portsmouth and Chichester.
Heathenry, also termed Heathenism or Germanic Neopaganism, is a modern Pagan religion.
Heathrow Airport (also known as London Heathrow) is a major international airport in London, United Kingdom.
Heavy metal (or simply metal) is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom.
Dame Helen Lydia Mirren, (born 26 July 1945) is an English actor.
Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also partially controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany.
Henry Spencer Moore (30 July 1898 – 31 August 1986) was an English artist.
Henry Purcell (or; c. 10 September 1659According to Holman and Thompson (Grove Music Online, see References) there is uncertainty regarding the year and day of birth. No record of baptism has been found. The year 1659 is based on Purcell's memorial tablet in Westminster Abbey and the frontispiece of his Sonnata's of III. Parts (London, 1683). The day 10 September is based on vague inscriptions in the manuscript GB-Cfm 88. It may also be relevant that he was appointed to his first salaried post on 10 September 1677, which would have been his eighteenth birthday. – 21 November 1695) was an English composer.
Henry V (9 August 1386 – 31 August 1422) was King of England from 1413 until his death at the age of 36 in 1422.
Henry VII (Harri Tudur; 28 January 1457 – 21 April 1509) was the King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizure of the crown on 22 August 1485 to his death on 21 April 1509.
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.
Her Majesty's Prison Service is a part of Her Majesty's Prison and Probation Service (formerly the National Offender Management Service), which is the part of Her Majesty's Government tasked with managing most of the prisons within England and Wales.
Lieutenant-Colonel Herbert George "Blondie" Hasler (27 February 1914 – 5 May 1987) was a Lieutenant Colonel in the Royal Marines.
Hereward the Wake (pronounced /ˈhɛrɪwəd/) (c. 1035 – c.1072), (also known as Hereward the Outlaw or Hereward the Exile), was an Anglo-Saxon nobleman and a leader of local resistance to the Norman Conquest of England.
In English folklore, Herne the Hunter is a ghost associated with Windsor Forest and Great Park in the English county of Berkshire.
"Hey Diddle Diddle" (also "Hi Diddle Diddle", "The Cat and the Fiddle", or "The Cow Jumped Over the Moon") is an English nursery rhyme.
The term "high church" refers to beliefs and practices of ecclesiology, liturgy, and theology, generally with an emphasis on formality and resistance to "modernisation." Although used in connection with various Christian traditions, the term originated in and has been principally associated with the Anglican/Episcopal tradition, where it describes Anglican churches using a number of ritual practices associated in the popular mind with Roman Catholicism.
The High Court of Justice is, together with the Court of Appeal and the Crown Court, one of the Senior Courts of England and Wales.
The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 AD and lasted until around 1250 AD.
A high sheriff is a ceremonial officer for each shrieval county of England and Wales and Northern Ireland or the chief sheriff of a number of paid sheriffs in U.S. states who outranks and commands the others in their court-related functions.
Joseph Hilaire Pierre René Belloc (27 July 187016 July 1953) was an Anglo-French writer and historian.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Historia regum Britanniae (The History of the Kings of Britain), originally called De gestis Britonum (On the Deeds of the Britons), is a pseudohistorical account of British history, written around 1136 by Geoffrey of Monmouth.
The early medieval history of Ireland, often called Early Christian Ireland, spans the 5th to 8th centuries, from the gradual emergence out of the protohistoric period (Ogham inscriptions in Primitive Irish, mentions in Greco-Roman ethnography) to the beginning of the Viking Age.
The British canal system of water transport played a vital role in the United Kingdom's Industrial Revolution at a time when roads were only just emerging from the medieval mud and long trains of packhorses were the only means of "mass" transit by road of raw materials and finished products.
The history of the cooperative movement concerns the origins and history of cooperatives.
Hockey is a sport in which two teams play against each other by trying to maneuver a ball or a puck into the opponent's goal using a hockey stick.
The Home Office (HO) is a ministerial department of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, responsible for immigration, security and law and order.
Homo antecessor is an extinct archaic human species (or subspecies) of the Lower Paleolithic, known to have been present in Western Europe (Spain, England and France) between about 1.2 million and 0.8 million years ago (Mya).
is a Japanese public multinational conglomerate corporation primarily known as a manufacturer of automobiles, aircraft, motorcycles, and power equipment.
Hooke's law is a principle of physics that states that the force needed to extend or compress a spring by some distance scales linearly with respect to that distance.
Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, 1st Duke of Bronté, (29 September 1758 – 21 October 1805) was a British flag officer in the Royal Navy.
Horndean is a village and civil parish in the East Hampshire district of Hampshire, England.
The hornpipe is any of several dance forms played and danced in Britain and Ireland and elsewhere from the 16th century until the present day.
Horse racing is an equestrian performance sport, typically involving two or more horses ridden by jockeys (or sometimes driven without riders) over a set distance for competition.
The House of Capet or the Direct Capetians (Capétiens directs, Maison capétienne), also called the House of France (la maison de France), or simply the Capets, ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Dunkeld, in Scottish Gaelic Dùn Chailleann (meaning Fort of the Caledonii or of the Caledonians), is a historiographical and genealogical construct to illustrate the clear succession of Scottish kings from 1034 to 1040 and from 1058 to 1290.
The House of Lancaster was the name of two cadet branches of the royal House of Plantagenet.
The House of Plantagenet was a royal house which originated from the lands of Anjou in France.
The House of Tudor was an English royal house of Welsh origin, descended in the male line from the Tudors of Penmynydd.
The House of Valois was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty.
The House of Wessex, also known as the House of Cerdic (Cerdicingas in Old English), refers to the family that initially ruled a kingdom in southwest England known as Wessex, from the 6th century under Cerdic of Wessex until the unification of the Kingdoms of England by Alfred the Great and his successors.
The House of York was a cadet branch of the English royal House of Plantagenet.
A hovercraft, also known as an air-cushion vehicle or ACV, is a craft capable of travelling over land, water, mud, ice, and other surfaces.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the standard markup language for creating web pages and web applications.
Huddersfield is a large market town in West Yorkshire, England.
The Huddersfield Giants are an English professional rugby league club from Huddersfield, West Yorkshire, the birthplace of rugby league, who play in the Super League competition.
Hull Football Club, commonly referred to as Hull or Hull F.C., is a professional rugby league football club established in 1865 and based in Hull, East Riding of Yorkshire, England.
Humpty Dumpty is a character in an English nursery rhyme, probably originally a riddle and one of the best known in the English-speaking world.
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France.
Huyton with Roby Urban District was a local government district in Lancashire, England from 1894 to 1974.
"I Vow to Thee, My Country" is a British patriotic hymn, created in 1921, when a poem by Sir Cecil Spring Rice was set to music by Gustav Holst.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
The ICC World Twenty20 (also referred to as the World T20, and colloquially as the T20 World Cup) is the international championship of Twenty20 International cricket.
An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than, this is also known as continental glacier.
The Iceni or Eceni were a Brittonic tribe of eastern Britain during the Iron Age and early Roman era.
Imperial College London (officially Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine) is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom.
In the United Kingdom, independent schools (also private schools) are fee-paying private schools, governed by an elected board of governors and independent of many of the regulations and conditions that apply to state-funded schools.
The Independent Schools Inspectorate (ISI) is an organisation responsible for the inspection of independent schools in England which are members of organisations affiliated to the Independent Schools Council (ISC).
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
Indie rock is a genre of rock music that originated in the United Kingdom in the 1970s.
An indigenous language or autochthonous language is a language that is native to a region and spoken by indigenous people, often reduced to the status of a minority language.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
The Institute for Public Policy Research (IPPR) is a left-wing think tank based in London.
Insular art, also known as Hiberno-Saxon art, is the style of art produced in the post-Roman history of Ireland and Britain.
The International Olympic Committee (IOC; French: Comité International Olympique, CIO) is a Swiss private non-governmental organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, which is the authority responsible for the modern Olympic Games.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was a state established in 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921.
Irish migration to Great Britain has occurred from the earliest recorded history to the present.
The Irish Sea (Muir Éireann / An Mhuir Mheann, Y Keayn Yernagh, Erse Sea, Muir Èireann, Ulster-Scots: Airish Sea, Môr Iwerddon) separates the islands of Ireland and Great Britain; linked to the Celtic Sea in the south by St George's Channel, and to the Inner Seas off the West Coast of Scotland in the north by the Straits of Moyle.
The Ironbridge Gorge is a deep gorge, containing the River Severn in Shropshire, England.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
Isambard Kingdom Brunel (9 April 1806 – 15 September 1859), was an English mechanical and civil engineer who is considered "one of the most ingenious and prolific figures in engineering history", "one of the 19th-century engineering giants", and "one of the greatest figures of the Industrial Revolution, changed the face of the English landscape with his groundbreaking designs and ingenious constructions".
The Isle of Wight (also referred to informally as The Island or abbreviated to IOW) is a county and the largest and second-most populous island in England.
The Isles of Scilly (Syllan or Enesek Syllan) is an archipelago off the southwestern tip of Cornwall.
ISO 4217 is a standard first published by International Organization for Standardization in 1978, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables.
Isurium or Isurium of the Brigantes (Isurium Brigantum) was a Roman fort and town in the province of Britannia at the site of present-day Aldborough in North Yorkshire, England, in the United Kingdom.
Sir Joseph John Thomson (18 December 1856 – 30 August 1940) was an English physicist and Nobel Laureate in Physics, credited with the discovery and identification of the electron; and with the discovery of the first subatomic particle.
Joanne Rowling, ("rolling";Rowling, J.K. (16 February 2007).. Accio Quote (accio-quote.org). Retrieved 28 April 2008. born 31 July 1965), writing under the pen names J. K. Rowling and Robert Galbraith, is a British novelist, philanthropist, film and television producer and screenwriter best known for writing the Harry Potter fantasy series.
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, (Tolkien pronounced his surname, see his phonetic transcription published on the illustration in The Return of the Shadow: The History of The Lord of the Rings, Part One. Christopher Tolkien. London: Unwin Hyman, 1988. (The History of Middle-earth; 6). In General American the surname is also pronounced. This pronunciation no doubt arose by analogy with such words as toll and polka, or because speakers of General American realise as, while often hearing British as; thus or General American become the closest possible approximation to the Received Pronunciation for many American speakers. Wells, John. 1990. Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow: Longman, 3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English writer, poet, philologist, and university professor who is best known as the author of the classic high fantasy works The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, and The Silmarillion.
"Jack and Jill" (sometimes "Jack and Gill", particularly in earlier versions) is a traditional English nursery rhyme.
Jacobitism (Seumasachas, Seacaibíteachas, Séamusachas) was a political movement in Great Britain and Ireland that aimed to restore the Roman Catholic Stuart King James II of England and Ireland (as James VII in Scotland) and his heirs to the thrones of England, Scotland, France and Ireland.
Jaguar is the luxury vehicle brand of Jaguar Land Rover, a British multinational car manufacturer with its headquarters in Whitley, Coventry, England and owned by the Indian company Tata Motors since 2008.
The James Bond film series is a British series of spy films based on the fictional character of MI6 agent James Bond, "007", who originally appeared in a series of books by Ian Fleming.
Sir James Chadwick, (20 October 1891 – 24 July 1974) was an English physicist who was awarded the 1935 Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of the neutron in 1932.
James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that James II died 6 September 1701 (17 September 1701 New Style) may result from a miscalculation done by an author of anonymous "An Exact Account of the Sickness and Death of the Late King James II, as also of the Proceedings at St. Germains thereupon, 1701, in a letter from an English gentleman in France to his friend in London" (Somers Tracts, ed. 1809–1815, XI, pp. 339–342). The account reads: "And on Friday the 17th instant, about three in the afternoon, the king died, the day he always fasted in memory of our blessed Saviour's passion, the day he ever desired to die on, and the ninth hour, according to the Jewish account, when our Saviour was crucified." As 17 September 1701 New Style falls on a Saturday and the author insists that James died on Friday, "the day he ever desired to die on", an inevitable conclusion is that the author miscalculated the date, which later made it to various reference works. See "English Historical Documents 1660–1714", ed. by Andrew Browning (London and New York: Routledge, 2001), 136–138.) was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
James Prescott Joule (24 December 1818 11 October 1889) was an English physicist, mathematician and brewer, born in Salford, Lancashire.
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
James Watt (30 January 1736 (19 January 1736 OS) – 25 August 1819) was a Scottish inventor, mechanical engineer, and chemist who improved on Thomas Newcomen's 1712 Newcomen steam engine with his Watt steam engine in 1781, which was fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world.
Jane Austen (16 December 1775 – 18 July 1817) was an English novelist known primarily for her six major novels, which interpret, critique and comment upon the British landed gentry at the end of the 18th century.
Jarrow is a town in north-east England, located on the River Tyne.
Jenson Alexander Lyons Button (born 19 January 1980) is a British racing driver and former Formula One driver.
Jeremy Bentham (15 February 1748 – 6 June 1832) was an English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.
Jeremy Bernard Corbyn (born 26 May 1949).
A jet engine is a type of reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion.
The jig (port) is a form of lively folk dance in compound metre, as well as the accompanying dance tune.
John Dalton FRS (6 September 1766 – 27 July 1844) was an English chemist, physicist, and meteorologist.
John Donne (22 January 1572 – 31 March 1631) was an English poet and cleric in the Church of England.
Sir John Everett Millais, 1st Baronet, PRA (8 June 1829 – 13 August 1896) was an English painter and illustrator who was one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.
John Fisher (c. 19 October 1469 – 22 June 1535), venerated by Roman Catholics as Saint John Fisher, was an English Catholic bishop, cardinal, and theologian.
Sir Arthur John Gielgud (14 April 1904 – 21 May 2000) was an English actor and theatre director whose career spanned eight decades.
John Gower (c. 1330 – October 1408) was an English poet, a contemporary of William Langland and the Pearl Poet, and a personal friend of Geoffrey Chaucer.
John Horton Conway FRS (born 26 December 1937) is an English mathematician active in the theory of finite groups, knot theory, number theory, combinatorial game theory and coding theory.
John Keats (31 October 1795 – 23 February 1821) was an English Romantic poet.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John Milton (9 December 16088 November 1674) was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under its Council of State and later under Oliver Cromwell.
John Playford (1623–1686/7) was a London bookseller, publisher, minor composer, and member of the Stationers' Company, who published books on music theory, instruction books for several instruments, and psalters with tunes for singing in churches.
John Ridgway, MBE, (born 1938), is a British yachtsman and rower.
John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.
John Surtees, (11 February 1934 – 10 March 2017) was an English Grand Prix motorcycle road racer and Formula One driver.
John Wesley (2 March 1791) was an English cleric and theologian who, with his brother Charles and fellow cleric George Whitefield, founded Methodism.
John Wilkins, (16141672) was an Anglican clergyman, natural philosopher and author, and was one of the founders of the Royal Society.
John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, (12 November 1842 – 30 June 1919) was a physicist who, with William Ramsay, discovered argon, an achievement for which he earned the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1904.
Jonathan Peter Wilkinson, CBE (born 25 May 1979) is an English former rugby union player who represented England and the British and Irish Lions.
Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister, (5 April 182710 February 1912), known between 1883 and 1897 as Sir Joseph Lister, Bt., was a British surgeon and a pioneer of antiseptic surgery.
Joseph of Arimathea was, according to all four canonical Christian Gospels, the man who assumed responsibility for the burial of Jesus after his crucifixion.
Joseph Priestley FRS (– 6 February 1804) was an 18th-century English Separatist theologian, natural philosopher, chemist, innovative grammarian, multi-subject educator, and liberal political theorist who published over 150 works.
Sir Joshua Reynolds (16 July 1723 – 23 February 1792) was an English painter, specialising in portraits.
Juan Antonio Samaranch y Torelló, 1st Marquess of Samaranch (17 July 1920 – 21 April 2010) was a Spanish sports administrator and minister of sports under the Franco regime (1973–1977) who served as the seventh President of the IOC (IOC) from 1980 to 2001.
The House of Lords, in addition to having a legislative function, historically also had a judicial function.
The Old English poem Judith describes the beheading of Assyrian general Holofernes by Israelite Judith of Bethulia.
Julian of Norwich (c. 8 November 1342 – c. 1416), also called Juliana of Norwich, was an English anchoress and an important Christian mystic and theologian.
Dame Julia Elizabeth Andrews, (born 1 October 1935) is an English actress, singer, and author.
The Jurassic Coast is a World Heritage Site on the English Channel coast of southern England.
Justin Peter Rose, (born 30 July 1980) is an English professional golfer who plays most of his golf on the PGA Tour, while keeping his membership on the European Tour.
The Jutes, Iuti, or Iutæ were a Germanic people.
Karen Louise Stupples (born 24 June 1973) is an English professional golfer who plays primarily on the U.S.-based LPGA Tour and is also a member of the Ladies European Tour.
Karst is a topography formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum.
Kate Elizabeth Winslet, (born 5 October 1975) is an English actress.
Killamarsh is a town and civil parish in North East Derbyshire, England, bordering Sheffield and South Yorkshire to the North West.
King Arthur is a legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders in the late 5th and early 6th centuries.
The King James Version (KJV), also known as the King James Bible (KJB) or simply the Version (AV), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.
King's College London (informally King's or KCL) is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, and a founding constituent college of the federal University of London.
The King's School, Rochester is an English independent school in Rochester, Kent.
The Kingdom of the East Angles (Ēast Engla Rīce; Regnum Orientalium Anglorum), today known as the Kingdom of East Anglia, was a small independent kingdom of the Angles comprising what are now the English counties of Norfolk and Suffolk and perhaps the eastern part of the Fens.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The kingdom of the East Saxons (Ēast Seaxna Rīce; Regnum Orientalium Saxonum), today referred to as the Kingdom of Essex, was one of the seven traditional kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
The Kingdom of Ireland (Classical Irish: Ríoghacht Éireann; Modern Irish: Ríocht Éireann) was a nominal state ruled by the King or Queen of England and later the King or Queen of Great Britain that existed in Ireland from 1542 until 1800.
The Kingdom of the Kentish (Cantaware Rīce; Regnum Cantuariorum), today referred to as the Kingdom of Kent, was an early medieval kingdom in what is now South East England.
The Kingdom of Northumbria (Norþanhymbra rīce) was a medieval Anglian kingdom in what is now northern England and south-east Scotland.
The Kingdom of Scotland (Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843.
The kingdom of the South Saxons (Suþseaxna rice), today referred to as the Kingdom of Sussex, was one of the seven traditional kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy.
Kingswood is a town in South Gloucestershire, England, on the eastern border of the City of Bristol.
The Knights of the Round Table were the knightly members of the legendary fellowship of the King Arthur in the literary cycle of the Matter of Britain, in which the first written record of them appears in the Roman de Brut written by the Norman poet Wace in 1155.
The La Tène culture was a European Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel in Switzerland, where thousands of objects had been deposited in the lake, as was discovered after the water level dropped in 1857.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
Godiva, Countess of Mercia (died between 1066 and 1086), in Old English Godgifu, was an English noblewoman who, according to a legend dating at least to the 13th century, rode naked – covered only in her long hair – through the streets of Coventry to gain a remission of the oppressive taxation that her husband imposed on his tenants.
The Lake District, also known as the Lakes or Lakeland, is a mountainous region in North West England.
Lamb, hogget, and mutton are the meat of domestic sheep (species Ovis aries) at different ages.
Lancashire (abbreviated Lancs.) is a county in north west England.
Lancashire hotpot is a stew originating from Lancashire in the North West of England.
Sir Lancelot du Lac (meaning Lancelot of the Lake), alternatively also written as Launcelot and other spellings, is one of the Knights of the Round Table in the Arthurian legend.
A land bridge, in biogeography, is an isthmus or wider land connection between otherwise separate areas, over which animals and plants are able to cross and colonise new lands.
"Land of Hope and Glory" is a British patriotic song, with music by Edward Elgar and lyrics by A. C. Benson, written in 1902.
Land Rover is a car brand that specialises in four-wheel-drive vehicles, owned by British multinational car manufacturer Jaguar Land Rover, which has been owned by India's Tata Motors since 2008.
A language school is a school where one studies a foreign language.
The larger urban zone (LUZ), or Functional Urban Area (FUA), is a measure of the population and expanse of metropolitan areas in Europe and OECD countries.
The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period years ago.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin literature includes the essays, histories, poems, plays, and other writings written in the Latin language.
Latin liturgical rites are Christian liturgical rites of Latin tradition, used mainly by the Catholic Church as liturgical rites within the Latin Church, that originated in the area where the Latin language once dominated.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Dame Laura Jane Davies, (born 5 October 1963) is an English female professional golfer.
Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, (22 May 1907 – 11 July 1989) was an English actor and director who, along with his contemporaries Ralph Richardson and John Gielgud, dominated the British stage of the mid-20th century.
A lawn mower (mower) is a machine utilizing one or more revolving blades to cut a grass surface to an even height.
The Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542 (Y Deddfau Cyfreithiau yng Nghymru 1535 a 1542) were parliamentary measures by which Wales became a full and equal part of the Kingdom of England and the legal system of England was extended to Wales and the norms of English administration introduced.
The Laws of the Game (LOTG) are the codified rules that help define association football.
Led Zeppelin were an English rock band formed in London in 1968.
Leeds is a city in the metropolitan borough of Leeds, in the county of West Yorkshire, England.
The Leeds Rhinos are a professional rugby league club based in Leeds, West Yorkshire, England.
The Legislative Grand Committee is a committee of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Leicester Tigers (officially Leicester Football Club) is an English professional rugby union club based in Leicester, England.
Lennox Claudius Lewis,, (born 2 September 1965) is a former professional boxer who competed from 1989 to 2003.
Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by his pen name Lewis Carroll, was an English writer, mathematician, logician, Anglican deacon, and photographer.
Lewis Carl Davidson Hamilton MBE (born 7 January 1985) is a British racing driver who races in Formula One for Mercedes AMG Petronas.
Liberty, in politics, consists of the social, political, and economic freedoms to which all community members are entitled.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
The Lindisfarne Gospels (London, British Library Cotton MS Nero D.IV) is an illuminated manuscript gospel book probably produced around the years 715-720 in the monastery at Lindisfarne, off the coast of Northumberland, which is now in the British Library in London.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
This is a list of aqueducts in the Roman Empire.
There have been 12 monarchs of the Kingdom of Great Britain and the United Kingdom (see Monarchy of the United Kingdom) since the merger of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland on 1 May 1707.
The following is a list of the world's largest airports by international passenger traffic.
This is a list of cathedrals in England and Wales and the Crown Dependencies of the Isle of Man, Gibraltar and those in the Channel Islands, by country.
Below is a list of the largest cities in the European Union according to the population within their city limits.
This is a list of official cities in the United Kingdom as of 2015.
Three lists of countries below calculate gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita, i.e., the purchasing power parity (PPP) value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year.
This is a list of countries by incarceration rate.
This is a list of sovereign states and other territories by population, with population figures estimated for 1 July 2005 (rounded to the nearest 1,000).
A comparison of tax rates by countries is difficult and somewhat subjective, as tax laws in most countries are extremely complex and the tax burden falls differently on different groups in each country and sub-national unit.
This is intended to be as full a list as possible of country houses, castles, palaces, other stately homes, and manor houses in the United Kingdom and the Channel Islands; any architecturally notable building which has served as a residence for a significant family or a notable figure in history.
This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great, King of Wessex, one of the petty kingdoms to rule a portion of modern England.
This is a list of current Further education colleges and Sixth form colleges that are publicly funded by the Skills Funding Agency in England.
Films generate income from several revenue streams, including theatrical exhibition, home video, television broadcast rights and merchandising.
This is a list of islands of England (excluding the mainland which is itself a part of the island of Great Britain), as well as a table of the largest English islands by area and by population.
This is a list of lakes and reservoirs in England.
The list of motorways in the United Kingdom is a complete list of motorways in the United Kingdom.
There are a large number of music festivals in the United Kingdom, covering a wide variety of genres.
The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland.
As of August 2017, there were 109 universities and university colleges in England out of a total of around 130 in the United Kingdom.
This is a list of films from Walt Disney Animation Studios, an American animation studio headquartered in Burbank, California.
There are two articles listing countries according to their per capita GDP.
Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.
The Liverpool and Manchester Railway (L&MR) was a railway opened on 15 September 1830 between the Lancashire towns of Liverpool and Manchester in England.
The Liverpool Built-up Area (previously Liverpool Urban Area in 2001 and prior) is a term used by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) to denote the urban area around Liverpool in England, to the east of the River Mersey.
Lloegyr is the medieval Welsh name for a region of Britain.
Local authority leaders' boards are voluntary regional associations of council leaders that have been established in England outside of Greater London to replace certain functions of the now abolished regional chambers.
The Local Government and Public Involvement in Health Act 2007 (c 28) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The pattern of local government in England is complex, with the distribution of functions varying according to the local arrangements.
The Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II is a family of single-seat, single-engine, all-weather stealth multirole fighters.
A locomotive or engine is a rail transport vehicle that provides the motive power for a train.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The London Assembly is an elected body, part of the Greater London Authority, that scrutinises the activities of the Mayor of London and has the power, with a two-thirds majority, to amend the Mayor's annual budget and to reject the Mayor's draft statutory strategies.
The London Borough of Barnet is a suburban London borough in North London, England, with some districts within North West London forming part of Outer London.
The London Borough of Bromley is one of the 32 London boroughs that, along with the City of London, comprises Greater London.
The London Borough of Croydon is a London borough in south London, England and is part of Outer London.
The London Borough of Ealing is a London Borough in west London, England, and forms part of Outer London.
The London boroughs are 32 of the 33 local authority districts of the Greater London administrative area (the 33rd is the City of London).
"London Bridge Is Falling Down" (also known as "My Fair Lady" or "London Bridge") is a traditional English nursery rhyme and singing game, which is found in different versions all over the world.
The London Business School (LBS) is a public business school and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
The London Government Act 1963 (c. 33) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which recognised officially the conurbation known as Greater London and created a new local government structure for the capital.
The London School of Economics (officially The London School of Economics and Political Science, often referred to as LSE) is a public research university located in London, England and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
London Stansted Airport is an international airport located at Stansted Mountfitchet in the district of Uttlesford in Essex, northeast of Central London and from the Hertfordshire border.
The London Stock Exchange (LSE) is a stock exchange located in the City of London, England.
The London Symphony Orchestra (LSO), founded in 1904, is the oldest of London's symphony orchestras.
The London Underground (also known simply as the Underground, or by its nickname the Tube) is a public rapid transit system serving London and some parts of the adjacent counties of Buckinghamshire, Essex and Hertfordshire in the United Kingdom.
Long Eaton is a town in the Erewash district of Derbyshire, England.
The Long Parliament was an English Parliament which lasted from 1640 until 1660.
Yorkshire The Long Sword dance is a hilt-and-point sword dance recorded mainly in Yorkshire, England.
George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron (22 January 1788 – 19 April 1824), known as Lord Byron, was an English nobleman, poet, peer, politician, and leading figure in the Romantic movement.
Lord Protector (pl. Lords Protectors) is a title that has been used in British constitutional law for the head of state.
Lord's Cricket Ground, commonly known simply as Lord's, is a cricket venue in St John's Wood, London.
The Lord-Lieutenant is the British monarch's personal representative in each county of the United Kingdom.
The Lordship of Ireland (Tiarnas na hÉireann), sometimes referred to retroactively as Norman Ireland, was a period of feudal rule in Ireland between 1177 and 1542 under the King of England, styled as Lord of Ireland.
Lothian (Lowden; Lodainn) is a region of the Scottish Lowlands, lying between the southern shore of the Firth of Forth and the Lammermuir Hills.
Lotus Cars is a British automotive company that manufactures sports cars and racing cars in its headquarters in Hethel, United Kingdom.
Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
The term "low church" refers to churches which give relatively little emphasis to ritual, sacraments and the authority of clergy.
A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house.
Lucian Michael Freud (8 December 1922 – 20 July 2011) was a British painter and draftsman, specializing in figurative art, and is known as one of the foremost 20th-century portraitists.
Lucius (Welsh: Lles ap Coel) is a legendary 2nd-century King of the Britons and saint traditionally credited with introducing Christianity into Britain.
Lullingstone Roman Villa is a villa built during the Roman occupation of Britain, situated near the village of Eynsford in Kent, south eastern England.
London Luton Airport, previously called Luton International Airport, is an international airport located east of the town centre in the Borough of Luton in Bedfordshire, England, and is north of Central London.
The Luttrell Psalter (British Library, Additional Manuscript 42130) is an illuminated psalter commissioned by Sir Geoffrey Luttrell (1276–1345), lord of the manor of Irnham in Lincolnshire, written and illustrated on parchment circa 1320–1340 in England by anonymous scribes and artists.
The M1 is a motorway in England connecting London to Leeds, where it joins the A1(M) near Aberford, to connect to Newcastle.
The M25 or London Orbital Motorway is a motorway that encircles almost all of Greater London, England (with the exception of North Ockendon), in the United Kingdom.
The M4 is a motorway which runs between London and South Wales in the United Kingdom.
The M5 is a motorway in England linking the Midlands and the South West.
The M6 motorway runs from junction 19 of the M1 at the Catthorpe Interchange, near Rugby via Birmingham then heads north, passing Stoke-on-Trent, Liverpool, Manchester, Preston, Lancaster, Carlisle and terminating at the Gretna junction (J45).
The M60 motorway, Manchester Ring Motorway, or Manchester Outer Ring Road, is an orbital motorway in North West England.
The M62 is a west–east trans-Pennine motorway in Northern England, connecting Liverpool and Hull via Manchester and Leeds; of the route is shared with the M60 orbital motorway around Manchester.
Macbeth (full title The Tragedy of Macbeth) is a tragedy by William Shakespeare; it is thought to have been first performed in 1606.
"Maggie May" (or "Maggie Mae") (Roud 1757) is a traditional Liverpool folk song about a prostitute who robbed a "homeward bounder": a sailor coming home from a round trip.
Magna Carta Libertatum (Medieval Latin for "the Great Charter of the Liberties"), commonly called Magna Carta (also Magna Charta; "Great Charter"), is a charter agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.
Malcolm III (Gaelic: Máel Coluim mac Donnchada; c. 26 March 1031 – 13 November 1093) was King of Scots from 1058 to 1093.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
A mammoth is any species of the extinct genus Mammuthus, proboscideans commonly equipped with long, curved tusks and, in northern species, a covering of long hair.
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.
Manchester Airport is an international airport in Ringway, Manchester, England, south-west of Manchester city centre.
The Manchester Baby, also known as the Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM), was the world's first stored-program computer.
Metrolink (also known as Manchester Metrolink) is a tram/light rail system in Greater Manchester, England.
Mangotsfield is an urban area and former village in the unitary authority of South Gloucestershire, to the north-east of Bristol.
Saint Margaret Clitherow (1556 – 25 March 1586) is an English saint and martyr of the Roman Catholic Church, sometimes called "the Pearl of York".
Dame Margot Fonteyn, DBE (18 May 191921 February 1991), stage name of Margaret Evelyn de Arias was an English ballerina.
The Marquess of Queensberry Rules are a code of generally accepted rules in the sport of boxing.
Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558) was the Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death.
Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (née Godwin; 30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was an English novelist, short story writer, dramatist, essayist, biographer, and travel writer, best known for her Gothic novel ''Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus'' (1818).
The Massaliote Periplus or Massiliote Periplus is a theoretical reconstruction of a sixth century BC periplus, or sailing manual, proposed by Adolf Schulten.
A match race is a race between two competitors, going head-to-head.
Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions.
The Matter of Britain is the body of Medieval literature and legendary material associated with Great Britain, and sometimes Brittany, and the legendary kings and heroes associated with it, particularly King Arthur.
Matthew Boulton (3 September 1728 – 17 August 1809) was an English manufacturer and business partner of Scottish engineer James Watt.
A maypole is a tall wooden pole erected as a part of various European folk festivals, around which a maypole dance often takes place.
McLaren Automotive (formerly known as McLaren Cars) is a British automotive manufacturer based at the McLaren Technology Centre in Woking, Surrey.
A meat pie is a pie with a filling of meat and often other savory ingredients.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Medieval demography is the study of human demography in Europe and the Mediterranean during the Middle Ages.
A Member of the European Parliament (MEP) is a person who has been elected to serve as a popular representative in the European Parliament.
A menhir (from Brittonic languages: maen or men, "stone" and hir or hîr, "long"), standing stone, orthostat, lith or masseba/matseva is a large manmade upright stone.
Mercia (Miercna rīce) was one of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy.
Merlin (Myrddin) is a legendary figure best known as the wizard featured in Arthurian legend and medieval Welsh poetry.
The Merry Men are the group of outlaws who follow Robin Hood in English literature and folklore.
Messiah (HWV 56) is an English-language oratorio composed in 1741 by George Frideric Handel, with a scriptural text compiled by Charles Jennens from the King James Bible, and from the version of the Psalms included with the Book of Common Prayer.
The Methodist Church of Great Britain is the fourth-largest Christian denomination in Britain and the mother church to Methodists worldwide.
The metric system is an internationally adopted decimal system of measurement.
Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties are one of the four levels of subdivisions of England used for the purposes of local government outside Greater London and the Isles of Scilly.
A metropolitan borough is a type of local government district in England, and is a subdivision of a metropolitan county.
The metropolitan counties are a type of county-level administrative division of England.
Sir Michael Caine (born Maurice Joseph Micklewhite Jr., 14 March 1933) is an English actor, producer, and author.
Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
Michael Laurence Nyman, CBE (born 23 March 1944) is an English composer of minimalist music, pianist, librettist and musicologist, known for numerous film scores (many written during his lengthy collaboration with the filmmaker Peter Greenaway), and his multi-platinum soundtrack album to Jane Campion's The Piano.
Michael David Wood (born 23 July 1948) is an English historian and broadcaster.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
The term Middle English literature refers to the literature written in the form of the English language known as Middle English, from the 12th century until the 1470s.
Mike Golding (born 27 August 1960) is an English yachtsman, born in Great Yarmouth and educated at Reading Blue Coat School.
Stanley Michael Bailey Hailwood,, (2 April 1940 – 23 March 1981) was a British Grand Prix motorcycle road racer.
Michael Cormac "Mike" Newell (born 28 March 1942) is an English director and producer of motion pictures for film and television.
The term "mild" originally meant young beer or ale, as opposed to "stale" aged beer or ale with its resulting "tang".
The military of ancient Rome, according to Titus Livius, one of the more illustrious historians of Rome over the centuries, was a key element in the rise of Rome over “above seven hundred years” from a small settlement in Latium to the capital of an empire governing a wide region around the shores of the Mediterranean, or, as the Romans themselves said, ‘’mare nostrum’’, “our sea.” Livy asserts Titus Flavius Josephus, a contemporary historian, sometime high-ranking officer in the Roman army, and commander of the rebels in the Jewish revolt, describes the Roman people as if they were "born ready armed." At the time of the two historians, Roman society had already evolved an effective military and had used it to defend itself against the Etruscans, the Italics, the Greeks, the Gauls, the maritime empire of Carthage, and the Macedonian kingdoms.
A mill town, also known as factory town or mill village, is typically a settlement that developed around one or more mills or factories, usually cotton mills or factories producing textiles.
A mince pie is a sweet pie of British origin, filled with a mixture of dried fruits and spices called "mincemeat", that is traditionally served during the Christmas season in the English-speaking world, excluding the USA.
The Ministry of Justice (MOJ) is a ministerial department of the British Government headed by the Secretary of State for Justice and Lord Chancellor (a combined position).
A minority group refers to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, those who hold on to major positions of social power in a society.
Mixed is an ethnicity category that has been used by the United Kingdom's Office for National Statistics since the 1991 Census.
Mod is a subculture that began in London in 1958 and spread throughout Great Britain and elsewhere, eventually influencing fashions and trends in other countries, and continues today on a smaller scale.
Modern architecture or modernist architecture is a term applied to a group of styles of architecture which emerged in the first half of the 20th century and became dominant after World War II.
Modern English (sometimes New English or NE as opposed to Middle English and Old English) is the form of the English language spoken since the Great Vowel Shift in England, which began in the late 14th century and was completed in roughly 1550.
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories.
Monasticism (from Greek μοναχός, monachos, derived from μόνος, monos, "alone") or monkhood is a religious way of life in which one renounces worldly pursuits to devote oneself fully to spiritual work.
The Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) is a committee of the Bank of England, which meets for three and a half days, eight times a year, to decide the official interest rate in the United Kingdom (the Bank of England Base Rate).
Monty Python's Life of Brian, also known as Life of Brian, is a 1979 British religious satire comedy film starring and written by the comedy group Monty Python (Graham Chapman, John Cleese, Terry Gilliam, Eric Idle, Terry Jones and Michael Palin).
Moorland or moor is a type of habitat found in upland areas in temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands and montane grasslands and shrublands biomes, characterised by low-growing vegetation on acidic soils.
Morris dance is a form of English folk dance usually accompanied by music.
Ursula Southeil (c. 1488–1561) (also variously spelt as Ursula Southill, Ursula Soothtell or Ursula Sontheil), better known as Mother Shipton, is said to have been an English soothsayer and prophetess.
A mousetrap is a specialised type of animal trap designed primarily to catch and, usually, kill mice.
Mummers' Plays are folk plays performed by troupes of amateur actors, traditionally all male, known as mummers or guisers (also by local names such as rhymers, pace-eggers, soulers, tipteerers, wrenboys, and galoshins).
A mushroom, or toadstool, is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source.
The Music for the Royal Fireworks (HWV 351) is a suite for wind instruments composed by George Frideric Handel in 1749 under contract of George II of Great Britain for the fireworks in London's Green Park on 27 April 1749.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Napoleon's planned invasion of the United Kingdom at the start of the War of the Third Coalition, although never carried out, was a major influence on British naval strategy and the fortification of the coast of southeast England.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
Naseem Hamed (نسيم حميد; born 12 February 1974), commonly known as "Prince" Naseem or "Naz", is a British former professional boxer who competed from 1992 to 2002.
A national day is a designated date on which celebrations mark the nationhood of a nation or non-sovereign country.
A national emblem is an emblem or seal that is reserved for use by a nation state or multi-national state as a symbol of that nation.
National Express is a British multinational public transport company headquartered in Birmingham that operates bus, coach, train and tram services in the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Spain, Portugal, Malta, Germany and Morocco and long-distance coach services across Europe.
The National Gallery is an art museum in Trafalgar Square in the City of Westminster, in Central London.
The National Health Service (NHS) is the publicly funded national healthcare system for England and one of the four National Health Services for each constituent country of the United Kingdom.
The National Health Service Act 1946 came into effect on 5 July 1948 and created the National Health Service in England and Wales.
In horse racing in the United Kingdom, France and Ireland, National Hunt racing requires horses to jump fences and ditches.
National Insurance (NI) is a tax system in the United Kingdom paid by workers and employers for funding state benefits.
A national library is a library specifically established by the government of a country to serve as the preeminent repository of information for that country.
The national parks of England and Wales are areas of relatively undeveloped and scenic landscape that are designated under the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act (2016).
The National Trust, formally the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, is a conservation organisation in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and the largest membership organisation in the United Kingdom.
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
The Neo-pagan movement in the United Kingdom is primarily represented by Wicca and Witchcraft religions, Druidry, and Heathenry.
Netball is a ball sport played by two teams of seven players.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Newcastle upon Tyne, commonly known as Newcastle, is a city in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 103 miles (166 km) south of Edinburgh and 277 miles (446 km) north of London on the northern bank of the River Tyne, from the North Sea.
The atmospheric engine was invented by Thomas Newcomen in 1712, and is often referred to simply as a Newcomen engine.
Newton's law of universal gravitation states that a particle attracts every other particle in the universe with a force which is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers.
Nicholas Hilliard (c. 1547 – 7 January 1619) was an English goldsmith and limner best known for his portrait miniatures of members of the courts of Elizabeth I and James I of England.
Sir Nicholas Alexander Faldo, (born 18 July 1957) is an English professional golfer who is now mainly an on-air golf analyst.
Nicola Adams (born 26 October 1982) is a British professional boxer.
Nigel Gregory Benn (born 22 January 1964) is a British former professional boxer who competed from 1987 to 1996.
Nigel Ernest James Mansell, (born 8 August 1953) is a British former racing driver who won both the Formula One World Championship (1992) and the CART Indy Car World Series (1993).
A non-metropolitan county, or colloquially, shire county, is a county-level entity in England that is not a metropolitan county.
In English church history, a nonconformist was a Protestant who did not "conform" to the governance and usages of the established Church of England.
The term Norman architecture is used to categorise styles of Romanesque architecture developed by the Normans in the various lands under their dominion or influence in the 11th and 12th centuries.
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
Norman Robert Foster, Baron Foster of Thames Bank, (born 1 June 1935) is a British architect whose company, Foster + Partners, maintains an international design practice famous for high-tech architecture.
Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
The North Downs are a ridge of chalk hills in south east England that stretch from Farnham in Surrey to the White Cliffs of Dover in Kent.
North East England is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes.
The North East England devolution referendum was an all postal ballot referendum that took place on 4 November 2004 throughout North East England on whether or not to establish an elected assembly for the region.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
The Danish North Sea Empire, also known as the Anglo-Scandinavian Empire, was the thalassocratic domain ruled by Cnut the Great as King of England, Denmark, Norway and parts of what is now Sweden between 1016 and 1035.
North Sea oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons, comprising liquid petroleum and natural gas, produced from petroleum reservoirs beneath the North Sea.
North Shields is a town on the north bank of the River Tyne in North East England, eight miles (13 km) north-east of Newcastle upon Tyne.
North West England, one of nine official regions of England, consists of the five counties of Cheshire, Cumbria, Greater Manchester, Lancashire and Merseyside.
North Yorkshire is a non-metropolitan county (or shire county) and larger ceremonial county in England.
Northampton Saints are a professional rugby union club from Northampton, England.
Northern England, also known simply as the North, is the northern part of England, considered as a single cultural area.
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
The Norwich School of painters, founded in 1803 in Norwich, was the first provincial art movement in Britain.
Nottingham is a city and unitary authority area in Nottinghamshire, England, north of London, in the East Midlands.
The Nottingham Built-up Area (BUA), Nottingham Urban Area, or Greater Nottingham is an area of land defined by the Office for National Statistics as which is built upon, with nearby areas linked if within 200 metres - see the List of urban areas in the United Kingdom article for a broader definition.
A nursery rhyme is a traditional poem or song for children in Britain and many other countries, but usage of the term only dates from the late 18th/early 19th century.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
Restoration Day, more commonly known as Oak Apple Day or Royal Oak Day, was an English public holiday, observed annually on 29 May, to commemorate the restoration of the English monarchy in May 1660.
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
Offa is a legendary king of the Angles in the genealogy of the kings of Mercia presented in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.
The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department which reports directly to the UK Parliament.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
The Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills (Ofsted) is a non-ministerial department of the UK government, reporting to Parliament.
Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old English literature or Anglo-Saxon literature, encompasses literature written in Old English, in Anglo-Saxon England from the 7th century to the decades after the Norman Conquest of 1066.
Oldham is a town in Greater Manchester, England, amid the Pennines and between the rivers Irk and Medlock, southeast of Rochdale and northeast of Manchester.
Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English military and political leader.
Oliver Heaviside FRS (18 May 1850 – 3 February 1925) was an English self-taught electrical engineer, mathematician, and physicist who adapted complex numbers to the study of electrical circuits, invented mathematical techniques for the solution of differential equations (equivalent to Laplace transforms), reformulated Maxwell's field equations in terms of electric and magnetic forces and energy flux, and independently co-formulated vector analysis.
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.
De mundo (Περὶ Κόσμου), known in English as On the Universe, is the work of an unknown author which was ascribed to Aristotle.
Open Library is an online project intended to create "one web page for every book ever published".
An opera house is a theatre building used for opera performances that consists of a stage, an orchestra pit, audience seating, and backstage facilities for costumes and set building.
An orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble typical of classical music, which mixes instruments from different families, including bowed string instruments such as violin, viola, cello and double bass, as well as brass, woodwinds, and percussion instruments, each grouped in sections.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to England: England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; a sovereign state in Europe, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK), or Britain.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
The Oxford Movement was a movement of High Church members of the Church of England which eventually developed into Anglo-Catholicism.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
A palace is a grand residence, especially a royal residence, or the home of a head of state or some other high-ranking dignitary, such as a bishop or archbishop.
The Palace of Westminster is the meeting place of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.
Paradise Lost is an epic poem in blank verse by the 17th-century English poet John Milton (1608–1674).
A parish church (or parochial church) in Christianity is the church which acts as the religious centre of a parish.
A parish council is a civil local authority found in England and is the first tier of local government.
The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it became the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
"Pastime with Good Company", also known as "The King's Ballad" ("The Kynges Balade"), is an English folk song written by King Henry VIII in the beginning of the 16th century, shortly after his coronation.
A pasty or pastie (or, Pasti) is a baked pastry, a traditional variety of which is particularly associated with Cornwall, United Kingdom.
A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism, Eastern Orthodoxy, or particular branches of Islam, is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family or person.
Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (8 August 1902 – 20 October 1984) was an English theoretical physicist who is regarded as one of the most significant physicists of the 20th century.
Paul Martin Goodison MBE (born 29 November 1977, Brinsworth, Rotherham, South Yorkshire) is an English sailor.
Paul Greengrass (born 13 August 1955) is an English film director, film producer, screenwriter and former journalist.
Paul Mitchell (born 18 December 1968 in Edinburghhttp://www.dailyrecord.co.uk/football/spl/celtic/2009/03/14/bbc-commentator-doesn-t-want-repeat-of-previous-league-cup-match-86908-21197146/) is a Scottish football commentator for BBC Scotland and was their main commentator for a six-year period from 2004–2010.
The Peak District is an upland area in England at the southern end of the Pennines.
The "Pearl Poet", or the "Gawain Poet", is the name given to the author of Pearl, an alliterative poem written in 14th-century Middle English.
Pearly Kings and Queens, known as pearlies, are an organised charitable tradition of working class culture in London, England.
The Pennines, also known as the Pennine Chain or Pennine Hills, are a range of mountains and hills in England separating North West England from Yorkshire and North East England.
Percy Bysshe Shelley (4 August 17928 July 1822) was one of the major English Romantic poets, and is regarded by some as among the finest lyric and philosophical poets in the English language, and one of the most influential.
Peter Ware Higgs (born 29 May 1929) is a British theoretical physicist, emeritus professor in the University of Edinburgh,Griggs, Jessica (Summer 2008) Edit the University of Edinburgh Alumni Magazine, p. 17 and Nobel Prize laureate for his work on the mass of subatomic particles.
Sir Peter Lely (14 September 1618 – 30 November 1680) was a painter of Dutch origin whose career was nearly all spent in England, where he became the dominant portrait painter to the court.
Peter Sellers, CBE (born Richard Henry Sellers; 8 September 1925 – 24 July 1980) was an English film actor, comedian and singer.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
The PGA European Tour is an organisation which operates the three leading men's professional golf tours in Europe: the elite European Tour, the European Senior Tour and the developmental Challenge Tour.
The PGA Tour (stylized in all capital letters as PGA TOUR by its officials) is the organizer of the main professional golf tours played primarily by men in the United States and North America.
Phillip William Read M.B.E. (born 1 January 1939) is an English former Grand Prix motorcycle road racer.
Philip Douglas Taylor (born 13 August 1960) is an English retired professional darts player, nicknamed The Power.
Sir Philip Sidney (30 November 1554 – 17 October 1586) was an English poet, courtier, scholar, and soldier, who is remembered as one of the most prominent figures of the Elizabethan age.
The Phoney War (Drôle de guerre; Sitzkrieg) was an eight-month period at the start of World War II, during which there was only one limited military land operation on the Western Front, when French troops invaded Germany's Saar district.
The Pillars of Hercules (Latin: Columnae Herculis, Greek: Ἡράκλειαι Στῆλαι, Arabic: أعمدة هرقل / Aʿmidat Hiraql, Spanish: Columnas de Hércules) was the phrase that was applied in Antiquity to the promontories that flank the entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar.
Pinewood Studios is a British film and television studio located in Iver Heath, Buckinghamshire, about from Slough, from Uxbridge, and approximately west of central London.
Pink Floyd were an English rock band formed in London in 1965.
Pixie (also pixy, pixi, pizkie, piskie and pigsie as it is sometimes known in Cornwall) is a mythical creature of folklore.
In geography, a plain is a flat, sweeping landmass that generally does not change much in elevation.
A plough (UK) or plow (US; both) is a tool or farm implement used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting to loosen or turn the soil.
The Polish community in the United Kingdom since the mid-20th century largely stems from the Polish presence in the British Isles during the Second World War, when Poles made a substantial contribution to the Allied war effort.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
A political union is a type of state which is composed of or created out of smaller states.
The United Kingdom is a unitary state with devolution that is governed within the framework of a parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy in which the monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II, is the head of state while the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, currently Theresa May, is the head of government.
Pope Adrian IV (Adrianus IV; born Nicholas Breakspear; 1 September 1159), also known as Hadrian IV, was Pope from 4 December 1154 to his death in 1159.
Pope Eleutherius (died 189), also known as Eleutherus, was the Bishop of Rome from c. 174 to his death.
Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry.
A pork pie is a traditional British cold meat pie.
The Port of Tilbury is located on the River Thames at Tilbury in Essex, England.
Portsmouth is a port city in Hampshire, England, mainly on Portsea Island, south-west of London and south-east of Southampton.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
Poundbury is an experimental new town or urban extension on the outskirts of Dorchester in the county of Dorset, England.
The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (later known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters, poets, and critics, founded in 1848 by William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais and Dante Gabriel Rossetti.
In common law legal systems, a precedent, or authority, is a principle or rule established in a previous legal case that is either binding on or persuasive for a court or other tribunal when deciding subsequent cases with similar issues or facts.
Precision engineering is a subdiscipline of electrical engineering, software engineering, electronics engineering, mechanical engineering, and optical engineering concerned with designing machines, fixtures, and other structures that have exceptionally high tolerances, are repeatable, and are stable over time.
Several species of humans have intermittently occupied Britain for almost a million years.
The Premier League is the top level of the English football league system.
Premiership Rugby (officially known as Gallagher Premiership Rugby, or the Gallagher Premiership due to sponsorship reasons) is an English professional rugby union competition.
Preston is the administrative centre of Lancashire, England, on the north bank of the River Ribble.
The Principality of Wales (Tywysogaeth Cymru) existed between 1216 and 1536, encompassing two-thirds of modern Wales during its height between 1267 and 1277.
The Professional Darts Corporation (PDC) is a professional darts organisation in the United Kingdom, established in 1992 when a group of leading players split from the British Darts Organisation to form what was initially called the World Darts Council (WDC).
Professional Golfers' Association, (with or without the apostrophe), is the usual term for a professional association in men's golf.
Progressive rock (shortened as prog; sometimes called art rock, classical rock or symphonic rock) is a broad genre of rock music that developed in the United Kingdom and United States throughout the mid to late 1960s.
The national anthem of England is usually taken to be the same as that of the United Kingdom as a whole—"God Save the Queen", but in 2016 some MPs felt that England should have its own distinct anthem with the result that there have been discussions on the subject in the UK Parliament.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Pseudo-Aristotle is a general cognomen for authors of philosophical or medical treatises who attributed their work to the Greek philosopher Aristotle, or whose work was later attributed to him by others.
Pseudohistory is a form of pseudoscholarship that attempts to distort or misrepresent the historical record, often using methods resembling those used in legitimate historical research.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
Pub games are games played in or outside pubs and bars, particularly traditional games that are or were played in English pubs.
A public university is a university that is predominantly funded by public means through a national or subnational government, as opposed to private universities.
Publicly funded healthcare is a form of health care financing designed to meet the cost of all or most healthcare needs from a publicly managed fund.
Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
QS World University Rankings is an annual publication of university rankings by Quacquarelli Symonds (QS).
A quadruple-track railway (also known as a four-track railway) is a railway line consisting of four parallel tracks, with two tracks used in each direction.
Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.
Queen are a British rock band that formed in London in 1970.
The Queen's Guard and Queen's Life Guard (called King's Guard and King's Life Guard when the reigning monarch is male) are the names given to contingents of infantry and cavalry soldiers charged with guarding the official royal residences in the United Kingdom.
Queen's Park is an affluent area in London located north-west of Charing Cross.
John Quinlan Terry CBE (born 24 July 1937 in Hampstead, London, England) is a British architect.
The railway system in Great Britain is the oldest in the world.
A raised pavement marker is a safety device used on roads.
Ralph Vaughan Williams (12 October 1872– 26 August 1958) was an English composer.
Randolph Adolphus Turpin (7 June 1928 – 17 May 1966), better known as Randolph Turpin, and in the United States also as Randy Turpin, was the undisputed Middleweight Champion of the World.
Rapid transit or mass rapid transit, also known as heavy rail, metro, MRT, subway, tube, U-Bahn or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas.
Rapper sword (also known as the "Short Sword" dance) is a variation of sword dance that emerged from the pit villages of Tyneside in North East England, where miners first performed the tradition.
Rawmarsh (locally) is a large village in the Metropolitan Borough of Rotherham, in South Yorkshire, England.
Raymond Charles Erith RA FRIBA (7 August 1904 – 30 November 1973) was a leading classical architect in England during the period dominated by the modern movement after the Second World War.
Reaction Engines Limited (REL) is a British aerospace manufacturer based in Oxfordshire, England.
The Reading and Leeds Festivals are a pair of annual rock music festivals that take place in Reading and Leeds in England.
The Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation (RSSSF) is an international organization dedicated to collecting statistics about association football.
Red Bull Racing (also known as Red Bull or RBR and competing as Aston Martin Red Bull Racing) is a Formula One racing team, racing under an Austrian licence and based in the United Kingdom.
Red Leicester (also known simply as Leicester or Leicestershire cheese) is an English cheese, made in a similar manner to Cheddar cheese, although it is crumblier, sold at 3 to 12 months of age.
Red Rum (bay gelding; 3 May 1965 – 18 October 1995) was a champion Thoroughbred steeplechaser.
Redditch is a town and local government district in north-east Worcestershire, England, approximately south of Birmingham.
The regional chambers of England were a group of indirectly elected regional bodies that were created by the provisions of the Regional Development Agencies Act 1998.
In the United Kingdom, regional development agencies (RDAs) were nine non-departmental public bodies established for the purpose of development, primarily economic, of England's Government Office regions between 1998 and 2010.
The regions of England, formerly known as the government office regions, are the highest tier of sub-national division in England.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Contributions to painting and architecture have been especially rich.
Groupe Renault is a French multinational automobile manufacturer established in 1899.
The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.
A research library is a library which contains an in-depth collection of material on one or several subjects (Young, 1983; p.188).
Restaurant Magazine is a British magazine aimed at chefs, restaurant proprietors and other catering professionals that concentrates on the fine dining end of the Restaurant industry.
The Restoration of the English monarchy took place in the Stuart period.
Restoration literature is the English literature written during the historical period commonly referred to as the English Restoration (1660–1689), which corresponds to the last years of the direct Stuart reign in England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland.
The Revelations of Divine Love (which also bears the title A Revelation of Love — in Sixteen Shewings above the first chapter) is a 14th-century book of Christian mystical devotions written by Julian of Norwich.
Richard Cromwell (4 October 162612 July 1712) became the second Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, and was one of only two commoners to become the English head of state, the other being his father, Oliver Cromwell, from whom he inherited the post.
Clinton Richard Dawkins (born 26 March 1941) is an English ethologist, evolutionary biologist, and author.
Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 1189 until his death.
Richard II (6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400), also known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399.
Richard III (2 October 1452 – 22 August 1485) was King of England from 1483 until his death at the Battle of Bosworth Field.
Richard George Rogers, Baron Rogers of Riverside (born 23 July 1933) is a British architect noted for his modernist and functionalist designs in high-tech architecture.
Richard John Hatton, (born 6 October 1978) is a British former professional boxer who competed from 1997 to 2009, and had one comeback fight in 2012.
Sir Ridley Scott (born 30 November 1937) is an English film director and producer.
Ripon is a cathedral city in the Borough of Harrogate, North Yorkshire, England.
The River Mersey is a river in the North West of England.
The River Severn (Afon Hafren, Sabrina) is a river in the United Kingdom.
The River Thames is a river that flows through southern England, most notably through London.
The River Tyne is a river in North East England and its length (excluding tributaries) is.
In North America, road racing is motor racing held on a paved closed circuit with both left and right turns.
The Roanoke Colony, also known as the Lost Colony, was established in 1585 on Roanoke Island in what is today's Dare County, North Carolina.
Roasting is a cooking method that uses dry heat where hot air envelops the food, cooking it evenly on all sides with temperatures of at least 150 °C (~300 °F) from an open flame, oven, or other heat source.
Sir Robert Filmer (c. 1588 – 26 May 1653) was an English political theorist who defended the divine right of kings.
Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer, KG (5 December 1661 – 21 May 1724) was an English and later British statesman of the late Stuart and early Georgian periods.
Robert Hooke FRS (– 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.
Robin Hood is a legendary heroic outlaw originally depicted in English folklore and subsequently featured in literature and film.
Sir William Robert Patrick "Robin" Knox-Johnston, CBE, RD and bar (born 17 March 1939) is an English sailor.
Rochdale is a town in Greater Manchester, England, at the foothills of the South Pennines on the River Roch, northwest of Oldham and northeast of Manchester.
Sir Roderick David Stewart, (born 10 January 1945) is a British rock singer and songwriter.
Roger Bacon (Rogerus or Rogerius Baconus, Baconis, also Rogerus), also known by the scholastic accolade Doctor, was an English philosopher and Franciscan friar who placed considerable emphasis on the study of nature through empiricism.
Sir Roger Penrose (born 8 August 1931) is an English mathematical physicist, mathematician and philosopher of science.
Sir Roger Vernon Scruton (born 27 February 1944) is an English philosopher and writer who specialises in aesthetics and political philosophy, particularly in the furtherance of traditionalist conservative views.
Rolls-Royce Holdings plc is a British multinational public limited company incorporated in February 2011 that owns Rolls-Royce, a business established in 1904 which today designs, manufactures and distributes power systems for aviation and other industries.
The Roman Baths complex is a site of historical interest in the English city of Bath.
Roman Britain (Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") was the area of the island of Great Britain that was governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 410 AD.
The Roman client kingdoms in Britain were native tribes who chose to align themselves with the Roman Empire because they saw it as the best option for self-preservation or for protection from other hostile tribes.
The Roman conquest of Britain was a gradual process, beginning effectively in AD 43 under Emperor Claudius, whose general Aulus Plautius served as first governor of Roman Britain (Britannia).
Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most widely used legal system today, and the terms are sometimes used synonymously.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Roman roads (Latin: viae Romanae; singular: via Romana meaning "Roman way") were physical infrastructure vital to the maintenance and development of the Roman state, and were built from about 300 BC through the expansion and consolidation of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
Ancient Roman temples were among the most important buildings in Roman culture, and some of the richest buildings in Roman architecture, though only a few survive in any sort of complete state.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare early in his career about two young star-crossed lovers whose deaths ultimately reconcile their feuding families.
Ronald Antonio O'Sullivan, (born 5 December 1975) is an English professional snooker player.
"Roses Are Red" can refer to a specific poem, or a class of poems inspired by that poem.
Rotherham is a large town in South Yorkshire, England, which together with its conurbation and outlying settlements to the north, south and south-east forms the Metropolitan Borough of Rotherham, with a recorded population of 257,280 in the 2011 census.
Rounders (cluiche corr) is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams.
Roundheads were supporters of the Parliament of England during the English Civil War.
In 1847 John Payne Collier (1789–1883) printed "A Book of Roxburghe Ballads".
The Royal Academy of Arts (RA) is an art institution based in Burlington House on Piccadilly in London.
The Royal Albert Hall is a concert hall on the northern edge of South Kensington, London, which has held the Proms concerts annually each summer since 1941.
The Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927 (17 & 18 Geo. 5 c. 4) was an act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that authorised the alteration of the British monarch's royal style and titles, and altered the formal name of the British Parliament, in recognition of most of Ireland separating from the United Kingdom as the Irish Free State.
The Royal Arms of England are the arms first adopted in a fixed form at the start of the age of heraldry (circa 1200) as personal arms by the Plantagenet kings who ruled England from 1154.
The Royal Crescent is a row of 30 terraced houses laid out in a sweeping crescent in the city of Bath, England.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The Royal Oak is the English oak tree within which the future King Charles II of England hid to escape the Roundheads following the Battle of Worcester in 1651.
The Royal Opera House (ROH) is an opera house and major performing arts venue in Covent Garden, central London.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
A rubber band (also known as an elastic band or gum band) is a loop of rubber, usually ring shaped, and commonly used to hold multiple objects together.
The Rudston Monolith at over is the tallest megalith (standing stone) in the United Kingdom.
Joseph Rudyard Kipling (30 December 1865 – 18 January 1936)The Times, (London) 18 January 1936, p. 12 was an English journalist, short-story writer, poet, and novelist.
The Rugby Football League Championship First Division was the top division of rugby league in the UK between 1895 and 1996.
Rugby league football is a full-contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular field.
The Rugby League World Cup is an international rugby league tournament, contested by national teams of the Rugby League International Federation, which was first held in France in 1954, the first World Cup in either rugby code.
Rugby School is a day and boarding co-educational independent school in Rugby, Warwickshire, England.
Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.
Rugby is a market town in Warwickshire, England, close to the River Avon.
The Ryder Cup is a biennial men's golf competition between teams from Europe and the United States.
SABRE (Synergistic Air-Breathing Rocket Engine) is a concept under development by Reaction Engines Limited for a hypersonic precooled hybrid air-breathing rocket engine.
Sailing employs the wind—acting on sails, wingsails or kites—to propel a craft on the surface of the water (sailing ship, sailboat, windsurfer, or kitesurfer), on ice (iceboat) or on land (land yacht) over a chosen course, which is often part of a larger plan of navigation.
Saint Alban (Albanus) is venerated as the first-recorded British Christian martyr, and he is considered to be the British protomartyr.
Saint George (Γεώργιος, Geṓrgios; Georgius;; to 23 April 303), according to legend, was a Roman soldier of Greek origin and a member of the Praetorian Guard for Roman emperor Diocletian, who was sentenced to death for refusing to recant his Christian faith.
Saint George is the patron saint of England in a tradition established in the Tudor period, based in the saint's popularity during the times of the Crusades and the Hundred Years' War.
Saint Patrick (Patricius; Pádraig; Padrig) was a fifth-century Romano-British Christian missionary and bishop in Ireland.
Saint Petroc or Petrock (Petrocus; Pedrog; Perreux; died) was a British prince and Christian saint.
Saint Piran or Pyran (Peran, Piranus), died c. 480,. Oecumenical Patriarchate, Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain.
Sale is a town in Trafford, Greater Manchester, England.
Salford is a town in the City of Salford, North West England.
Salisbury Cathedral, formally known as the Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary, is an Anglican cathedral in Salisbury, England, and one of the leading examples of Early English architecture.
Salisbury Plain is a chalk plateau in the south western part of central southern England covering.
Saltaire is a Victorian model village located in Shipley, part of the City of Bradford Metropolitan District, in West Yorkshire, England.
Samuel Alexander Mendes (born 1 August 1965) is an English stage and film director.
Samlesbury is a village and civil parish in the borough of South Ribble in Lancashire, England.
Samuel Johnson LL.D. (18 September 1709 – 13 December 1784), often referred to as Dr.
Samuel Ryder (24 March 1858 – 2 January 1936) was an English businessman, entrepreneur, golf enthusiast, and golf promoter.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge (21 October 177225 July 1834) was an English poet, literary critic, philosopher and theologian who, with his friend William Wordsworth, was a founder of the Romantic Movement in England and a member of the Lake Poets.
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.
Sanitation in ancient Rome was well advanced compared to other ancient cities and was providing water supply and sanitation services to residents of Rome.
A satellite bus or spacecraft bus is a general model on which multiple-production satellite spacecraft are often based.
A sausage is a cylindrical meat product usually made from ground meat, often pork, beef, or veal, along with salt, spices and other flavourings, and breadcrumbs, encased by a skin.
The Saxons (Saxones, Sachsen, Seaxe, Sahson, Sassen, Saksen) were a Germanic people whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, Saxonia) near the North Sea coast of what is now Germany.
Scafell Pike or is the highest mountain in England, at an elevation of above sea level.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany, comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
A scone is a baked good, usually made of wheat, or oatmeal with baking powder as a leavening agent and baked on sheet pans.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
The Scotland national football team represents Scotland in international football and is controlled by the Scottish Football Association.
The Scottish Enlightenment (Scots Enlichtenment, Soillseachadh na h-Alba) was the period in 18th and early 19th century Scotland characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and scientific accomplishments.
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.
The Scottish National Party (SNP; Pàrtaidh Nàiseanta na h-Alba, Scots Naitional Pairtie) is a Scottish nationalist and social-democratic political party in Scotland.
The Scottish people (Scots: Scots Fowk, Scottish Gaelic: Albannaich), or Scots, are a nation and ethnic group native to Scotland. Historically, they emerged from an amalgamation of two Celtic-speaking peoples, the Picts and Gaels, who founded the Kingdom of Scotland (or Alba) in the 9th century. Later, the neighbouring Celtic-speaking Cumbrians, as well as Germanic-speaking Anglo-Saxons and Norse, were incorporated into the Scottish nation. In modern usage, "Scottish people" or "Scots" is used to refer to anyone whose linguistic, cultural, family ancestral or genetic origins are from Scotland. The Latin word Scoti originally referred to the Gaels, but came to describe all inhabitants of Scotland. Considered archaic or pejorative, the term Scotch has also been used for Scottish people, primarily outside Scotland. John Kenneth Galbraith in his book The Scotch (Toronto: MacMillan, 1964) documents the descendants of 19th-century Scottish pioneers who settled in Southwestern Ontario and affectionately referred to themselves as 'Scotch'. He states the book was meant to give a true picture of life in the community in the early decades of the 20th century. People of Scottish descent live in many countries other than Scotland. Emigration, influenced by factors such as the Highland and Lowland Clearances, Scottish participation in the British Empire, and latterly industrial decline and unemployment, have resulted in Scottish people being found throughout the world. Scottish emigrants took with them their Scottish languages and culture. Large populations of Scottish people settled the new-world lands of North and South America, Australia and New Zealand. Canada has the highest level of Scottish descendants per capita in the world and the second-largest population of Scottish descendants, after the United States. Scotland has seen migration and settlement of many peoples at different periods in its history. The Gaels, the Picts and the Britons have their respective origin myths, like most medieval European peoples. Germanic peoples, such as the Anglo-Saxons, arrived beginning in the 7th century, while the Norse settled parts of Scotland from the 8th century onwards. In the High Middle Ages, from the reign of David I of Scotland, there was some emigration from France, England and the Low Countries to Scotland. Some famous Scottish family names, including those bearing the names which became Bruce, Balliol, Murray and Stewart came to Scotland at this time. Today Scotland is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens.
Scottish Westminster constituencies were Scottish constituencies of the House of Commons of the Parliament of Great Britain, normally at the Palace of Westminster, from 1708 to 1801, and have been constituencies of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, also at Westminster, since 1801.
A sea shanty, chantey, or chanty is a type of work song that was once commonly sung to accompany labor on board large merchant sailing vessels.
A seat belt (also known as a seatbelt or safety belt) is a vehicle safety device designed to secure the occupant of a vehicle against harmful movement that may result during a collision or a sudden stop.
A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Health and Social Care (Secretary of State for Health until 8 January 2018) is a UK cabinet position responsible for the National Health Service (NHS).
A seed drill is a device that sows the seeds for crops by metering out the individual seeds, positioning them in the soil, and covering them to a certain average depth.
Septimius Severus (Lucius Septimius Severus Augustus; 11 April 145 – 4 February 211), also known as Severus, was Roman emperor from 193 to 211.
The Severn bore is a tidal bore seen on the tidal reaches of the River Severn in south western England.
Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England.
Sheffield Football Club is an English football club from Sheffield, South Yorkshire, although now based in Dronfield, Derbyshire.
The Sheffield Supertram (officially the Stagecoach Supertram) is a light rail tram system in the city of Sheffield, England.
The Sheffield Urban Area is a conurbation in the North of England with a population of 685,368 according to the 2011 census.
Shepherd's pie or cottage pie is a meat pie with a crust of mashed potato.
Shepperton Studios is a film studio located in Shepperton, Surrey, England with a history dating back to 1931.
The Sheriff of Nottingham is the main antagonist in the legend of Robin Hood.
Sherwood Forest is a royal forest in Nottinghamshire, England, famous by its historic association with the legend of Robin Hood.
Shoegaze (or shoegazing, originally interchangeable with "dream pop"Nathaniel Wice / Steven Daly: "The dream pop bands were lionized by the capricious British music press, which later took to dismissing them as "shoegazers" for their affectless stage presence.", Alt. Culture: An A-To-Z Guide to the '90s-Underground, Online, and Over-The-Counter, p. 73, HarperCollins Publishers 1995) is a subgenre of indie and alternative rock that emerged in the United Kingdom in the late 1980s.
Shropshire (alternatively Salop; abbreviated, in print only, Shrops; demonym Salopian) is a county in the West Midlands of England, bordering Wales to the west, Cheshire to the north, Staffordshire to the east, and Worcestershire and Herefordshire to the south.
The Shropshire Hills is an upland area and one of the natural regions of England.
Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.
Silverstone Circuit is a motor racing circuit in England next to the Northamptonshire villages of Silverstone and Whittlebury.
A single market is a type of trade bloc in which most trade barriers have been removed (for goods) with some common policies on product regulation, and freedom of movement of the factors of production (capital and labour) and of enterprise and services.
A single-track railway is a railway where trains traveling in both directions share the same track.
A sixth form college is an educational institution in England, Wales, Northern Ireland, Belize, the Caribbean, Malta, Norway, Brunei, and Malaysia, among others, where students aged 16 to 19 typically study for advanced school-level qualifications, such as A-levels, Business and Technology Education Council (BTEC) and the International Baccalaureate Diploma, or school-level qualifications such as General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) examinations.
Skylon is a series of designs for a single-stage-to-orbit spaceplane by the British company Reaction Engines Limited (REL), using SABRE, a combined-cycle, air-breathing rocket propulsion system.
Smallpox vaccine, the first successful vaccine to be developed, was introduced by Edward Jenner in 1796.
Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.
Snooker is a cue sport which originated among British Army officers stationed in India in the latter half of the 19th century.
In both moral and political philosophy, the social contract is a theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment.
Socialized medicine is a term used in the United States to describe and discuss systems of universal health care: medical and hospital care for all at a nominal cost by means of government regulation of health care and subsidies derived from taxation.
Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes.
The software industry includes businesses for development, maintenance and publication of software that are using different business models, mainly either "license/maintenance based" (on-premises) or "Cloud based" (such as SaaS, PaaS, IaaS, MaaS, AaaS, etc.). The industry also includes software services, such as training, documentation, consulting and data recovery.
Solihull is a large town in the West Midlands of England with a population of 206,700 in the 2011 Census.
The Somerset Levels are a coastal plain and wetland area of Somerset, South West England, running south from the Mendips to the Blackdown Hills.
The South Coast Plain is a natural region in England running along the central south coast in the counties of East and West Sussex and Hampshire.
The South Downs are a range of chalk hills that extends for about across the south-eastern coastal counties of England from the Itchen Valley of Hampshire in the west to Beachy Head, near Eastbourne, East Sussex, in the east.
South East England is the most populous of the nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes.
South Hampshire is a term used mainly to refer to the metropolitan area formed by the cities of Portsmouth and Southampton and their suburbs and commuter towns, in southern Hampshire, England.
South Shields is a coastal town at the mouth of the River Tyne, England, about downstream from Newcastle upon Tyne.
South West England is one of nine official regions of England.
Southampton is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Hampshire, England.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
The Spanish Armada (Grande y Felicísima Armada, literally "Great and Most Fortunate Navy") was a Spanish fleet of 130 ships that sailed from A Coruña in late May 1588, under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia, with the purpose of escorting an army from Flanders to invade England.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
"Spanish Ladies" (Roud 687) is a traditional British naval song, describing a voyage from Spain to the Downs from the viewpoint of ratings of the Royal Navy.
The Speaker of the House of Commons is the presiding officer of the House of Commons, the United Kingdom's lower chamber of Parliament.
The spinning frame is an Industrial Revolution invention for spinning thread or yarn from fibres such as wool or cotton in a mechanised way.
Sport England is a non-departmental public body under the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.
Spotted dick is a British pudding, made with suet and dried fruit (usually currants and/or raisins) and often served with custard.
Squash is a ball sport played by two (singles) or four players (doubles squash) in a four-walled court with a small, hollow rubber ball.
St Helens R.F.C. is a professional rugby league club in St Helens, Merseyside currently competing in the Super League, the top tier of competition for rugby league in Europe.
St Helens is a large town in Merseyside, England.
St Paul's School is a selective independent school for boys aged 13–18, founded in 1509 by John Colet and located on a 43-acre (180,000m2) site by the River Thames, in Barnes, London.
The Staffordshire Hoard is the largest hoard of Anglo-Saxon gold and silver metalwork.
Stapleford is a town in the county of Nottinghamshire, England some west of the centre of Nottingham.
The State Opening of Parliament is an event which formally marks the beginning of a session of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
State schools (also known as public schools outside England and Wales)In England and Wales, some independent schools for 13- to 18-year-olds are known as 'public schools'.
Steak and kidney pie is a savoury pie that is filled principally with a mixture of diced beef, diced kidney (often of beef, lamb, or pork), fried onion, and brown gravy.
A steak pie is a traditional meat pie served in Britain.
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.
A steamship, often referred to as a steamer, is a type of steam powered vessel, typically ocean-faring and seaworthy, that is propelled by one or more steam engines that typically drive (turn) propellers or paddlewheels.
Stephen William Hawking (8 January 1942 – 14 March 2018) was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author, who was director of research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at the University of Cambridge at the time of his death.
Steve Davis, (born 22 August 1957) is an English retired professional snooker player from Plumstead, London.
Steven Rodney McQueen (born 9 October 1969) is a British film director, producer, screenwriter, and video artist.
Stevenage is a town and borough in Hertfordshire, England.
Sticky toffee pudding is a British dessert consisting of a very moist sponge cake, made with finely chopped dates, covered in a toffee sauce and often served with a vanilla custard or vanilla ice-cream.
Stilton is an English cheese, produced in two varieties: Blue, known for its characteristic strong smell and taste, and the lesser-known White.
Sir Stirling Craufurd Moss (born 17 September 1929) is a British former Formula One racing driver.
A stock exchange, securities exchange or bourse, is a facility where stock brokers and traders can buy and sell securities, such as shares of stock and bonds and other financial instruments.
A stockade is an enclosure of palisades and tall walls made of logs placed side by side vertically with the tops sharpened as a defensive wall.
Stockport is a large town in Greater Manchester, England, south-east of Manchester city centre, where the River Goyt and Tame merge to create the River Mersey.
The Stockton and Darlington Railway (S&DR) was a railway company that operated in north-east England from 1825 to 1863.
Stoke Gifford is a large dormitory village, and parish in South Gloucestershire, England, in the northern suburbs of Bristol.
Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument in Wiltshire, England, west of Amesbury.
Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites is a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in Wiltshire, England.
Stout is a dark beer that includes roasted malt or roasted barley, hops, water and yeast.
A student loan is a type of loan designed to help students pay for post-secondary education and the associated fees, such as tuition, books and supplies, and living expenses.
Studley Royal Park including the ruins of Fountains Abbey is a designated World Heritage Site in North Yorkshire, England.
The subdivisions of England constitute a hierarchy of administrative divisions and non-administrative ceremonial areas.
Suffragettes were members of women's organisations in the late-19th and early-20th centuries who, under the banner "Votes for Women", fought for women's suffrage, the right to vote in public elections.
The Summer Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'été) or the Games of the Olympiad, first held in 1896, is an international multi-sport event that is hosted by a different city every four years.
The Sunday roast is a traditional British main meal that is typically served on Sunday (hence the name), consisting of roasted meat, roast potato, and accompaniments such as Yorkshire pudding, stuffing, vegetables and gravy.
Super League (currently known as the Betfred Super League for sponsorship reasons) is the top-level professional rugby league club competition in the Northern hemisphere.
The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the supreme court in all matters under English and Welsh law, Northern Irish law and Scottish civil law.
The Supreme Governor of the Church of England is a title held by the British monarch that signifies titular leadership over the Church of England.
Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd, or SSTL, is a spin-off company of the University of Surrey, now majority-owned by Airbus Defence and Space, that builds and operates small satellites.
Sweyn Forkbeard (Old Norse: Sveinn Haraldsson tjúguskegg; Danish: Svend Tveskæg; 960 – 3 February 1014) was king of Denmark during 986–1014.
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
The Synod of Whitby (664 A.D.) was a Northumbrian synod where King Oswiu of Northumbria ruled that his kingdom would calculate Easter and observe the monastic tonsure according to the customs of Rome, rather than the customs practised by Irish monks at Iona and its satellite institutions.
Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (–) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.
Tarmacadam is a road surfacing material made by combining macadam surfaces, tar, and sand, patented by English inventor Edgar Purnell Hooley in 1902.
Tate is an institution that houses the United Kingdom's national collection of British art, and international modern and contemporary art.
Taxation in the United Kingdom may involve payments to a minimum of three different levels of government: the central government (Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs), devolved governments and local government.
Team Lotus was the motorsport sister company of English sports car manufacturer Lotus Cars.
Ted "Kid" Lewis (born Gershon Mendeloff; 28 October 1893 – 20 October 1970) was an English professional boxer who twice won the World Welterweight Championship (147 lb).
The Tees-Exe line is an imaginary northeast-southwest line that can be drawn on a map of Great Britain which roughly divides the country into lowland and upland regions.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).
Sir Terence David John Pratchett (28 April 1948 – 12 March 2015) was an English author of fantasy novels, especially comical works.
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory.
Thatching is the craft of building a roof with dry vegetation such as straw, water reed, sedge (Cladium mariscus), rushes, heather, or palm fronds, layering the vegetation so as to shed water away from the inner roof.
The Ashes is a Test cricket series played between England and Australia.
The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960.
The Blitz was a German bombing offensive against Britain in 1940 and 1941, during the Second World War.
The Canterbury Tales (Tales of Caunterbury) is a collection of 24 stories that runs to over 17,000 lines written in Middle English by Geoffrey Chaucer between 1387 and 1400.
The Championships, Wimbledon, commonly known simply as Wimbledon, is the oldest tennis tournament in the world, and is widely regarded as the most prestigious.
The Crystal Palace was a cast-iron and plate-glass structure originally built in Hyde Park, London, to house the Great Exhibition of 1851.
The Dancing Master (first edition: The English Dancing Master) is a dancing manual containing the music and instructions for English Country Dances.
The Fens, also known as the, are a coastal plain in eastern England.
"The First Noel" (also written "The First Noël" and "The First Nowell") is a traditional classical English Christmas carol, most likely from the early modern period, although possibly earlier.
The Football Association (FA) is the governing body of association football in England, the Crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man.
The Forme of Cury (The Method of Cooking, cury being from Middle French cuire: to cook) is an extensive collection of medieval English recipes from the 14th century.
‘The Grand Old Duke of York’ (also sung as The Noble Duke of York) is an English children's nursery rhyme, often performed as an action song.
The Imaginarium, also known as Imaginarium Productions, is a production company linked to a digital performance-capture studio based in London, founded by actor-director Andy Serkis and film producer Jonathan Cavendish in 2011.
The Jungle Book (1894) is a collection of stories by the English author Rudyard Kipling.
The King's School is a selective British co-educational independent school for both day and boarding pupils in the English city of Canterbury in Kent.
The Lodger: A Story of the London Fog is a 1927 British silent film directed by Alfred Hitchcock and starring Marie Ault, Arthur Chesney, June Tripp, Malcolm Keen, and Ivor Novello.
The Midlands is a cultural and geographic area roughly spanning central England that broadly corresponds to the early medieval Kingdom of Mercia.
The Open Championship, often referred to as The Open or the British Open, is the oldest of the four major championships in professional golf.
The Piano is a 1993 New Zealand drama film about a mute piano player and her daughter, set during the mid-19th century in a rainy, muddy frontier backwater town on the west coast of New Zealand.
The Proms is an eight-week summer season of daily orchestral classical music concerts and other events held annually, predominantly in the Royal Albert Hall in central London.
The Protectorate was the period during the Commonwealth (or, to monarchists, the Interregnum) when England and Wales, Ireland and Scotland were governed by a Lord Protector as a republic.
The Rolling Stones are an English rock band formed in London, England, in 1962.
The Royal Ballet is an internationally renowned classical ballet company, based at the Royal Opera House in Covent Garden, London, England.
The Salvation Army is a Protestant Christian church and an international charitable organisation structured in a quasi-military fashion.
The Stationery Office (TSO) is a British publishing company created in 1996 when the publishing arm of Her Majesty's Stationery Office was privatised.
The Times was a South African daily newspaper and an offshoot of The Sunday Times, to whose subscribers it was delivered gratis; non-subscribers paid R2.50 per edition in the early years.
The World's 50 Best Restaurants is a list produced by the British magazine Restaurant, based on a poll of international chefs, restaurateurs, gourmands and restaurant critics.
Theresa Mary May (Brasier; born 1 October 1956) is a British politician serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party since 2016.
In ancient Rome, thermae (from Greek θερμός thermos, "hot") and balneae (from Greek βαλανεῖον balaneion) were facilities for bathing.
Thermosiphon (or thermosyphon) is a method of passive heat exchange, based on natural convection, which circulates a fluid without the necessity of a mechanical pump.
Thomas Bayes (c. 1701 7 April 1761) was an English statistician, philosopher and Presbyterian minister who is known for formulating a specific case of the theorem that bears his name: Bayes' theorem.
Thomas Becket (also known as Saint Thomas of Canterbury, Thomas of London, and later Thomas à Becket; (21 December c. 1119 (or 1120) – 29 December 1170) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 until his murder in 1170. He is venerated as a saint and martyr by both the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion. He engaged in conflict with Henry II, King of England, over the rights and privileges of the Church and was murdered by followers of the king in Canterbury Cathedral. Soon after his death, he was canonised by Pope Alexander III.
Thomas Gainsborough FRSA (14 May 1727 (baptised) – 2 August 1788) was an English portrait and landscape painter, draughtsman, and printmaker.
Thomas Hardy (2 June 1840 – 11 January 1928) was an English novelist and poet.
Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
Thomas Kyd (baptised 6 November 1558; buried 15 August 1594) was an English playwright, the author of The Spanish Tragedy, and one of the most important figures in the development of Elizabethan drama.
Sir Thomas More (7 February 14786 July 1535), venerated in the Catholic Church as Saint Thomas More, was an English lawyer, social philosopher, author, statesman, and noted Renaissance humanist.
Thomas Newcomen (February 1664 – 5 August 1729) was an English inventor who created the first practical steam engine in 1712, the Newcomen atmospheric engine.
Thomas Paine (born Thomas Pain; – In the contemporary record as noted by Conway, Paine's birth date is given as January 29, 1736–37. Common practice was to use a dash or a slash to separate the old-style year from the new-style year. In the old calendar, the new year began on March 25, not January 1. Paine's birth date, therefore, would have been before New Year, 1737. In the new style, his birth date advances by eleven days and his year increases by one to February 9, 1737. The O.S. link gives more detail if needed. – June 8, 1809) was an English-born American political activist, philosopher, political theorist and revolutionary.
Thomas Tallis (1505 – 23 November 1585) was an English composer who occupies a primary place in anthologies of English choral music, and is considered one of England's greatest composers.
Thomas Young FRS (13 June 1773 – 10 May 1829) was a British polymath and physician.
The Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known for its use in horse racing.
Thriller film, also known as suspense film or suspense thriller, is a broad film genre that involves excitement and suspense in the audience.
A tidal bore, often simply given as bore in context, is a tidal phenomenon in which the leading edge of the incoming tide forms a wave (or waves) of water that travels up a river or narrow bay against the direction of the river or bay's current.
Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee (born 8 June 1955), also known as TimBL, is an English engineer and computer scientist, best known as the inventor of the World Wide Web.
Toad in the hole or Sausage Toad is a traditional English dish consisting of sausages in Yorkshire pudding batter, usually served with onion gravy and vegetables.
Edward Thomas Hardy, CBE (born 15 September 1977) is an English actor and producer.
Anthony Jacklin CBE (born 7 July 1944) is a retired English golfer.
A Tory is a person who holds a political philosophy, known as Toryism, based on a British version of traditionalism and conservatism, which upholds the supremacy of social order as it has evolved throughout history.
Total Film is a British film magazine published 13 times a year (published monthly and a summer issue is added every year since issue 91, 2004 which is published between July and August issue) by Future Publishing.
The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London.
Trafalgar Square is a public square in the City of Westminster, Central London, built around the area formerly known as Charing Cross.
Tramlink is a light rail tram system serving Croydon and surrounding areas in South London, England.
The Treaty of Union is the name usually now given to the agreement which led to the creation of the new state of Great Britain, stating that England (which already included Wales) and Scotland were to be "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain",: Both Acts of Union and the Treaty state in Article I: That the Two Kingdoms of Scotland and England, shall upon 1 May next ensuing the date hereof, and forever after, be United into One Kingdom by the Name of GREAT BRITAIN.
Triangular trade or triangle trade is a historical term indicating trade among three ports or regions.
Catrina Elizabeth 'Trina' Gulliver MBE (born 30 November 1969) is an English professional darts player.
The Trinovantes or Trinobantes were one of the Celtic tribes of pre-Roman Britain.
Trip hop (sometimes used synonymously with "downtempo") is a musical genre that originated in the early 1990s in the United Kingdom, especially Bristol.
The Triple Crown of Motorsport is an unofficial motorsport achievement, often regarded as winning three of the most prestigious motor races in the world in one's career.
A triumphal arch is a monumental structure in the shape of an archway with one or more arched passageways, often designed to span a road.
A troll is a class of being in Norse mythology and Scandinavian folklore.
Truro (Truru) is a city and civil parish in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom.
The Tudor architectural style is the final development of Medieval architecture in England, during the Tudor period (1485–1603) and even beyond, and also the tentative introduction of Renaissance architecture to England.
The Tudor period is the period between 1485 and 1603 in England and Wales and includes the Elizabethan period during the reign of Elizabeth I until 1603.
The Tudor rose (sometimes called the Union rose) is the traditional floral heraldic emblem of England and takes its name and origins from the House of Tudor, which united the House of York and House of Lancaster.
Tuition fees were first introduced across the entire United Kingdom in September 1998 under the Labour government as a means of funding tuition to undergraduate and postgraduate certificate students at universities, with students being required to pay up to £1,000 a year for tuition.
Tuition payments, usually known as tuition in American English and as tuition fees in Commonwealth English, are fees charged by education institutions for instruction or other services.
The Turner Prize, named after the English painter J. M. W. Turner, is an annual prize presented to a British visual artist.
"Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star" is a popular English lullaby.
The Tyne and Wear Metro, referred to locally as simply The Metro, is a rapid transit and light rail system in North East England, serving Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead, South Tyneside, North Tyneside and Sunderland in the Tyne and Wear region.
Tyneside is a conurbation on the banks of the River Tyne in North East England which includes Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead, Tynemouth, Wallsend, South Shields, and Jarrow.
The UEFA Champions League is an annual continental club football competition organised by the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) and contested by top-division European clubs.
UK garage (also known as UKG) is a genre of electronic music originating from England in the early 1990s.
The UK Independence Party (UKIP) is a Eurosceptic and right-wing populist political party in the United Kingdom.
The Union Jack, or Union Flag, is the national flag of the United Kingdom.
The Union of the Crowns (Aonadh nan Crùintean; Union o the Crouns) was the accession of James VI of Scotland to the thrones of England and Ireland, and the consequential unification for some purposes (such as overseas diplomacy) of the three realms under a single monarch on 24 March 1603.
Unitarianism (from Latin unitas "unity, oneness", from unus "one") is historically a Christian theological movement named for its belief that the God in Christianity is one entity, as opposed to the Trinity (tri- from Latin tres "three") which defines God as three persons in one being; the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
Unitary authorities of England are local authorities that are responsible for the provision of all local government services within a district.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
A census of the population of the United Kingdom is taken every ten years.
The 2017 United Kingdom general election took place on Thursday 8 June, having been announced just under two months earlier by Prime Minister Theresa May on 18 April 2017 after it was discussed at cabinet.
The United Kingdom legislation derives from a number of different sources.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
University College London (UCL) is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
The University of Exeter is a public research university in Exeter, Devon, South West England, United Kingdom.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
V Festival, often referred to simply as V Fest or VF, was an annual music festival held in England during the third weekend in August.
A vacuum cleaner, also known as a sweeper or hoover, is a device that uses an air pump (a centrifugal fan in all but some of the very oldest models), to create a partial vacuum to suck up dust and dirt, usually from floors, and from other surfaces such as upholstery and draperies.
The Varsity Line (or Oxford to Cambridge line) is the railway route that used to link the English university cities of Oxford and Cambridge, operated successively by the London and North Western Railway, the London, Midland and Scottish Railway, and British Railways.
Vatican City (Città del Vaticano; Civitas Vaticana), officially the Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano; Status Civitatis Vaticanae), is an independent state located within the city of Rome.
The Vespasian Psalter (London, British Library, Cotton Vespasian A I) is an Anglo-Saxon illuminated psalter decorated in a partly Insular style produced in the second or third quarter of the 8th century.
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
A villa was originally an ancient Roman upper-class country house.
Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
Sarah Virginia Wade, (born 10 July 1945) is a former professional tennis player from Great Britain.
Adeline Virginia Woolf (née Stephen; 25 January 188228 March 1941) was an English writer, who is considered one of the most important modernist 20th-century authors and a pioneer in the use of stream of consciousness as a narrative device.
Vivien Leigh (born Vivian Mary Hartley, and also known as Lady Olivier after 1947; 5 November 19138 July 1967) was an English stage and film actress.
Wakefield is a city in West Yorkshire, England, on the River Calder and the eastern edge of the Pennines, which had a population of 99,251 at the 2011 census.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
Walsall is an industrial town in the West Midlands of England.
Sir Walter Raleigh (or; circa 155429 October 1618) was an English landed gentleman, writer, poet, soldier, politician, courtier, spy and explorer.
The Wars of the Roses were a series of English civil wars for control of the throne of England fought between supporters of two rival branches of the royal House of Plantagenet: the House of Lancaster, associated with a red rose, and the House of York, whose symbol was a white rose.
The Wars of the Three Kingdoms, sometimes known as the British Civil Wars, formed an intertwined series of conflicts that took place in the kingdoms of England, Ireland and Scotland between 1639 and 1651.
Warton is a village on the Fylde in Lancashire, England.
Warwick Castle is a medieval castle developed from an original built by William the Conqueror in 1068.
Wasps Rugby Football Club is an English professional rugby union team based in Coventry, England.
The Water Music is a collection of orchestral movements, often published as three suites, composed by George Frideric Handel.
Wattle and daub is a composite building material used for making walls, in which a woven lattice of wooden strips called wattle is daubed with a sticky material usually made of some combination of wet soil, clay, sand, animal dung and straw.
In Germanic mythology, Wayland the Smith (Wēland;; Wiolant; italic Wieland der Schmied; Galans (Galant) in French; from Wēla-nandaz, lit. "battle-brave") is a legendary master blacksmith, described by Jessie Weston as "the weird and malicious craftsman, Weyland".
"We Wish You a Merry Christmas" is a popular English Christmas carol from the West Country of England.
The Weald is an area of South East England between the parallel chalk escarpments of the North and the South Downs.
Wells is a cathedral city and civil parish in the Mendip district of Somerset, on the southern edge of the Mendip Hills.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
Wembley Stadium is a football stadium in Wembley, London, England, which opened in 2007, on the site of the original Wembley Stadium, which was demolished from 2002–2003.
Wensleydale is a style of cheese originally produced in Wensleydale, North Yorkshire, England, but now mostly made in large commercial creameries throughout the UK.
Wessex (Westseaxna rīce, the "kingdom of the West Saxons") was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom in the south of Great Britain, from 519 until England was unified by Æthelstan in the early 10th century.
The West Country is a loosely defined area of south western England.
West End theatre is a common term for mainstream professional theatre staged in the large theatres of "Theatreland" in and near the West End of London.
The West Lothian question, also known as the English question, refers to whether MPs from Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales, sitting in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, should be able to vote on matters that affect only England, while MPs from England are unable to vote on matters that have been devolved to the Northern Ireland Assembly, the Scottish Parliament and the Welsh Assembly.
The West Midlands conurbation is the large conurbation that includes the cities of Birmingham and Wolverhampton and the large towns of Sutton Coldfield, Dudley, Walsall, West Bromwich, Solihull, Stourbridge and Halesowen in the English West Midlands.
West Midlands Metro is a light-rail/tram line in the county of West Midlands, England, operating between the cities of Birmingham and Wolverhampton via the towns of West Bromwich and Wednesbury.
The West Yorkshire Built-up Area, previously known as the West Yorkshire Urban Area is a term used by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) to refer to a conurbation in West Yorkshire, England, based on the cities of Leeds, Bradford and Wakefield, and the large towns of Huddersfield and Halifax.
Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster.
The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom.
White British is an ethnicity classification used in the 2011 United Kingdom Census.
The White Cliffs of Dover, part of the North Downs formation, is the name given to the region of English coastline facing the Strait of Dover and France.
Wicca, also termed Pagan Witchcraft, is a contemporary Pagan new religious movement.
Wigan Warriors is a professional Rugby League club based in Wigan, England.
Wilfrid (c. 633 – c. 709) was an English bishop and saint.
William Henry Beveridge, 1st Baron Beveridge, (5 March 1879 – 16 March 1963) was a British economist who was a noted progressive and social reformer.
William Blake (28 November 1757 – 12 August 1827) was an English poet, painter, and printmaker.
William Byrd (birth date variously given as c.1539/40 or 1543 – 4 July 1623), was an English composer of the Renaissance.
William Cobbett (9 March 1763 – 18 June 1835) was an English pamphleteer, farmer, journalist and member of parliament, who was born in Farnham, Surrey.
William Dobson (4 March 1611 (baptised); 28 October 1646 (buried)) was a portraitist and one of the first notable English painters, praised by his contemporary John Aubrey as "the most excellent painter that England has yet bred".
William Holman Hunt (2 April 1827 – 7 September 1910) was an English painter and one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.
William III (Willem; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702), also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702.
William Langland (Willielmus de Langland; 1332 – c. 1386) is the presumed author of a work of Middle English alliterative verse generally known as Piers Plowman, an allegory with a complex variety of religious themes.
William of Ockham (also Occam, from Gulielmus Occamus; 1287 – 1347) was an English Franciscan friar and scholastic philosopher and theologian, who is believed to have been born in Ockham, a small village in Surrey.
Sir William Paterson (April 1658 - 22 January 1719) was a Scottish trader and banker.
William Penny Brookes (13 August 1809 – 11 December 1895) was an English surgeon, magistrate, botanist, and educationalist especially known for inspiring the modern Olympic Games, the Wenlock Olympian Games and for his promotion of physical education and personal betterment.
William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 – 23 January 1806) was a prominent British Tory statesman of the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
William I (c. 1028Bates William the Conqueror p. 33 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087.
William Wordsworth (7 April 1770 – 23 April 1850) was a major English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their joint publication Lyrical Ballads (1798).
Williams Grand Prix Engineering Limited, currently racing in Formula One as Williams Martini Racing, is a British Formula One motor racing team and constructor.
Winchester College is an independent boarding school for boys in the British public school tradition, situated in Winchester, Hampshire.
Windermere is the largest natural lake in England.
Windsor Castle is a royal residence at Windsor in the English county of Berkshire.
Windsor Great Park is a Royal Park of, including a deer park, to the south of the town of Windsor on the border of Berkshire and Surrey in England.
Windsor is a historic market town and unparished area in the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead in Berkshire, England.
Winnie-the-Pooh, also called Pooh Bear, is a fictional anthropomorphic teddy bear created by English author A. A. Milne.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
Witchcraft or witchery broadly means the practice of and belief in magical skills and abilities exercised by solitary practitioners and groups.
Wolverhampton is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England.
The woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis) is an extinct species of rhinoceros that was common throughout Europe and northern Asia during the Pleistocene epoch and survived the last glacial period.
The working class (also labouring class) are the people employed for wages, especially in manual-labour occupations and industrial work.
The World Club Challenge is an annual rugby league competition between the winners of the Australian NRL and the European Super League.
The World Darts Federation (WDF) is the official world sport governing body and (along with the PDC) tournament organiser for the game of darts.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
The World Professional Darts Championship is one of the most important tournaments in the darts calendar.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or the Web) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and accessible via the Internet.
Wynkyn de Worde (died 1534) was a printer and publisher in London known for his work with William Caxton, and is recognised as the first to popularise the products of the printing press in England.
Wytch Farm is an oil field and processing facility in the Purbeck district of Dorset, England.
The Yeomen Warders of Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress the Tower of London, and Members of the Sovereign's Body Guard of the Yeoman Guard Extraordinary, popularly known as the Beefeaters, are ceremonial guardians of the Tower of London.
York is a historic walled city at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England.
The Cathedral and Metropolitical Church of Saint Peter in York, commonly known as York Minster, is the cathedral of York, England, and is one of the largest of its kind in Northern Europe.
Yorkshire (abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England and the largest in the United Kingdom.
Yorkshire and the Humber is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes.
Yorkshire County Cricket Club is one of eighteen first-class county clubs within the domestic cricket structure of England and Wales.
The Yorkshire Dales is an upland area of the Pennines in Northern England in the historic county of Yorkshire, most of it in the Yorkshire Dales National Park created in 1954.
Yorkshire pudding is a common British side dish baked pudding made from batter consisting of eggs, flour, and milk or water.
Zadok the Priest (HWV 258) is a British anthem which was composed by George Frideric Handel for the coronation of King George II in 1727.
The 1908 Summer Olympics, officially the Games of the IV Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was held in 1908 in London, United Kingdom from 27 April to 31 October 1908.
The 1948 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XIV Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event which was held in London, United Kingdom.
The 1950 British Grand Prix, formally known as The Royal Automobile Club Grand Prix d'Europe Incorporating The British Grand Prix, was a Formula One motor race held on 13 May 1950 at the Silverstone Circuit in Silverstone, England.
The 1966 FIFA World Cup (officially: World Championship-Jules Rimet Cup-England 1966) was the eighth World Cup and it was held in England from 11 to 30 July.
The 1966 FIFA World Cup Final was the final match in the 1966 FIFA World Cup, the eighth football World Cup.
The 1991 Rugby World Cup was the second edition of the Rugby World Cup, and was jointly hosted by England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland and France; at that time, the five European countries that participated in the Five Nations Championship making it the first Rugby World Cup to be staged in the northern hemisphere, with England as the host of the championship game.
The 2002 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XVII Commonwealth Games and commonly known as Manchester 2002 were held in Manchester, England, from 25 July to 4 August 2002.
The 2003 Rugby World Cup was the fifth Rugby World Cup and was won by England.
The 2005 Ashes series was that year's edition of the long-standing cricket rivalry between England and Australia.
The 2009 ICC World Twenty20 was an international Twenty20 cricket tournament which took place in England in June 2009.
The 2012 Summer Olympics, formally the Games of the XXX Olympiad and commonly known as London 2012, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 27 July to 12 August 2012 in London, United Kingdom.
The 2015 Rugby World Cup was the eighth Rugby World Cup, the quadrennial rugby union world championship.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
The 2019 Cricket World Cup (officially ICC Cricket World Cup 2019) is the 12th edition of the Cricket World Cup, scheduled to be hosted by England and Wales, from 30 May to 14 July 2019.
The 2nd Spanish Armada also known as the Spanish Armada of 1596Wernham pp 139–40 was a naval operation that took place during the Anglo–Spanish War.
The 3rd Spanish Armada also known as the Spanish Armada of 1597 was a major naval event that took place between October and November 1597 as part of the Anglo–Spanish War.
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