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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. [1]

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Gloucestershire, La Tène culture, Labour Party (UK), Lady Godiva, Lake District, Lamb and mutton, Lamp (electrical component), Lancashire, Lancashire hotpot, Lancelot, Land bridge, Land of Hope and Glory, Land Rover, Language school, Larger urban zone, Last glacial period, Latin, Latin Church, Latin literature, Latitude, Laura Davies, Laurence Olivier, Lawn mower, Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542, Laws of the Game (association football), Led Zeppelin, Leeds, Leeds Rhinos, Leeds United F.C., Leicester Tigers, Lennox Lewis, Lewis Carroll, Lewis Hamilton, Liberal Democrats, Liberty, Library, Life expectancy, Limestone, Lindisfarne Gospels, Lingua franca, List of British monarchs, List of castles in England, List of cathedrals in England and Wales, List of cities in the United Kingdom, List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita, List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita, List of countries by incarceration rate, List of countries by population in 2005, List of countries by tax rates, List of country houses in the United Kingdom, List of English monarchs, List of further education colleges in England, List of highest-grossing films, List of islands of England, List of lakes of England, List of largest cities in the European Union by population within city limits, List of motorways in the United Kingdom, List of music festivals in the United Kingdom, List of Scottish monarchs, List of the world's busiest airports by international passenger traffic, List of universities in England, List of urban areas in the European Union, List of Walt Disney Animation Studios films, Liverpool, Liverpool and Manchester Railway, Liverpool F.C., Liverpool Urban Area, Lloegyr, Local authority leaders' board, Local government in England, Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II, Locomotive, London, London Assembly, London Borough of Barnet, London Borough of Bromley, London Borough of Croydon, London Borough of Ealing, London boroughs, London Bridge Is Falling Down, London Business School, 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Oak Apple Day, Oceanic climate, Offa of Angel, Office for National Statistics, Official language, Ofsted, Ogg, Old English, Old English literature, Oldham, Oliver Cromwell, Olympic Games, On the Universe, Open Library, Opera house, Orchestra, Outline of England, Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford Movement, Pakistan, Palace, Palace of Westminster, Paleozoic, Paradise Lost, Parish church, Parish councils in England, Parliament of England, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Parliamentary system, Pastime with Good Company, Pasty, Patron saint, Paul Dirac, Paul Goodison, Paul Greengrass, Paul Mitchell (broadcaster), Peak District, Pearl Poet, Pearly Kings and Queens, Pennines, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Peter Lely, Peter Sellers, Petroleum, PGA European Tour, PGA Tour, Pharmaceutical drug, Phil Read, Phil Taylor (darts player), Philip Sidney, Phoney War, Pillars of Hercules, Pinewood Studios, Pink Floyd, Pixie, Plough, Poles in the United Kingdom, Political union, Politics of the United Kingdom, 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Renaissance art, Renault, Republic of Genoa, Restaurant (magazine), Restoration (England), Restoration literature, Revelations of Divine Love, Richard Cromwell, Richard Dawkins, Richard I of England, Richard II of England, Richard III of England, Richard Rogers, Ricky Hatton, Ridley Scott, Ripon, River Mersey, River Severn, River Thames, River Tyne, Road racing, Roanoke Colony, Roasting, Robert Boyle, Robert Filmer, Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer, Robert Hooke, Robin Hood, Robin Knox-Johnston, Rod Stewart, Roger Bacon, Roger Scruton, Rolls-Royce Holdings, Roman Baths (Bath), Roman Britain, Roman client kingdoms in Britain, Roman conquest of Britain, Roman law, Roman Republic, Roman roads, Roman temple, Romanticism, Romeo and Juliet, Ronnie O'Sullivan, Roses are Red, Rotherham, Round Table, Rounders, Roundhead, Roxburghe Ballads, Royal Academy of Arts, Royal Albert Hall, Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927, Royal Arms of England, Royal Crescent, Royal Navy, 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Circuit, Single market, Single-track railway, Sixth form college, Skylon (spacecraft), Smallpox vaccine, Smelting, Snooker, Social contract, Socialized medicine, Socioeconomics, Software industry, South Downs, South East England, South Hampshire, South Shields, South West England, Southampton, Southeast Asia, Sovereign state, Spanish Armada, Spanish Empire, Spanish Ladies, Spanish language, Speaker of the House of Commons (United Kingdom), Spinning frame, Sport England, Spotted dick, Squash (sport), St George's Day in England, St Helens RFC, St Helens, Merseyside, St Paul's School, London, Staffordshire Hoard, Stapleford, Nottinghamshire, State Opening of Parliament, State religion, State school, Statute of Rhuddlan, Steak and kidney pie, Steak pie, Steam engine, Steamship, Stephen Hawking, Steve Davis, Steve McQueen (director), Stevenage, Sticky toffee pudding, Stilton cheese, Stirling Moss, Stock exchange, Stockade, Stockport, Stockton and Darlington Railway, Stoke Gifford, Stonehenge, Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites, Stout, Student loan, Studley Royal Park, Subdivisions of England, Suffragette, Summer Olympic Games, Sunday roast, Super League, Supertram (Sheffield), Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, Supreme Governor of the Church of England, Surrey Satellite Technology, Sweyn Forkbeard, Syncretism, Synod of Whitby, Tacitus, Tarmac, Tate, Taxation in the United Kingdom, Team Lotus, Ted "Kid" Lewis, Temperate climate, Tennis, Terry Pratchett, Tertiary sector of the economy, Thatching, The Ashes, The Beatles, The Blitz, The Canterbury Tales, The Championships, Wimbledon, The Crystal Palace, The Dancing Master, The First Noel, The Football Association, The Football League, The Forme of Cury, The Grand Old Duke of York, The Imaginarium Studios, The Jungle Book, The King's School, Canterbury, The Lodger: A Story of the London Fog, The Midlands, The Open Championship, The Piano, The Proms, The Protectorate, The Renaissance, The Rolling Stones, The Royal Ballet, The Salvation Army, The Stationery Office, The Times (South Africa), The World's 50 Best Restaurants, Thermae, Thermosiphon, Thomas Becket, Thomas Gainsborough, Thomas Hardy, Thomas Hobbes, Thomas Kyd, Thomas More, Thomas Newcomen, Thomas Paine, Thomas Tallis, Thoroughbred, Three kingdoms (British Isles), Thriller (genre), Tim Berners-Lee, Toad in the hole, Tom Hardy, Tony Jacklin, Tory, Total Film, Tottenham Hotspur F.C., Tourism, Tower of London, Trafalgar Square, Treaty of Union, Triangular trade, Trina Gulliver, Trinovantes, Trip hop, Triple Crown of Motorsport, Triumphal arch, Troll, Truro, Tudor architecture, Tudor dynasty, Tudor period, Tudor rose, Tuition fees in the United Kingdom, Tuition payments, Turner Prize, Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star, Tyne and Wear Metro, Tyneside, UEFA Champions League, UEFA Europa League, UK garage, UK Independence Party, Union Jack, Unitarianism, Unitary authorities of England, United Kingdom, United Kingdom Census 2011, United Kingdom general election, 2015, United Kingdom legislation, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United States, Universal suffrage, University, University College London, University of Avignon, University of Cambridge, University of Exeter, University of Oxford, Upper Paleolithic, Urdu, V Festival, Vacuum cleaner, Varsity Line, Vatican City, Vespasian Psalter, Victorian era, Vikings, Villa, Virginia, Virginia Wade, Virginia Woolf, Vivien Leigh, Wakefield, Wales, Walsall, Walter Raleigh, Wars of the Roses, Wars of the Three Kingdoms, Warton, Fylde, Warwick Castle, Wasps RFC, Water Music (Handel), Wattle and daub, Wayland the Smith, We Wish You a Merry Christmas, Weald, Wells, Somerset, Welsh language, Wembley Stadium, Wensleydale cheese, Wessex, West Country, West End theatre, West Lothian question, West Midlands (region), West Midlands conurbation, West Yorkshire Urban Area, Westminster Abbey, Whigs (British political party), White Cliffs of Dover, Wigan Warriors, Wilfrid, William Beveridge, William Blake, William Byrd, William Cobbett, William Dobson, William Holman Hunt, William III of England, William Langland, William of Ockham, William Paterson (banker), William Penny Brookes, William Pitt the Younger, William Shakespeare, William the Conqueror, William Wordsworth, Williams Grand Prix Engineering, Winchester College, Windermere, Windsor Castle, Windsor Great Park, Windsor, Berkshire, Winnie-the-Pooh, Winston Churchill, Wolverhampton, Woolly rhinoceros, Working class, World Club Challenge, World Darts Federation, World Heritage Site, World Professional Darts Championship, World War II, World Wide Web, Wynkyn de Worde, Wytch Farm, Yeomen Warders, York, York Minster, Yorkshire, Yorkshire and the Humber, Yorkshire County Cricket Club, Yorkshire Dales, Yorkshire pudding, You're Not Singing Any More, Zadok the Priest, 1908 Summer Olympics, 1948 Summer Olympics, 1950 British Grand Prix, 1966 FIFA World Cup, 1966 FIFA World Cup Final, 1991 Rugby World Cup, 2002 Commonwealth Games, 2003 Rugby World Cup, 2005 Ashes series, 2009 ICC World Twenty20, 2012 Summer Olympics, 2015 Rugby World Cup, 2019 Cricket World Cup. 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A Midsummer Night's Dream is a comedy play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written between 1590 and 1597.

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The General Certificate of Education Advanced Level (short form: GCE Advanced Level), or more commonly, the A Level, is a school leaving qualification offered by educational bodies in the United Kingdom and the British Crown dependencies to students completing secondary or pre-university education.

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The A1 is the longest numbered road in the UK, at.

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An academic degree is the state of recognized completion of studies at a school or university.

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Acid house is a subgenre of house music developed around the mid-1980s by DJs from Chicago.

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The first Act of Supremacy was legislation in 1534 that granted King Henry VIII of England Royal Supremacy, which means that he was declared the supreme head of the Church of England.

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The Acts of Union were two Acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland.

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The Acts of Union 1800 (sometimes falsely referred to as a single Act of Union 1801) united the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland (previously in personal union) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland with effect from 1 January 1801.

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An administrative division, administrative unit, administrative entity or country subdivision (or, sometimes, geopolitical division or subnational entity) is a portion of a country or other region delineated for the purpose of administration.

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Aerospace is the human effort in science, engineering and business to fly in the atmosphere of Earth (aeronautics) and surrounding space (astronautics).

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The aerospace industry of the United Kingdom is the second- or third-largest national aerospace industry in the world, depending upon the method of measurement.

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Dame Agatha Mary Clarissa Christie, DBE (née Miller; 15 September 1890 – 12 January 1976) was an English crime novelist, short story writer and playwright.

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The Age of Discovery is an informal and loosely defined European historical period from the 15th century to the 18th century, marking the time in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture.

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The Age of Enlightenment or simply the Enlightenment or Age of Reason is an era from the 1620s to the 1780s in which cultural and intellectual forces in Western Europe emphasized reason, analysis, and individualism rather than traditional lines of authority.

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Aidan of Lindisfarne (died 31 August 651) was an Irish monk and missionary credited with restoring Christianity to Northumbria.

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Air travel is a form of travel in vehicles such as airplanes, helicopters, hot air balloons, blimps, gliders, hang gliding, parachuting, or anything else that can sustain flight.

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The Airbus A350 XWB is a family of long-range, twin-engine wide-body jet airliners developed by European aircraft manufacturer Airbus.

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The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine jet airliner manufactured by the European aircraft company Airbus.

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An aircraft engine is the component of the propulsion system for an aircraft that generates mechanical power.

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Alan Mathison Turing, OBE, FRS (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was a British pioneering computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, theoretical biologist, and marathon and ultra distance runner.

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Albion (Ἀλβίων) is the oldest known name of the island of Great Britain.

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Alcuin of York (Alcuinus, c. 735 – 19 May 804), also called Ealhwine, Albinus or Flaccus, was an English scholar, ecclesiastic, poet and teacher from York, Northumbria.

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Aldous Leonard Huxley (26 July 1894 – 22 November 1963) was an English writer, philosopher and a prominent member of the Huxley family.

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Aldridge is a town within the Metropolitan Borough of Walsall, in the West Midlands, England.

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Alexander Pope (21 May 1688 – 30 May 1744) was an 18th-century English poet.

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Alexandra Palace is a historic entertainment venue in Alexandra Park, London.

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Sir Alfred Joseph Hitchcock, KBE (13 August 1899 – 29 April 1980) was an English film director and producer.

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Alfred the Great (849 – 26 October 899) (Ælfrēd, Ælfrǣd, "elf counsel" or "wise elf") was King of Wessex from 871 to 899.

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Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (commonly shortened to Alice in Wonderland) is an 1865 novel written by English author Charles Lutwidge Dodgson under the pseudonym Lewis Carroll.

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Alison Nicholas MBE (born 6 March 1962) is an English golfer.

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The Allies of World War I, also known as the Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers during the First World War.

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The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that opposed the Axis powers together during the Second World War (1939–1945).

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The America's Cup, affectionately known as the "Auld Mug", is a trophy awarded to the winner of the America's Cup match races between two sailing yachts.

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Amir Khan (born 8 December 1986) is a British professional boxer and two-time former world champion, having held the WBA and IBF light welterweight titles.

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An amphitheatre or amphitheater is an open-air venue used for entertainment, performances, and sports.

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The Analytical Engine was a proposed mechanical general-purpose computer designed by English mathematician and computer pioneer Charles Babbage.

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Analytics is the discovery and communication of meaningful patterns in data.

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Ancient Roman architecture developed different aspects of Ancient Greek architecture and newer technologies such as the arch and the dome to make a new architectural style.

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Ancient Rome was an Italic civilization that began on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC.

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"And did those feet in ancient time" is a short poem by William Blake from the preface to his epic Milton a Poem, one of a collection of writings known as the Prophetic Books.

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Andrew Lloyd Webber, Baron Lloyd-Webber (born 22 March 1948) is an English composer and impresario of musical theatre.

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Andrew Marvell (31 March 1621 – 16 August 1678) was an English metaphysical poet and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1659 and 1678.

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Sir Andrew John Wiles, KBE, FRS (born 11 April 1953) is a British mathematician and a Royal Society Research Professor at the University of Oxford, specialising in number theory.

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Andrew Clement "Andy" Serkis (born 20 April 1964) is an English film actor, director and author.

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Angeln, also known as Anglia (German: Angeln, Danish: Angel, Latin: Anglia), is a small peninsula (within the larger Jutland peninsula) in Southern Schleswig in the northern Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, protruding into the Bay of Kiel.

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The term Angevin Empire (French: L'Empire Plantagenêt) is a modern term describing the collection of states once ruled by the Angevins of the House of Plantagenet.

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The Angles (Anglii) were one of the main Germanic peoples who settled in Britain in the post-Roman period.

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The Anglican Communion is an international association of churches consisting of the Church of England and of national and regional Anglican churches in full communion with it.

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Anglicanism is a tradition within Christianity comprising the Church of England and churches which are historically tied to it or hold similar beliefs, worship practices and church structures.

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The terms Anglo-Catholicism, Anglican Catholicism and Catholic Anglicanism refer to people, beliefs and practices within Anglicanism that emphasise the Catholic heritage and identity of the various Anglican churches.

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Anglo-Celtic people are those of British and Irish descent.

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The Anglo-Frisian languages is the group of West Germanic languages that includes English and Frisian.

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Anglo-Indians are people who have mixed Indian and British ancestry, or people of British descent born or living in the Indian subcontinent or Burma, now mainly historical in the latter sense.

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The Anglo-Normans were mainly the descendants of the Normans who ruled England following the Norman conquest by William the Conqueror in 1066.

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Anglo-Norman literature is literature composed in the Anglo-Norman language developed during the period 1066–1204 when the Duchy of Normandy and England were united in the Anglo-Norman realm.

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Anglo-Saxon architecture was a period in the history of architecture in England, and parts of Wales, from the mid-5th century until the Norman Conquest of 1066.

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The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of annals in Old English chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons.

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The Anglo-Saxon model or Anglo-Saxon capitalism (so called because it is practiced in English-speaking countries such as the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, New Zealand, Australia and Ireland) is a capitalist model that emerged in the 1970s, based on the Chicago school of economics.

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The Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain was the process, from the mid 5th to early 7th centuries, by which the coastal lowlands of Britain developed from a Romano-British to a Germanic culture following the Roman withdrawal in the early 5th century.

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The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.

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The Anglo-Scottish border or English-Scottish border known locally as simply The Border) is the official border and mark of entry between Scotland and England. It runs for 96 miles (154 km) between Marshall Meadows Bay on the east coast and the Solway Firth in the west. It is Scotland's only land border. England shares a longer border with Wales. Although it had long been the de facto border, it was legally established in 1237, by the Treaty of York between England and Scotland, with the exception of the Debatable Lands, north of Carlisle, and a small area around Berwick, which was taken by England in 1482. It is thus one of the oldest extant borders in the world, although Berwick was not fully annexed into England until 1885. For centuries until the Union of the Crowns the region on either side of the boundary was a lawless territory suffering from the repeated raids in each direction of the Border Reivers. Following the Treaty of Union 1707 which united Scotland and England to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the Border continues to form the boundary of two distinct legal jurisdictions as the treaty between the two countries guaranteed the continued separation of English law and Scots law. The age of legal capacity under Scots law is 16, while it was previously 18 under English law. The border settlements of Gretna Green, Coldstream and Lamberton were convenient for elopers from England who wanted to marry under Scottish laws, and marry without publicity. The marine boundary was adjusted by the Scottish Adjacent Waters Boundaries Order 1999 so that the boundary within the territorial waters (up to the limit) is 0.09 km north of the boundary for oil installations established by the Civil Jurisdiction (Offshore Activities) Order 1987. The border is marked by signposts welcoming travellers both into Scotland and into England.

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Adrianne Shirley Haydon Jones CBE (born 7 October 1938.), known as Ann Haydon at the beginning of her career, is a British former tennis champion.

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Saint Anselm of Canterbury (Anselmus Cantuariensis; – 21 April 1109), also called (Anselmo d'Aosta) after his birthplace and (Anselme du Bec) after his monastery, was a Benedictine monk, abbot, philosopher and theologian of the Catholic Church, who held the office of archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109.

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Sir Anthony van Dyck (many variant spellings; 22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Flemish Baroque artist who became the leading court painter in England, after enjoying great success in Italy and Flanders.

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An apple pie is a fruit pie in which the principal filling ingredient is apple.

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Bridges for conveying water, called aqueducts or water bridges are constructed to convey watercourses across gaps such as valleys or ravines.

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The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury. The current archbishop is Justin Welby. He is the 105th in a line which goes back more than 1400 years to Augustine of Canterbury, the "Apostle to the English", in the year 597. On 9 November 2012 it was officially announced that Welby, then the Bishop of Durham, had been appointed to succeed Rowan Williams as the 105th Archbishop of Canterbury. His enthronement took place in Canterbury Cathedral on 21 March 2013. From the time of Augustine until the 16th century, the Archbishops of Canterbury were in full communion with the See of Rome and thus usually received the pallium. During the English Reformation the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church, at first temporarily under Henry VIII and Edward VI and later permanently during the reign of Elizabeth I. In the Middle Ages there was considerable variation in the methods of nomination of the Archbishop of Canterbury and other bishops. At various times the choice was made by the canons of Canterbury Cathedral, the Pope, or the King of England. Since the English Reformation, the Church of England has been more explicitly a state church and the choice is legally that of the Crown; today it is made by the Queen on the advice of the Prime Minister, who receives a shortlist of two names from an "ad hoc" committee called the Crown Nominations Commission.

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The medieval cathedrals of England, which date from between approximately 1040 and 1540, are a group of twenty-six buildings that constitute a major aspect of the country’s artistic heritage and are among the most significant material symbols of Christianity.

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης, Aristotélēs; 384322 BC) was a Greek philosopher and scientist born in the Macedonian city of Stagira, Chalkidice, on the northern periphery of Classical Greece.

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The arms industry is a global business that manufactures weapons and military technology and equipment.

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Arriva Arriva plc formerly Cowie Group plc formerly T Cowie plc is a multinational public transport company headquartered in Sunderland, England.

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Arsenal Football Club is a professional football club based in Holloway, London.

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Arthur Joseph Penty (17 March 1875 – 1937) was a British architect and writer on Guild socialism and distributism.

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Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852), was a soldier and statesman, and one of the leading military and political figures of 19th-century Britain.

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The artists of the Tudor court are the painters and limners engaged by the monarchs of England's Tudor dynasty and their courtiers between 1485 and 1603, from the reign of Henry VII to the death of Elizabeth I. Typically managing a group of assistants and apprentices in a workshop or studio, many of these artists produced works across several disciplines, including portrait miniatures, large-scale panel portraits on wood, illuminated manuscripts, heraldric emblems, and elaborate decorative schemes for masques, tournaments, and other events.

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Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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Aston Villa Football Club (also known as Villa, The Villa, The Villans, The Lions) is a professional football club based in Witton, Birmingham, that plays in the Premier League, the highest level of English football.

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Astrium was an aerospace manufacturer subsidiary of the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS) that provided civil and military space systems and services from 2006 to 2013.

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The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceanic divisions, following the Pacific Ocean.

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In chemistry and physics, atomic theory is a scientific theory of the nature of matter, which states that matter is composed of discrete units called atoms.

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Augustine of Canterbury (first third of the 6th century – probably 26 May 604) was a Benedictine monk who became the first Archbishop of Canterbury in the year 597.

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The Australian cricket team, nicknames as the Kangaroos or the Aussies, is the national cricket team of Australia and the current ICC Cricket World Cup Champions.

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Avebury is a Neolithic henge monument containing three stone circles, around the village of Avebury in Wiltshire, in southwest England.

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Avienus was a Latin writer of the 4th century AD.

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Æthelstan or Athelstan (Old English: Æþelstan, Æðelstān, meaning 'noble stone'; 894 – 27 October 939) was King of the Anglo-Saxons from 924 to 927 and King of the English from 927 to 939.

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A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin baccalarius) or baccalaureate (from Modern Latin baccalaureatus) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to seven years (depending on institution and academic discipline).

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Bacon is a meat product prepared from a pig and usually cured.

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BAE Systems plc is a British multinational defence, security and aerospace company headquartered in London in the United Kingdom and with operations worldwide.

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The BAE Systems Hawk is a British single-engine, jet-powered advanced trainer aircraft.

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Baked beans is a dish containing beans, sometimes baked but, despite the name, usually stewed, in a sauce.

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A ballet dancer (ballerina fem., ballerino masc.) is a person who practices the art of classical ballet.

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Balti (بالٹی) is a type of curry served in a thin, pressed-steel wok called a "balti bowl".

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The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, the Baltic countries, and the North European Plain.

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Bangers and mash, also known as sausages and mash, is a traditional British Isles dish made of mashed potatoes and sausages, the latter of which may consist of a variety of flavoured sausage made of pork or beef or a Cumberland sausage.

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Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ,, lit. "The land of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.

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The Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom and the model on which most modern central banks have been based.

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Baptists are individuals who comprise a group of Christian denominations and churches that subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and that it must be done by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).

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Baroque music is a style of Western art music composed from approximately 1600 to 1750.

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Barry Steven Frank Sheene (11 September 1950 – 10 March 2003) was a British World Champion Grand Prix motorcycle road racer.

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The Latin word basilica (derived from Greek βασιλικὴ στοά, Royal Stoa, the tribunal chamber of a king) has three distinct applications in modern English.

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Bath Rugby (also known as just Bath) is an English professional rugby union club in Bath, Somerset.

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Bath is a city in the ceremonial county of Somerset, South West England, that is known for the curative Roman-built baths that still exist there.

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The Battle of Badon (Bellum Badonis; Modern Mynydd Baddon) or Badon Hill (Bellum in Monte Badonis), also less often known as the Siege of Mount Badon (Obsessio Montis Badonici), was a battle thought to have occurred between a force of Britons and an Anglo-Saxon war band in the late 5th or early 6th century.

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The Battle of Bosworth (or Bosworth Field) was the last significant battle of the Wars of the Roses, the civil war between the Houses of Lancaster and York that raged across England in the latter half of the 15th century.

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The Battle of Watling Street took place in Roman-occupied Britain in AD 60 or 61 between an alliance of indigenous British peoples led by Boudica and a Roman army led by Gaius Suetonius Paulinus.

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The Bay of Kiel is a bay in the southwestern Baltic Sea, off the shores of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany and the islands of Denmark.

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BBC Cymru Wales (an amalgamation of the BBC Wales and the BBC Cymru) is a division of the BBC, and the national broadcaster for Wales.

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The Bell-Beaker culture (sometimes shortened to Beaker culture, Beaker people, or Beaker folk), ca.

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Bede (Bǣda or Bēda; 672/673 – 26 May 735), also referred to as Saint Bede or the Venerable Bede (Bēda Venerābilis), was an English monk at the monastery of Saint Peter at Monkwearmouth and its companion monastery, Saint Paul's, in modern Jarrow (see Monkwearmouth-Jarrow), County Durham, both of which were then in the Kingdom of Northumbria.

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Beer in England has been brewed for hundreds of years.

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Beeston is a town in Nottinghamshire, England.

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Sir Charles Benedict Ainslie, CBE (born 5 February 1977), best known as Ben Ainslie, is a British, English competitive sailor.

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Benjamin Jonson (c. 11 June 1572 – 6 August 1637) was an English playwright, poet, actor, and literary critic of the seventeenth century, whose artistry exerted a lasting impact upon English poetry and stage comedy.

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Benedict Timothy Carlton Cumberbatch CBE (born 19 July 1976) is an English actor and producer who has performed in film, television, theatre and radio.

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The Benedictional of St.

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Benefits Supervisor Sleeping is a 1995 oil on canvas painting by Lucian Freud depicting an obese, naked woman lying on a couch.

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Benetton Formula Ltd., commonly referred to simply as Benetton, was a Formula One constructor that participated from to.

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Edward Benjamin Britten, Baron Britten, (22 November 1913 – 4 December 1976) was an English composer, conductor and pianist.

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Bentley Motors Limited is a British registered company that designs, develops, and manufactures Bentley luxury motorcars which are largely hand-built.

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Beowulf (in Old English) is an Old English epic poem consisting of 3182 alliterative long lines.

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Sir Bernard Arthur Owen Williams, FBA (21 September 1929 – 10 June 2003) was an English moral philosopher, described by The Times as the "most brilliant and most important British moral philosopher of his time.". His publications include Problems of the Self (1973), Moral Luck (1981), Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy (1985), and Truth and Truthfulness (2002).

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Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic and political activist.

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The 1942 report on Social Insurance and Allied Services, known commonly as the Beveridge Report, was an influential document in the founding of the welfare state in the United Kingdom, published in December 1942.

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In 1999 the British Film Institute surveyed 1,000 people from the world of British film and television to produce the BFI 100 list of the greatest British films of the 20th century.

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The Bill of Rights is an Act of the Parliament of England that deals with constitutional matters and lays out certain basic civil rights.

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Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England.

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Birmingham Airport, formerly Birmingham International Airport is an international airport located east southeast of Birmingham city centre, at Bickenhill in the Metropolitan Borough of Solihull within the West Midlands, England.

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Biscuit is a term used for a variety of baked, commonly flour-based food products.

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Bison or buffalo are large, even-toed ungulates in the genus Bison within the subfamily Bovinae.

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Bitter is an English term for pale ale.

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Black British are British people of Black and African origins or heritage, including those of African-Caribbean (sometimes called "Afro-Caribbean") background, and may include people with mixed ancestry.

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The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people and peaking in Europe in the years 1346–53.

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The Black Death in England was a bubonic plague pandemic, which reached England in 1348, and killed perhaps half the population, dying down in 1349.

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Black pudding (blodpudding, verivorst, mustamakkara, boudin noir, morcilla and morcela) is a type of blood sausage commonly eaten in England, Scotland, France, Slovenia, Italy, Finland, Croatia, Hungary, Poland, Ireland, Sweden, Estonia, Spain, Portugal, Latvia and Lithuania.

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Edward Teach (also Edward Thatch, 168022 November 1718), better known as Blackbeard, was a notorious English pirate who operated around the West Indies and the eastern coast of the American colonies.

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Blackmail is a 1929 British thriller drama film directed by Alfred Hitchcock and starring Anny Ondra, John Longden, and Cyril Ritchard.

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The Blackpool tramway runs from Blackpool to Fleetwood on the Fylde Coast in Lancashire, England.

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In heraldry and heraldic vexillology, a blazon is a formal description of a coat of arms, flag or similar emblem, from which the reader can reconstruct the appropriate image.

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Blood transfusion is generally the process of receiving blood products into one's circulation intravenously.

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Robert James "Bob" Fitzsimmons (26 May 1863 – 22 October 1917) was a British born New Zealand professional boxer who made boxing history as the sport's first three-division world champion.

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Bogeyman (also spelled bogieman, boogeyman, or boogie man, and pronounced or; see spelling differences) is a common allusion to a mythical creature in many cultures used by adults or older children to frighten bad children into good behavior.

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Bolton (or locally) is a town in Greater Manchester, in the North West of England.

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Bootle (pronounced) is a town within the Metropolitan Borough of Sefton in Merseyside.

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Bottle-kicking is an old Leicestershire custom that takes place in the village of Hallaton each Easter Monday.

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Boudica (alternative spelling: Boudicca, also known as Boadicea and in Welsh as Buddug) (d. AD 60 or 61) was a queen of the British Iceni tribe who led an uprising against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire.

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Bowls or lawn bowls is a sport in which the objective is to roll biased balls so that they stop close to a smaller ball called a "jack" or "kitty".

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Boxing is a martial art and combat sport in which two people throw punches at each other, usually with gloved hands.

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Bradford is in the Metropolitan Borough of the City of Bradford in West Yorkshire, England, in the foothills of the Pennines west of Leeds, and northwest of Wakefield.

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A brand (or marque for car model) is a name, term, design, symbol or other feature that distinguishes one seller's product from those of others.

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Brawn GP Formula One Team, the trading name of Brawn GP Limited, was a Formula One world championship-winning motor racing team and constructor, created by a management buyout of Honda Racing F1 Team, but using a Mercedes engine.

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The Bridgewater Canal connects Runcorn, Manchester and Leigh, in North West England.

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Bristol is a city, unitary authority and county in South West England with an estimated population of 442,500 in 2015.

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The Bristol Channel (Môr Hafren, meaning 'Severn Sea') is a major inlet in the island of Great Britain, separating South Wales from Devon and Somerset in South West England.

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British Arabs are Arab people living or born in the United Kingdom.

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British Asians (also referred as South Asians in the United Kingdom, Asian British people or Asian Britons), are persons of Asian descent who resides in the United Kingdom.

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British Chinese (also known as Chinese British, Chinese Britons) (Chinese: 華僑, 华侨, Yīngguó Huáqiáo) are people of Chineseparticularly Han Chineseancestry who reside in the United Kingdom, constituting the second or third largest group of overseas Chinese in Europe apart from the Chinese diaspora in France and the overseas Chinese community in Russia.

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The British Darts Organisation, or the BDO for short, is a darts organisation founded on 7 January 1973 by Olly Croft, OBE.

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The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom.

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The British Invasion was a phenomenon that occurred in the mid-1960s when rock and pop music acts from the United Kingdom, as well as other aspects of British culture, became popular in the United States, and significant to the rising "counterculture" on both sides of the Atlantic.

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The British Iron Age is a conventional name used in the archaeology of Great Britain, referring to the prehistoric and protohistoric phases of the Iron Age culture of the main island and the smaller islands, typically excluding prehistoric Ireland, which had an independent Iron Age culture of its own.

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The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland and over six thousand smaller isles.

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The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and the largest library in the world by number of items catalogued.

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British literature refers to literature associated with the United Kingdom, Isle of Man and Channel Islands.

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British migration to Spain has resulted in Spain being home to one of the largest British-born populations outside of the United Kingdom.

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The British Museum is a museum dedicated to human history, art, and culture, located in the Bloomsbury area of London.

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There were more than a thousand British narrow gauge railways ranging from large, historically significant common carriers to small, short-lived industrial railways.

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The British National Party (BNP) is a far-right British nationalist political party in the United Kingdom.

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British people, or Britons, are the indigenous people or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, Crown Dependencies; and their descendants.

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Britishness is the state or quality of being British, or of embodying British characteristics, and is used to refer to that which binds and distinguishes the British people and forms the basis of their unity and identity, or else to explain expressions of British culture—such as habits, behaviours, or symbols—that have a common, familiar or iconic quality readily identifiable with the United Kingdom.

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Britpop is a subgenre of rock and pop music that originated in the United Kingdom.

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Brockworth is a village in Gloucestershire, England, situated on the old Roman road that connects the City of Gloucester with Barnwood, Hucclecote and Cirencester.

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Brogdale is a hamlet in Kent, England, located beside the M2 motorway south of Faversham.

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The Brontës (commonly) were a nineteenth-century literary family associated with the village of Haworth in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England.

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Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.

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Broughton (Brychdyn) is a district in Flintshire, Wales, close to the Wales–England border, located to the west of the City of Chester, England.

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Brown ale is a style of beer with a dark amber or brown colour.

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Buddhism is a nontheistic religion or philosophy (Sanskrit: dharma; Pali: धम्म dhamma) that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to Gautama Buddha, commonly known as the Buddha ("the awakened one").

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A bus (plural "buses",, archaically also omnibus, multibus, or autobus) is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers.

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Clive Staples Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963) was a British novelist, poet, academic, medievalist, literary critic, essayist, lay theologian, broadcaster, lecturer, and Christian apologist.

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The Cabinet of the United Kingdom is the collective decision-making body of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, composed of the Prime Minister and some 21 Cabinet ministers, the most senior of the government ministers.

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In the course of his Gallic Wars, Julius Caesar invaded Britain twice: in 55 and 54 BC.

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Calculus is the mathematical study of change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of operations and their application to solving equations.

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Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.

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Camelot is a castle and court associated with the legendary King Arthur.

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The Canal & River Trust is a charitable trust that was set up to look after the waterways of England and Wales.

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Candy apples, also known as toffee apples outside of North America, are whole apples covered in a hard toffee or sugar candy coating, with a stick inserted as a handle.

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Canterbury Cathedral in Canterbury, Kent, is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England and forms part of a World Heritage Site.

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Caratacus (Brythonic *Caratācos, Middle Welsh Caratawc; Welsh Caradog; Greek Καράτακος; variants Latin Caractacus, Greek Καρτάκης) was a first-century British chieftain of the Catuvellauni tribe, who led the British resistance to the Roman conquest.

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The Caribbean (or; Caribe; Caraïben; Caribbean Hindustani: कैरिबियन (Kairibiyana); Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles) is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean), and the surrounding coasts.

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Carl Martin Froch, MBE (born 2 July 1977) is a British former professional boxer.

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Carlton is a suburb to the east of the city of Nottingham in the borough of Gedling.

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A castle (from castellum) is a type of fortified structure built in Europe and the Middle East during the Middle Ages by nobility.

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The stone circle at Castlerigg (alt. Keswick Carles, Carles, Carsles or Castle-rig) is situated near Keswick in Cumbria, North West England.

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In the Latin language of the ancient Roman Empire, castra (singular castrum) were buildings or plots of land reserved for or constructed for use as a military defensive position.

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The cat's eye is a retroreflective safety device used in road marking and was the first of a range of raised pavement markers.

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Catherine of Aragon (Castilian: Catalina; also spelled Katherine of Aragon, 16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536) was the Queen of England from 1509 until 1533 as the first wife of King Henry VIII; she was previously Princess of Wales as the wife of Prince Arthur.

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Catherine of Braganza (Catarina de Bragança; 25 November 1638 – 31 December 1705) was Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland from 1662 to 1685, as the wife of King Charles II.

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The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is, the largest Christian church, with more than 1.25 billion members worldwide.

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The Catholic Church in England and Wales is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church in full communion with the Pope.

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Catholic emancipation or Catholic relief was a process in the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in the late 18th century and early 19th century that involved reducing and removing many of the restrictions on Roman Catholics introduced by the Act of Uniformity, the Test Acts and the penal laws.

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The Catuvellauni were a Celtic tribe or state of south-eastern Britain before the Roman conquest, attested by inscriptions into the 4th century.

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Cavalier was a name first used by Parliamentarians as a term of abuse for the wealthier male Royalist supporters of King Charles I and his son Charles II during the English Civil War, the Interregnum, and the Restoration (1642 – c. 1679).

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Cave paintings are paintings found on cave walls and ceilings, and especially those of prehistoric origin, which date back to some 40,000 years ago in both Asia and Europe.

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Cædmon is the earliest English (Northumbrian) poet whose name is known.

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The Britons were an ancient Celtic people who lived on Great Britain from the Iron Age through the Roman and Sub-Roman periods.

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Celtic Christianity or Insular Christianity refers broadly to certain features of Christianity that were practiced across the Celtic-speaking world during the Early Middle Ages.

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Celtic field is an old name for traces of early (prehistoric) agricultural field systems found in North-West Europe, i.e. Britain, Ireland, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland and the Baltic states.

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The Celtic Sea (An Mhuir Cheilteach; Y Môr Celtaidd; An Mor Keltek; Ar Mor Keltiek; La mer Celtique) is the area of the Atlantic Ocean off the south coast of Ireland bounded to the east by Saint George's Channel; other limits include the Bristol Channel, the English Channel, and the Bay of Biscay, as well as adjacent portions of Wales, Cornwall, Devon, and Brittany.

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The Celts (occasionally, see pronunciation of ''Celtic'') were people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.

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A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.

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The ceremonial counties of England are areas to which a Lord Lieutenant is appointed.

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The Channel Tunnel (Le tunnel sous la Manche; also referred to as the Chunnel) is a rail tunnel linking Folkestone, Kent, in the United Kingdom, with Coquelles, Pas-de-Calais, near Calais in northern France, beneath the English Channel at the Strait of Dover.

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Charles Babbage, FRS (26 December 1791 –18 October 1871) was an English polymath.

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Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist and geologist, best known for his contributions to evolutionary theory.

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Charles John Huffam Dickens (7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic.

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Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.

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Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland.

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Charles I (Carlos I) (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558), of the Spanish Empire from 1516, and as Charles V (Charles Quint; Karl V.) was ruler of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 until his voluntary abdication in favor of his younger brother Ferdinand I as Holy Roman Emperor and his son Philip II as King of Spain in 1556.

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Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948), is the eldest child and heir apparent of Queen Elizabeth II.

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Sir Charles Spencer "Charlie" Chaplin, (16 April 1889 – 25 December 1977) was an English comic actor, filmmaker, and composer who rose to fame in the silent era.

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Chartism was a working-class movement for political reform in Britain which existed from 1838 to 1858.

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Cheddar cheese is a relatively hard, off-white (or orange if spices such as annatto are added), sometimes "sharp" (i.e., acidic)-tasting, natural cheese.

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Chelsea Football Club are a professional football club based in Fulham, London, who play in the Premier League, the highest level of English football.

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The Cheviot Hills are a range of rolling hills straddling the Anglo-Scottish border between Northumberland and the Scottish Borders.

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Chichester is a cathedral city in West Sussex, in South-East England.

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Chicken tikka masala is a dish of roasted chunks of chicken (chicken tikka) in a spicy sauce.

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Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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The Chiltern Hills form a chalk escarpment in South East England.

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Christopher Livingstone Eubanks (born 8 August 1966),.

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A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.

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Christopher Marlowe (baptised 26 February 156430 May 1593) was an English playwright, poet and translator of the Elizabethan era.

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Christopher Jonathan James Nolan (born 30 July 1970) is an English-American film director, screenwriter, and producer.

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Sir Christopher Michael Wren PRS (20 October 1632 – 25 February 1723) is one of the most highly acclaimed English architects in history.

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The Church of England is the officially-established Christian church in England, and the mother church of the worldwide Anglican Communion.

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Cider is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of apples.

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The City of Bradford is a local government district of West Yorkshire, England, with the status of a city and metropolitan borough.

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The City of Leeds is a local government district of West Yorkshire, England, governed by Leeds City Council, with the status of a city and metropolitan borough.

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The City of London is a city and county within London.

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The City of London Corporation, officially and legally the Mayor and Commonalty and Citizens of the City of London, is the municipal governing body of the City of London, the historic centre of London and the location of much of the UK's financial sector.

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City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the monarch of the United Kingdom to a select group of communities:, there are 69 cities in the United Kingdom – 51 in England, six in Wales, seven in Scotland and five in Northern Ireland.

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In England, a civil parish is a territorial designation which is the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority.

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In physics, classical mechanics and quantum mechanics are the two major sub-fields of mechanics.

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Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western music, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.

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Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for a classical period, classical antiquity in the Western tradition, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate.

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Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October 54 AD) was Roman emperor from 41 to 54.

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The climate of south-west England is classed as oceanic (Cfb) according to the Köppen climate classification.

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Cnut the GreatBolton, The Empire of Cnut the Great: Conquest and the Consolidation of Power in Northern Europe in the Early Eleventh Century (Leiden, 2009) (Old Norse: Knútr inn ríki; c. 985 or 995 – 12 November 1035), more commonly known as Canute, was a king of Denmark, England, Norway and parts of Sweden, together often referred to as the Anglo-Scandinavian or North Sea Empire.

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A coat of arms is a unique heraldic design on an escutcheon (i.e. shield), surcoat, or tabard.

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Coel (Old Welsh: Coil) or Coel Hen ("Coel the Old") is a figure prominent in Welsh literature and legend since the Middle Ages.

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Common Brittonic was an ancient Celtic language spoken in Britain.

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Common law (also known as case law or precedent) is law developed by judges through decisions of courts and similar tribunals that decide individual cases, as opposed to statutes adopted through the legislative process or regulations issued by the executive branch.

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The Commonwealth Games (known as the British Empire Games from 1930–1950, the British Empire and Commonwealth Games from 1954–1966, and British Commonwealth Games from 1970–1974) is an international, multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations.

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The Commonwealth was the period from 1649 onwards when England, along later with Ireland and Scotland, was ruled as a republic following the end of the Second English Civil War and the trial and execution of Charles I. The republic's existence was initially declared through "An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth", adopted by the Rump Parliament on 19 May 1649.

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The Commonwealth of Nations, commonly known as the Commonwealth (formerly the British Commonwealth), is an intergovernmental organization of 53 member states that were mostly territories of the former British Empire.

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A comprehensive school is a state school that does not select its intake on the basis of academic achievement or aptitude.

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Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs.

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The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.

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Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Greek: Κωνσταντίνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine (in the Orthodox Church as Saint Constantine the Great, Equal-to-the-Apostles), was a Roman Emperor from 306 to 337 AD of Illyrian ancestry.

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Constituent country is a term sometimes used in contexts in which a country makes up a part of a larger political entity, such as a sovereign state.

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A constitutional monarchy, limited monarchy or parliamentary monarchy (also called a crowned republic) is a form of government in which governing powers of the monarch are restricted by a constitution.

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Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent (particularly by Britons, Azores and Madeira Portuguese, Balearic and Canary Spaniards, Icelanders and other European island nations, and peninsular Scandinavians), is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding the islands of Europe.

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The Cooper's Hill Cheese-Rolling and Wake is an annual event held on the Spring Bank Holiday at Cooper's Hill, near Gloucester in England.

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Cornish (Kernowek or Kernewek) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language historically spoken by the Cornish people.

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Cornwall (or; Kernow) is a ceremonial county and unitary authority area of England within the United Kingdom.

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A coronation anthem is music written to accompany the coronation of a monarch.

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The coronation of the British monarch is a ceremony (specifically, initiation rite) in which the monarch of the United Kingdom is formally crowned and invested with regalia.

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The Corpus Aristotelicum is the collection of Aristotle's works that have survived from antiquity through Medieval manuscript transmission.

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The Cotswolds is an area in south central England containing the Cotswold Hills, a range of rolling hills which rise from the meadows of the upper Thames to an escarpment, known as the Cotswold Edge, above the Severn Valley and Evesham Vale.

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Cottage pie is a meat pie with a crust of mashed potato.

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The United Kingdom (UK) comprises four countries: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

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The County Championship (currently known as the LV.

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A county council is the elected administrative body governing an area known as a county.

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A court is a tribunal, often as governmental institution, with the authority to adjudicate legal disputes between parties and carry out the administration of justice in civil, criminal, and administrative matters in accordance with the rule of law.

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Her Majesty's Court of Appeal in England, commonly known as the Court of Appeal of England and Wales or, simply, the Court of Appeal, is the second most senior court in the English legal system, with only the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom above it.

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Her Majesty's Courts of Justice of England and Wales are the civil and criminal courts responsible for the administration of justice in England and Wales; they apply English law, the law of England and Wales, and are established under Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Covent Garden is a district in London on the eastern fringes of the West End, between Charing Cross Road and Drury Lane.

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Coventry is a city and metropolitan borough in the centre of England.

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Creswell Crags is a limestone gorge on the border between Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire, England, near the villages of Creswell and Whitwell.

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Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players each on a field at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard-long pitch.

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The ICC Cricket World Cup is the international championship of One Day International (ODI) cricket.

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The Crown Court of England and Wales is, together with the High Court of Justice and the Court of Appeal, one of the constituent parts of the Senior Courts of England and Wales.

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The Crusades were military campaigns sanctioned by the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages.

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Cue sports (sometimes written cuesports), also known as billiard sports, are a wide variety of games of skill generally played with a cue stick which is used to strike billiard balls, moving them around a cloth-covered billiards table bounded by rubber.

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Culham is a village and civil parish in a bend of the River Thames, south of Abingdon in Oxfordshire.

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The culture of ancient Rome existed throughout the almost 1200-year history of the civilization of Ancient Rome.

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Cumbria (locally) is a non-metropolitan county in North West England.

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Curry (plural curries) is a dish originating in the cuisine of the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia.

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Custard is a variety of culinary preparations based on a cooked mixture of milk or cream and egg yolk.

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Saint Cuthbert (c. 634 – 20 March 687) was a saint of the early Northumbrian church in the Celtic tradition.

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Cyril Walker (September 18, 1892 – August 6, 1948) was an English professional golfer born in Manchester who emigrated to the United States in 1914.

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David Herbert Richards Lawrence (11 September 1885 – 2 March 1930) was an English novelist, poet, playwright, essayist, literary critic and painter who published as D. H. Lawrence.

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Damon Graham Devereux Hill (born 17 September 1960) is a retired British racing driver from England.

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Dance music is music composed specifically to facilitate or accompany dancing.

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The Danelaw (also known as the Danelagh; Old English: Dena lagu; Danelagen), as recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, is a historical name given to the part of England in which the laws of the Danes held sway and dominated those of the Anglo-Saxons.

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Danes (danskere) are the citizens of Denmark, most of whom speak Danish and consider themselves to be of Danish ethnicity.

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Daniel Wroughton Craig (born 2 March 1968) is an English actor, who trained at the National Youth Theatre and graduated from the Guildhall School of Music and Drama in 1991, beginning his career on stage.

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Sir Daniel Michael Blake Day-Lewis (born 29 April 1957) is an English actor.

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Dante Gabriel Rossetti (12 May 1828 – 9 April 1882) was an English poet, illustrator, painter and translator.

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The Dark Ages is a historical periodization used originally for the Middle Ages, which emphasizes the cultural and economic deterioration that supposedly occurred in Western Europe following the decline of the Roman Empire.

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Dartmoor is an area of moorland in south Devon, England.

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Darts is a form of throwing sport in which small missiles are thrown at a circular target (dartboard) fixed to a wall.

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David William Donald Cameron (born 9 October 1966) is a British politician who has served as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom since 2010, as Leader of the Conservative Party since 2005 and as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Witney since 2001.

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David Deron Haye (born 13 October 1980) is a British former professional boxer.

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Sir David Lean, CBE (25 March 190816 April 1991) was an English film director, producer, screenwriter and editor, best remembered for big-screen epics such as The Bridge on the River Kwai (1957), Lawrence of Arabia (1962) and Doctor Zhivago (1965).

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David Yates (born 1963) is an English filmmaker who has directed feature films, short films, and television productions.

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The Davis Cup is the premier international team event in men's tennis.

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Decolonization (US) or decolonisation (UK) is the undoing of colonialism, where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over dependent territories.

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The demographics of Australia covers basic statistics, most populous cities, ethnicity and religion.

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This article is about the demographic features of the population of Canada, including population density, ethnicity, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population, the People of Canada.

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Denmark (Danmark) is a country in Northern Europe.

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The Department for Business, Innovation & Skills (BIS) is a ministerial department of the United Kingdom Government created on 5 June 2009 by the merger of the Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills (DIUS) and the Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform (BERR).

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The Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) is a department of the United Kingdom government, with responsibility for culture and sport in England, and some aspects of the media throughout the whole UK, such as broadcasting and internet.

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The Department for Education (DfE) is a department of the UK government responsible for issues affecting people in England up to the age of 19, including child protection and education.

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The Department for Transport (DfT) is the government department responsible for the English transport network and a limited number of transport matters in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland that have not been devolved.

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The Department of Health (DH) is the Ministerial Department of the United Kingdom Government responsible for government policy on health and adult social care matters in England, along with a few elements of the same matters which are not otherwise devolved to the Scottish Government, Welsh Government or Northern Ireland Executive.

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Derby (locally) is a city and unitary authority area in the East Midlands region of England.

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Derbyshire (or; abbreviated Derbys. or Derbs.) is a county in the East Midlands of England.

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The Devil's Arrows are three standing stones or menhirs in an alignment erected near where the A1 road now crosses the River Ure at Boroughbridge in North Yorkshire, England.

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Devolution is the statutory granting of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to govern at a subnational level, such as a regional, local, or state level.

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A devolved English parliament or assembly is a proposed institution that would give separate decision-making powers to representatives for voters in England, similar to the representation given by the National Assembly for Wales, Scottish Parliament and the Northern Ireland Assembly.

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Richard "Dick" Turpin (bap. 1705 – 7 April 1739) was an English highwayman whose exploits were romanticised following his execution in York for horse theft.

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The divine right of kings or divine right is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy.

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Doctor of the Church (Latin doctor, teacher, from Latin docere, to teach) is a title given by a variety of Christian Churches to individuals whom they recognize as having been of particular importance, particularly regarding their contribution to theology or doctrine.

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A doctorate (from Latin docere, "to teach") or doctor's degree (from Latin doctor, "teacher") or doctoral degree is an academic degree (Ph.D. or Ed.D.) awarded by universities that, in most countries, qualifies the holder to teach at the university level in the degree's field, or to work in a specific profession.

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The Doge of Genoa (Januensium dux et populi defensor, "Genoese Duke and People's Defender") was the ruler of the Republic of Genoa, a communal republic and a state of the Holy Roman Empire, from 1339 until the state's extinction in 1797.

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Domesday Book (or; Latin: Liber de Wintonia "Book of Winchester") is a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William the Conqueror.

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A double-track railway usually involves running one track in each direction, compared to a single-track railway where trains in both directions share the same track.

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A double-decker bus is a bus that has two storeys or decks.

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Drum & Bass (also written as Drum 'n' Bass or Drum and Bass and commonly abbreviated to D&B, DnB or D'n'B) is a genre of electronic music also known as Jungle which emerged in England in the early 1990s.

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Dubstep is a genre of electronic dance music that originated in South London, England.

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The Duchy of Aquitaine (Ducat d'Aquitània, Duché d'Aquitaine) was a historical fiefdom in western, central and southern areas of present-day France to the south of the Loire River, although its extent, as well as its name, fluctuated greatly over the centuries, at times comprising much of what is now southwestern France (Gascony) and central France.

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Dudley is a large town in the West Midlands of England, south-east of Wolverhampton and north-west of Birmingham.

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Durham Castle is a Norman castle in the city of Durham, England, which has been wholly occupied since 1840 by University College, Durham.

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The Cathedral Church of Christ, Blessed Mary the Virgin and St Cuthbert of Durham, usually known as Durham Cathedral and home of the Shrine of St Cuthbert, is a cathedral in the city of Durham, England, the seat of the Anglican Bishop of Durham.

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The Dutch Empire (Nederlands-koloniale Rijk) comprised the overseas territories controlled by the Dutch Republic and, later, the modern Netherlands from the 17th century to the mid-1950s.

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In Germanic mythology, a dwarf is a being that dwells in mountains and in the earth, and is variously associated with wisdom, smithing, mining, and crafting.

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Eadred (also Edred) (923 - 23 November 955) was King of the English from 946 until his death in 955, in succession to his elder brother Edmund I.

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Ealing Studios is a television and film production company and facilities provider at Ealing Green in West London.

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Early Christian art and architecture or Paleochristian art is the art produced by Christians or under Christian patronage from the earliest period of Christianity to, depending on the definition used, sometime between 260 to 525.

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The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from the 5th century to the 10th century.

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Early Modern English (sometimes abbreviated to EModE, EMnE or ENE) is the stage of the English language used from the beginning of the Tudor period until the English Interregnum and Restoration, or from the transition from Middle English in the late 15th century to the transition to Modern English during the mid- to late 17th century.

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In history, the early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.

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The Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) is a term defined in Section 39 of the British government's Childcare Act 2006.

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The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company and informally as John Company was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to pursue trade with the East Indies, but which ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and Qing China.

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The East Midlands is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes.

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The East of England is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes.

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Eastleigh is in Hampshire, England, and the main town in the Borough of Eastleigh.

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Ebenezer Cobb Morley (16 August 1831 – 20 November 1924) was an English sportsman and is regarded as the father of the Football Association and modern football.

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Eboracum was a fort and city in the Roman province of Britannia.

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An Eccles cake, sometimes also called Squashed Fly cake is a small, round cake filled with currants and made from flaky pastry with butter, sometimes topped with demerara sugar.

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The Ecclesiastical History of the English People (Latin: Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum), written by Bede in the 8th century, is a history of the Christian Churches in England, and of England generally; its main focus is on the conflict between Roman and Celtic Christianity.

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Economics is the social science that seeks to describe the factors which determine the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services.

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The United Kingdom has the fifth-largest national economy (and second-largest in Europe) measured by nominal GDP and tenth-largest in the world (and third-largest in Europe) measured by purchasing power parity (PPP).

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Edward Samuel "Ed" Miliband (born 24 December 1969) is a British Labour Party politician who was the Leader of the Labour Party and Leader of the Opposition between 2010 and 2015.

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Edgar (the) Ætheling (also spelt Æþeling, Aetheling, Atheling or Etheling) or Edgar II (c. 1051 – c. 1126) was the last male member of the royal house of Cerdic of Wessex (see House of Wessex family tree).

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Edgmond is a village in the borough of Telford and Wrekin and ceremonial county of Shropshire, England.

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In 1290, King Edward I issued an edict expelling all Jews from England.

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Edmund Burke PC (12 January 17299 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman born in Dublin, as well as an author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who, after moving to England, served for many years in the House of Commons of Great Britain as a member of the Whig party.

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Edmund Spenser (1552/1553 – 13 January 1599) was an English poet best known for The Faerie Queene, an epic poem and fantastical allegory celebrating the Tudor dynasty and Elizabeth I. He is recognized as one of the premier craftsmen of nascent Modern English verse, and is often considered one of the greatest poets in the English language.

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Edmund the Martyr (also known as St Edmund or Edmund of East Anglia, died 20 November 869) was king of East Anglia from about 855 until his death.

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Sir Edward William Elgar, 1st Baronet (2 June 1857 – 23 February 1934) was an English composer, many of whose works have entered the British and international classical concert repertoire.

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Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots (Latin: Malleus Scotorum), was King of England from 1272 to 1307.

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Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was King of England from 25 January 1327 until his death; he is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous reign of his father, Edward II.

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Edward Jenner, FRS (17 May 1749 – 26 January 1823) was an English physician and scientist who was the pioneer of smallpox vaccine, the world's first vaccine.

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Edward the Confessor (between 1003 and 1005 – 5 January 1066), was among the last Anglo-Saxon kings of England, and usually considered the last king of the House of Wessex, ruling from 1042 to 1066.

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An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.

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In England, the 11-plus or eleven plus is an examination administered to some students in their last year of primary education, governing admission to various types of secondary school.

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An elf (plural: elves) is a type of supernatural being in Germanic mythology and folklore.

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Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death.

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Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is the queen of 16 of the 53 member states in the Commonwealth of Nations.

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The Elizabethan era is the epoch in English history marked by the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558–1603).

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Elizabethan literature refers to bodies of work produced during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558–1603), and is considered to be one of the most splendid ages of English literature.

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Dame Ellen Patricia MacArthur, DBE (born 8 July 1976) is a retired British sailor, from Whatstandwell near Matlock in Derbyshire, now based in Cowes, Isle of Wight.

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Elstree Studios is a generic term which refers to several film studios and television studios based in or around the towns of Borehamwood and Elstree in Hertfordshire, England.

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Sir Elton Hercules John CBE (born Reginald Kenneth Dwight, 25 March 1947) is an English composer and singer, who accompanies himself on the piano.

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Ely is a cathedral city in Cambridgeshire, England, 14 miles (23 km) north-north-east of Cambridge and about by road from London.

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Emma Charlotte Duerre Watson (born 15 April 1990) is an English actress, model, and activist.

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Empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.

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Microsoft Encarta was a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation from 1993 to 2009.

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The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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The end of Roman rule in Britain is the period during which the Roman Empire ended its relationship with Britain, thus marking the transition from Roman Britain to post-Roman Britain.

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England and Wales, is a jurisdiction covering two of the four countries of the United Kingdom, which form the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England and follow a single legal system, known as English law.

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The England cricket team is the team that represents England and Wales (and until 1992 also Scotland) in international cricket.

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The England national football team represents England and the Crown Dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man for football matches as part of FIFA-authorised events, and is controlled by The Football Association, the governing body for football in England.

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The England national rugby league team represent England in international rugby league football tournaments.

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The England national rugby union team represents England in rugby union.

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The England–Wales border is the official border and mark of entry between Wales and England, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom.

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English Americans, also referred to as Anglo-Americans, are Americans whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England, a constituent country of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

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English as a second or foreign language is the use of English by speakers with different native languages.

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English Baroque is a term sometimes used to refer to the developments in English architecture that were parallel to the evolution of Baroque architecture in continental Europe between the Great Fire of London (1666) and the Treaty of Utrecht (1713).

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An English Canadian or Anglo-Canadian refers to either a Canadian of English ethnic origin and heritage, or to an English-speaking, or Anglophone, Canadian of any ethnic origin; it is used primarily in contrast with French Canadian.

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The English Channel (Manche, "Sleeve"; Mor Breizh, "Bretons Sea"; Mor Bretannek, "British Sea"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France, and joins the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.

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English Chileans (Spanish: Anglochilenos) are citizens of Chile who are descended from English people who have emigrated.

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The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") in the Kingdom of England over, principally, the manner of its government.

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English Gothic is the name of the architectural style that flourished in England from about 1180 until about 1520.

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English Heritage (officially the English Heritage Trust) is a registered charity that looks after the National Heritage Collection.

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English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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English law means the legal system of England and Wales.

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The English Lowlands beech forests are a terrestrial ecoregion in Northern Europe, as defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and the European Environment Agency (EEA).

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English nationalism is the nationalism that asserts that the English are a nation and promotes the cultural unity of English people.

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The English are a nation and ethnic group native to England, who speak the English language.

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The English Premiership, currently known as Aviva Premiership Rugby or more commonly the Aviva Premiership because of the league's sponsorship by Aviva, is a professional league competition for men's rugby union football clubs in the top division of the English rugby union system.

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The English Reformation was a series of events in 16th-century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church.

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The English Renaissance was a cultural and artistic movement in England dating from the late 15th to the early 17th century.

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Enid Mary Blyton (11 August 1897 – 28 November 1968) was an English children's writer whose books have been among the world's best-sellers since the 1930s, selling more than 600 million copies.

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Equestrianism (from Latin equester, equestr-, horseman, horse) more often known as riding, horseback riding (American English) or horse riding (British English) referring to the skill of riding, driving, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses.

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ESPNcricinfo (formerly CricInfo) is a sports news website exclusively for the game of cricket.

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Eton College, often informally referred to simply as Eton, is an English boys' independent boarding school located in Eton, Berkshire, near Windsor.

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Eurasia is the combined continental landmass of Asia and Europe.

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The European Champion Clubs' Cup, also known as Coupe des Clubs Champions Européens, or simply the European Cup, is a trophy awarded annually by UEFA to the football club that wins the UEFA Champions League.

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The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe.

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The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration between its member states.

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The European Parliament election was the United Kingdom's component of the 2009 European Parliament election, the voting for which was held on Thursday 4 June 2009.

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The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation dedicated to the exploration of space, with 22 member states.

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The European Union (EU) is a politico-economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.

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Evolution is change in the heritable traits of biological populations over successive generations.

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Excalibur or Caliburn is the legendary sword of King Arthur, sometimes attributed with magical powers or associated with the rightful sovereignty of Great Britain.

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Exmoor is loosely defined as an area of hilly open moorland in west Somerset and north Devon in South West England, named after the River Exe, the source of which is situated in the centre of the area, two miles north-west of Simonsbath.

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The Emirates Football Association Challenge Cup, known worldwide as the FA Cup, is an annual knockout cup competition in English football; it is the oldest association football competition in the world.

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Fairleigh Dickinson University Press (FDU Press) is a publishing house under the operation and oversight of Fairleigh Dickinson University, the largest private university in New Jersey.

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A faith school is a school in the United Kingdom that teaches a general curriculum but which has a particular religious character or formal links with a religious organisation.

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Fareham is a market town at the north-west tip of Portsmouth Harbour, between the cities of Portsmouth and Southampton in the south east of Hampshire, England.

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The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA; English: International Federation of Association Football) is the governing body of association football, futsal and beach football.

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A film score (also sometimes called background score, background music, film music or incidental music) is original music written specifically to accompany a film.

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The Financial Times (FT) is an English-language international daily newspaper with a special emphasis on business and economic news.

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Fireworks are a class of explosive pyrotechnic devices used for aesthetic, cultural, and religious purposes.

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Fish and chips is a hot dish of English origin, consisting of battered fish, commonly Atlantic cod or haddock, and chips.

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The flag of England is derived from St George's Cross (heraldic blazon: Argent, a cross gules).

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The folk music of England is traditionally based music, which has existed since the later medieval period.

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Folkestone is a port town located on the English Channel, in Kent, south-east England.

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A foreign language is a language indigenous to another country.

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Formula One (also Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of single-seat auto racing that is sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA).

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A four-centred arch, also known as a depressed arch or Tudor arch, is a low, wide type of arch with a pointed apex.

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Fox hunting is an activity involving the tracking, chase, and sometimes killing of a fox, traditionally a red fox, by trained foxhounds or other scent hounds, and a group of unarmed followers led by a master of foxhounds, who follow the hounds on foot or on horseback.

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Framestore is a British visual effects company based near Oxford Street in London.

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The France Davis Cup team represents France in Davis Cup tennis competition, and is governed by the Fédération Française de Tennis.

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Francis Bacon, Viscount St.

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Sir Francis Charles Chichester KBE (17 September 1901 – 26 August 1972), aviator and sailor, was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II for becoming the first person to sail single-handed around the world by the clipper route, and the fastest circumnavigator, in nine months and one day overall.

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Francis Harry Compton Crick, OM, FRS (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004) was a British molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist, most noted for being a co-discoverer of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953 with James Watson.

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Sir Francis Drake, vice admiral (– 27 January 1596) was an English sea captain, privateer, navigator, slaver, and politician of the Elizabethan era.

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See Francis Johnston (architect) for Irish architect of similar name. Francis Frederick Johnson CBE, (18 April 1911–29 September 1995), was an English architect, born in Bridlington in the East Riding of Yorkshire.

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Franciscans are people and groups (religious orders) who adhere to the teachings and spiritual disciplines of St Francis of Assisi and of his main associates and followers, such as St Clare of Assisi, St Anthony of Padua, and St Elizabeth of Hungary, among many others.

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Franklin Roy "Frank" Bruno, MBE (born 16 November 1961) is a British former professional boxer.

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Air Commodore Sir Frank Whittle, OM, KBE, CB, FRS, Hon FRAeS (1 June 1907 – 9 August 1996) was an English Royal Air Force (RAF) engineer air officer.

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Frederick John "Fred" Perry (18 May 1909 – 2 February 1995) was a championship-winning English tennis and table tennis player and former World No. 1 who won 10 Majors including eight Grand Slams and two Pro Slams single titles, as well as six Major doubles titles.

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Sir Frederick William Mallandaine Ashton OM, CH, CBE (17 September 190418 August 1988) was a British ballet dancer and choreographer.

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Frederick Theodore Albert Delius, CH (29 January 186210 June 1934) was an English composer.

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A free market is a market economy system in which the prices for goods and services are set freely by consent between vendors and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.

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The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 17th century onward.

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French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language, belonging to the Indo-European family.

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The French Revolution (Révolution française) was an influential period of social and political upheaval in France that lasted from 1789 until 1799, and was partially carried forward by Napoleon during the later expansion of the French Empire.

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A full breakfast is a breakfast meal, usually including bacon, sausages, eggs, and a variety of other cooked foods, with a beverage such as coffee or tea.

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Further education (often abbreviated FE) in the United Kingdom and Ireland, similar to continuing education in the United States, is a term used to refer to education (in addition to that received at secondary school), that is distinct from the higher education offered in universities.

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George Douglas Howard Cole (25 September 1889 – 14 January 1959) was an English political theorist, economist, writer and historian.

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Gilbert Keith Chesterton, KC*SG (29 May 1874 – 14 June 1936) better known as G. K. Chesterton, was an English writer, lay theologian, poet, philosopher, dramatist, journalist, orator, literary and art critic, biographer, and Christian apologist.

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The Gaels (Na Gaeil; Na Gàidheil), also known as Goidels, are an ethnolinguistic group indigenous to northwestern Europe.

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Gary Leonard OldmanBirths, Marriages & Deaths Index of England & Wales, 1916–2005. (born 21 March 1958) is an English actor, filmmaker, and musician.

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Gateshead is a large town in Tyne and Wear, England, and the main settlement in the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead.

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The General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) is an academically rigorous, internationally recognised qualification awarded in a specified subject, generally taken in a number of subjects by pupils in secondary education in England, Wales and Northern Ireland over two years (three years in certain schools).

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Geoffrey Ernest Duke (29 March 1923 – 1 May 2015) was a British multiple motorcycle Grand Prix road racing world champion.

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Sir Geoffrey Charles "Geoff" Hurst MBE (born 8 December 1941) is a former England international footballer.

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Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1343 – 25 October 1400), known as the Father of English literature, is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages and was the first poet to be buried in Poets' Corner of Westminster Abbey.

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Geoffrey of Monmouth (Galfridus Monemutensis, Galfridus Arturus, Gruffudd ap Arthur, Sieffre o Fynwy) (c. 1100 – c. 1155) was a Welsh cleric and one of the major figures in the development of British historiography and the popularity of tales of King Arthur.

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The Geography (Γεωγραφικὴ Ὑφήγησις, Geōgraphikḕ Hyphḗgēsis, "Geographical Guidance"), also known by its Latin names as the Geographia and the Cosmographia, is a gazeteer, an atlas, and a treatise on cartography, compiling the geographical knowledge of the 2nd-century Roman Empire.

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The United Kingdom is a sovereign state located off the north-western coast of continental Europe.

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Mary Ann Evans (22 November 1819 – 22 December 1880; alternatively "Mary Anne" or "Marian"), known by her pen name George Eliot, was an English novelist, journalist, translator and one of the leading writers of the Victorian era.

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George Frideric (or Frederick) Handel (born Georg Friedrich Händel,; 23 February 1685 (O.S.) – 14 April 1759) was a German-born British Baroque composer who spent the bulk of his career in London, becoming well known for his operas, oratorios, anthems, and organ concertos.

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George II (George Augustus; Georg II.; 30 October / 9 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 (O.S.) until his death.

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George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death.

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Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950), who used the pen name George Orwell, was an English novelist, essayist, journalist and critic.

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George Stephenson (9 June 1781 – 12 August 1848) was an English civil engineer and mechanical engineer who built the first public inter-city railway line in the world to use steam locomotives, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway which opened in 1830.

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Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1720 and 1830.

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German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.

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The Germania, written by the Roman historian Publius Cornelius Tacitus around 98 and originally entitled On the Origin and Situation of the Germanic Peoples (De Origine et situ Germanorum), was a historical and ethnographic work on the Germanic tribes outside the Roman Empire.

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The Germanic peoples underwent gradual Christianization in the course of Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.

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The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of approximately 500 million people mainly in North America, Oceania, Central Europe, Western and Northern Europe.

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The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin, identified by their use of the Germanic languages which diversified out of Proto-Germanic starting during the Pre-Roman Iron Age.

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Germans have been coming to live in the United Kingdom for hundreds of years.

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The Germany national football team (Die deutsche Fußballnationalmannschaft) is the men's football team that has represented Germany in international competition since 1908.

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Giant is the English word (coined 1297) commonly used for the monsters of human appearance but prodigious size and strength common in the mythology and legends of many different cultures.

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GKN plc is a British multinational automotive and aerospace components company headquartered in Redditch, Worcestershire.

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Glam rock (also known as glitter rock) is a style of rock and pop music that developed in the United Kingdom in the early 1970s, which was performed by singers and musicians who wore outrageous clothes, makeup, and hairstyles, particularly platform-soled boots and glitter.

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Glastonbury Festival is a five-day music festival that takes place near Pilton, Somerset, England.

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A global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, is a city generally considered to be an important node in the global economic system.

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The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England, VII of Scotland and II of Ireland by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange).

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The Go-Ahead Group plc is a leading provider of passenger transport in the UK, with over one billion journeys made on its bus and trains services each year.

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A goblin is a legendary evil or mischievous grotesque dwarf-like daemon or monster that appeared in European stories and accounts during the Middle Ages.

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God Rest You Merry, Gentlemen is an English traditional Christmas carol.

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"God Save the Queen" (alternatively "God Save the King") is the national and/or royal anthem in a number of Commonwealth realms, their territories, and the British Crown Dependencies.

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Sir Godfrey Kneller, 1st Baronet (born Gottfried Kniller; 8 August 1646 – 19 October 1723) was the leading portrait painter in England during the late 17th and early 18th centuries, and was court painter to English and British monarchs from Charles II to George I. His major works include The Chinese Convert (1687; Royal Collection, London); a series of four portraits of Isaac Newton painted at various junctures of the latter's life; a series of ten reigning European monarchs, including King Louis XIV of France; over 40 "Kit-cat portraits" of members of the Kit-Cat Club; and ten "beauties" of the court of William III, to match a similar series of ten beauties of the court of Charles II painted by his predecessor as court painter, Sir Peter Lely.

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Golf is a club and ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible.

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Golf in Scotland was first recorded in the 15th century, and the modern game of golf was first developed and established in the country.

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Gosport is a Borough town in the South Hampshire conurbation, on the south coast of Hampshire in southern England.

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Gothic art was a style of Medieval art that developed in Northern France out of Romanesque art in the 12th century AD, led by the concurrent development of Gothic architecture.

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Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic, Neo-Gothic or Jigsaw Gothic, and when used for school, college, and university buildings as Collegiate Gothic) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England.

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Gothic rock (also referred to as goth rock or simply goth) is a musical subgenre of post-punk and alternative rock that formed during the late 1970s.

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There has not been a government of England since 1707 when the Kingdom of England ceased to exist as a sovereign state, as it merged with the Kingdom of Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.

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Government Offices for the English Regions (GOs) were established in 1994 by the John Major administration.

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Norman Graham Hill (15 February 1929 – 29 November 1975) was a British racing driver and team owner from England, who was twice Formula One World Champion.

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A grammar school is one of several different types of school in the history of education in the United Kingdom and other English-speaking countries, originally a school teaching classical languages but more recently an academically oriented secondary school.

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The MotoGP World Championship is the premier class of motorcycle road racing.

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The Grand Slam tournaments, also called majors, are the four most important annual tennis events.

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Gravy is a sauce, made often from the juices that run naturally during cooking and often thickened with wheat flour or cornstarch for added texture.

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Great Britain, also known as Britain, is an island in the North Atlantic off the north-west coast of continental Europe.

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The Great Britain Davis Cup team represents the United Kingdom in Davis Cup tennis competition and is controlled by the Lawn Tennis Association.

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The Great Britain national rugby league team represents Great Britain in rugby league football.

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The Great Fire of London was a major conflagration that swept through the central parts of the English city of London, from Sunday, 2 September to Wednesday, 5 September 1666.

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The Great Western Railway (GWR) was a British railway company that linked London with the midlands, the south-west and west of England and most of Wales.

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Greater Bristol is a term used for the conurbation which contains and surrounds the city of Bristol in the South West of England.

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London, or Greater London, is a region of England consisting of 33 districts: the 32 London boroughs and the City of London.

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The Greater London Authority referendum of 1998 was a referendum held in Greater London on 7 May 1998 asking whether there was support for the creation of a Greater London Authority, composed of a directly elected Mayor of London, and a London Assembly to scrutinise the Mayor's actions.

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The Greater London Built-up Area or Greater London Urban Area is the conurbation or continuous urban area of London, United Kingdom, as defined by the Office for National Statistics.

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The Greater Manchester Built-up Area is an area of land defined by the Office for National Statistics (ONS), consisting of the large conurbation that encompasses the urban element of the city of Manchester and the continuous metropolitan area that spreads outwards from it, forming much of Greater Manchester in North West England.

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The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman (or; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans.

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Greek or Hellenic (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to the southern Balkans, the Aegean Islands, western Asia Minor, parts of northern and Eastern Anatolia and the South Caucasus, southern Italy, Albania and Cyprus.

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The Green Party of England and Wales (GPEW; Plaid Werdd Cymru a Lloegr) is a left-wing, Green political party in England and Wales.

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"Greensleeves" is a traditional English folk song and tune, over a ground either of the form called a romanesca; of its slight variant, the passamezzo antico; of the passamezzo antico in its verses and the romanesca in its reprise; or of the Andalusian progression in its verses and the romanesca or passamezzo antico in its reprise.

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The Gregorian missionJones "Gregorian Mission" Speculum p. 335 or Augustinian missionMcGowan "Introduction to the Corpus" Companion to Anglo-Saxon Literature p. 17 was sent by Pope Gregory the Great in AD 596 to convert Britain's Anglo-Saxons.

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Greyhound racing is an organized, competitive industry in which greyhound dogs are raced around a track.

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Guild socialism is a political movement advocating workers' control of industry through the medium of trade-related guilds "in an implied contractual relationship with the public".

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The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension towards Europe, the North Atlantic Drift, is a powerful, warm, and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates at the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean.

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The Gunpowder Plot of 1605, in earlier centuries often called the Gunpowder Treason Plot or the Jesuit Treason, was a failed assassination attempt against King James I of England and VI of Scotland by a group of provincial English Catholics led by Robert Catesby.

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Gustav Theodore Holst (born Gustavus Theodore von Holst; 21 September 1874 – 25 May 1934) was an English composer, arranger and teacher.

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Guy Fawkes (13 April 1570 – 31 January 1606), also known as Guido Fawkes, the name he adopted while fighting for the Spanish, was a member of a group of provincial English Catholics who planned the failed Gunpowder Plot of 1605.

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Guy Fawkes Night, also known as Guy Fawkes Day, Bonfire Night and Firework Night, is an annual commemoration observed on 5 November, primarily in Great Britain.

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Guy Stuart Ritchie (born 10 September 1968) is an English filmmaker known for his crime films.

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Herbert George Wells (21 September 1866 – 13 August 1946), known primarily as H. G. Wells,.

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Hadrian's Wall (Vallum Aelium), also called the Roman Wall, Picts' Wall, or Vallum Hadriani in Latin, was a defensive fortification in the Roman province of Britannia, begun in 122 AD during the reign of the emperor Hadrian.

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A hagiography is a biography of a saint or an ecclesiastical leader.

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Halifax is a minster town, in the Metropolitan Borough of Calderdale in West Yorkshire, England The town has been a centre of woollen manufacture from the 15th century onward, originally dealing through the Piece Hall.

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The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Central European culture from the 8th to 6th centuries BC (European Early Iron Age), developing out of the Urnfield culture of the 12th century BC (Late Bronze Age) and followed in much of Central Europe by the La Tène culture.

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The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, often shortened to Hamlet, is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare at an uncertain date between 1599 and 1602.

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Hans Holbein the Younger (– between 7 October and 29 November 1543) was a German and Swiss artist and printmaker who worked in a Northern Renaissance style.

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Hard rock is a loosely defined subgenre of rock music which began in the mid-1960s, with the garage, psychedelic and blues rock movements.

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Harrow School, commonly referred to as "Harrow", is an English independent school for boys situated in the town of Harrow, in north-west London.

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Harry Potter is a film series based on the Harry Potter novels by author J. K. Rowling.

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A hat-trick or hat trick in sports is the achieving of a positive feat three times in a game, or other achievements based on threes in some sports.

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Havant is a town in the south east corner of Hampshire, England approximately mid-way between Portsmouth and Chichester.

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Heathrow Airport is a major international airport in west London, England.

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Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom and the United States.

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The Heineken Cup (known as the H Cup in France due to restrictions on alcohol sponsorship) was one of two annual rugby union competitions organised annually by European Rugby Cup from 1995 to 2014.

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Dame Helen Lydia Mirren, DBE (née Mironoff; born 26 July 1945), is an English actor.

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Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England (1154–89) and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany.

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Henry Spencer Moore (30 July 1898 – 31 August 1986) was an English sculptor and artist.

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Henry Purcell (c. 10 September 1659According to Holman and Thompson (Grove Music Online, see References) there is uncertainty regarding the year and day of birth. No record of baptism has been found. The year 1659 is based on Purcell's memorial tablet in Westminster Abbey and the frontispiece of his Sonnata's of III. Parts (London, 1683). The day 10 September is based on vague inscriptions in the manuscript GB-Cfm 88. It may also be relevant that he was appointed to his first salaried post on 10 September 1677, which would have been his eighteenth birthday. – 21 November 1695) was an English composer.

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Henry V (9 August 1387 – 31 August 1422) was King of England from 1413 until his death at the age of 35 in 1422.

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Henry VII (Harri Tudur; 28 January 1457 – 21 April 1509) was King of England, ruled the Principality of Wales (until 29 November 1489) and Lord of Ireland from his seizing the crown on 22 August 1485 until his death on 21 April 1509, as the first monarch of the House of Tudor.

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Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death.

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Her Majesty's Prison Service is a part of the National Offender Management Service of Her Majesty's Government tasked with managing most of the prisons within England and Wales.

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Lieutenant Colonel Herbert George "Blondie" Hasler, DSO, OBE (27 February 1914 – 5 May 1987) was a distinguished Royal Marines officer in the Second World War.

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Hereward the Wake (also known as Hereward the Outlaw or Hereward the Exile, c. 1035 – c.1072) was an 11th-century leader of local resistance to the Norman conquest of England.

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In English folklore, Herne the Hunter is a ghost associated with Windsor Forest and Great Park in the English county of Berkshire.

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"Hey Diddle Diddle" (also "Hi Diddle Diddle", "The Cat and the Fiddle", or "The Cow Jumped Over the Moon") is an English nursery rhyme.

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The term "high church" refers to beliefs and practices of ecclesiology, liturgy, and theology, generally with an emphasis on formality and resistance to "modernisation".

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Her Majesty's High Court of Justice in England (usually known as the High Court of Justice of England and Wales, the High Court of Justice or, simply, the High Court) is, together with the Court of Appeal and the Crown Court, one of the Senior Courts of England and Wales.

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The High Middle Ages or High Medieval Period was the period of European history around the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries (c. 1001–1300).

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A high sheriff is a ceremonial officer for each shrieval county of England and Wales and Northern Ireland or the chief sheriff of a number of paid sheriffs in U.S. states who outranks and commands the others in their court-related functions.

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High-speed rail is a type of rail transport that operates significantly faster than traditional rail traffic, using an integrated system of specialized rolling stock and dedicated tracks.

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Joseph Hilaire Pierre René Belloc (27 July 187016 July 1953) was an Anglo-French writer and historian.

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Hinduism is the dominant religion, or way of life, in South Asia, most notably in India and Nepal.

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Historia Regum Britanniae—in English, The History of the Kings of Britain—is a pseudohistorical account of British history, written c. 1136 by Geoffrey of Monmouth.

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The causes and mechanisms of the decline of the Roman Empire are a historical theme that was introduced by historian Edward Gibbon in his 1776 book The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

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The early medieval history of Ireland, often called Early Christian Ireland, spans the 5th to 8th centuries, from the gradual emergence out of the protohistoric period (Ogham inscriptions in Primitive Irish, mentions in Greco-Roman ethnography) to the beginning of the Viking Age.

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The British canal system of water transport played a vital role in the United Kingdom's Industrial Revolution at a time when roads were only just emerging from the medieval mud and long trains of packhorses were the only means of "mass" transit by road of raw materials and finished products (it was no accident that amongst the first canal promoters were the pottery manufacturers of Staffordshire).

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The history of the cooperative movement concerns the origins and history of cooperatives.

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Hockey is a family of sports in which two teams play against each other by trying to maneuver a ball or a puck into the opponent's goal using a hockey stick.

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The Home Office (HO) is a ministerial department of the Government of the United Kingdom, responsible for immigration, security, and law and order.

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Homo antecessor is an extinct human species (or subspecies) dating from 800,000 to 1.2 million years ago, that was discovered by Eudald Carbonell, Juan Luis Arsuaga and J. M. Bermúdez de Castro.

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is a Japanese public multinational corporation primarily known as a manufacturer of automobiles, motorcycles and power equipment.

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Hooke's law is a principle of physics that states that the force F needed to extend or compress a spring by some distance X is proportional to that distance.

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Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, KB (29 September 1758 – 21 October 1805) was a British flag officer in the Royal Navy.

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Horndean is a village and civil parish in the East Hampshire district of Hampshire, England.

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The hornpipe is any of several dance forms played and danced in Britain and Ireland and elsewhere from the 17th century until the present day.

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The House of Capet or the Direct Capetians (Les Capétiens, la Maison capétienne), also called the House of France (la maison de France), or simply the Capets, ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328.

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The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland which, like the House of Lords (the upper house), meets in the Palace of Westminster.

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The House of Dunkeld, in Scottish Gaelic Dùn Chailleann (meaning Fort of the Caledonii or of the Caledonians), is a historiographical and genealogical construct to illustrate the clear succession of Scottish kings from 1034 to 1040 and from 1058 to 1290.

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House of Lancaster was the name of two cadet branches of the royal House of Plantagenet.

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The House of Plantagenet was a royal house which originated from the lands of Anjou in France.

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The House of Valois was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty.

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The House of Wessex, also known as the House of Cerdic, refers to the family that initially ruled a kingdom in southwest England known as Wessex, from the 6th century under Cerdic of Wessex until the unification of the Kingdoms of England.

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The House of York was a cadet branch of the English royal House of Plantagenet.

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A hovercraft, also known as an air-cushion vehicle or ACV, is a craft capable of travelling over land, water, mud or ice and other surfaces.

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HyperText Markup Language, commonly referred to as HTML, is the standard markup language used to create web pages.

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Huddersfield is a large market town and is the largest settlement in the metropolitan borough of Kirklees, West Yorkshire, England.

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Huddersfield Giants are an English professional rugby league club from Huddersfield, West Yorkshire who play in the European Super League competition.

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Humpty Dumpty is a character in an English nursery rhyme, probably originally a riddle and one of the best known in the English-speaking world.

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The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, rulers of the Kingdom of France, for control of the latter kingdom.

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Huyton with Roby Urban District was a local government district in Lancashire, England from 1894 to 1974.

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"I Vow to Thee, My Country" is a British patriotic song, created in 1921, when a poem by Sir Cecil Spring Rice was set to music by Gustav Holst.

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The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe and is divided among four states: Spain, Portugal, Andorra, and France; as well as Gibraltar, an overseas territory of the United Kingdom.

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The ICC World Twenty20 (also referred to as the World T20, and wrongly as the T20 World Cup) is the international championship of Twenty20 cricket.

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An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than, thus also known as continental glacier.

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The Iceni or Eceni were a Brythonic tribe or Kingdom in Britannia (or Britain) who inhabited an area corresponding roughly to the modern-day county of Norfolk from the 1st century BC to the 1st century AD.

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Immigration is the movement of people into a destination country to which they are not native or do not possess its citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take-up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.

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Imperial College London is a public research university, located in London, United Kingdom.

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In the United Kingdom Independent schools (also private schools) are fee-paying private schools, governed by an elected board of governors and independent of many of the regulations and conditions that apply to state funded schools.

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The Independent Schools Inspectorate (ISI) is an organisation responsible for the inspection of independent schools in England which are members of organisations affiliated to the Independent Schools Council (ISC).

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The Indian subcontinent or the subcontinent is a southern region of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.

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Indie rock is a genre of alternative rock that originated in the United Kingdom in the 1980s.

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The Indo-European languages are a family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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IPPR (the Institute for Public Policy Research) is a progressive thinktank based in the UK.

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Insular art, also known as Hiberno-Saxon art, is the style of art produced in the post-Roman history of the British Isles.

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An international co-production is a production where two or more different production companies are working together, for example in a film production.

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The International Olympic Committee (IOC; Comité international olympique, CIO) is an international, non-profit, non-governmental organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre, Baron de Coubertin, on 23 June 1894 with Demetrios Vikelas as its first president.

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The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.

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Ipswich Town Football Club (also known as Ipswich, The Blues, Town, or The Tractor Boys) is an English professional association football team based in Ipswich, Suffolk.

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Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George's Channel.

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The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was the state established in 1922 as a Dominion of the British Commonwealth of Nations under the Anglo-Irish Treaty signed by British and Irish representatives exactly twelve months beforehand.

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Irish migration to Great Britain has occurred from the earliest recorded history to the present.

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The Irish Sea (Muir Éireann, Y Keayn Yernagh, Erse Sea, Muir Èireann, Ulster-Scots: Airish Sea, Môr Iwerddon) separates the islands of Ireland and Great Britain.

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The Ironbridge Gorge is a deep gorge formed by the River Severn in Shropshire, England.

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Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 164220 March 1726/7) was an English physicist and mathematician (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution.

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Isambard Kingdom Brunel, FRS (9 April 1806 – 15 September 1859), was an English mechanical and civil engineer who is considered "one of the most ingenious and prolific figures in engineering history", "one of the 19th century engineering giants", and "one of the greatest figures of the Industrial Revolution, changed the face of the English landscape with his groundbreaking designs and ingenious constructions".

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The Isle of Wight, is a county and the largest and second most populous island of England.

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The Isles of Scilly (Syllan or Enesek Syllan) are an archipelago off the southwestern tip of the Cornish peninsula of Great Britain.

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ISO 4217 is a standard published by International Organization for Standardization, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables.

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Isurium or Isurium of the Brigantes (Isurium Brigantum) was a Roman fort and town in the province of Britannia at the site of present-day Aldborough in North Yorkshire, England, in the United Kingdom.

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Sir Joseph John "J.

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Joanne "Jo" Rowling, (born 31 July 1965), pen names J. K. Rowling and Robert Galbraith, is a British novelist best known as the author of the Harry Potter fantasy series.

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John Ronald Reuel Tolkien (Tolkien pronounced his surname, see his phonetic transcription published on the illustration in The Return of the Shadow: The History of The Lord of the Rings, Part One. Christopher Tolkien. London: Unwin Hyman, 1988. (The History of Middle-earth; 6) ISBN 0-04-440162-0. In General American the surname is also pronounced. This pronunciation no doubt arose by analogy with such words as toll and polka, or because General American speakers realise as, while often hearing British as; thus or General American become the closest possible approximation to the Received Pronunciation for many American speakers. Wells, John. 1990. Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow: Longman, ISBN 0-582-05383-8 3 January 18922 September 1973) was an English writer, poet, philologist, and university professor who is best known as the author of the classic high-fantasy works The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, and The Silmarillion.

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"Jack and Jill" (sometimes "Jack and Gill", particularly in earlier versions) is a traditional English nursery rhyme.

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Jacobitism (Seacaibíteachas, Seumasachas) was a political movement in Great Britain and Ireland that aimed to restore the Roman Catholic Stuart King James II of England and his heirs to the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland.

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Jaguar Cars is a brand of Jaguar Land Rover, a British multinational car manufacturer headquartered in Whitley, Coventry, England, owned by the Indian company Tata Motors since 2008.

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The James Bond film series is a British series of spy films based on the fictional character of MI6 agent James Bond, "007", who originally appeared in a series of books by Ian Fleming.

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James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701) was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.

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James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death.

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James Watt, FRS, FRSE (30 January 1736 (19 January 1736 OS) – 25 August 1819) was a Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer whose Watt steam engine, an improvement of the Newcomen steam engine, was fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world.

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Jane Austen (16 December 1775 – 18 July 1817) was an English novelist whose works of romantic fiction, set among the landed gentry, earned her a place as one of the most widely read writers in English literature.

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Jarrow is a town north-east England, located on the River Tyne, with a population of 27,526.

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Jenson Alexander Lyons Button, (born 19 January 1980), known as JB, is a British Formula One driver from England currently driving for McLaren.

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Jeremy Bentham (– 6 June 1832) was a British philosopher, jurist, and social reformer.

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A jet engine is a reaction engine discharging a fast moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion in accordance with Newton's laws of motion.

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The Jig (port) is a form of lively folk dance in compound meter, as well as the accompanying dance tune.

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John Donne (22 January 1572 – 31 March 1631) was an English poet and a cleric in the Church of England.

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Sir John Everett Millais, 1st Baronet, PRA (8 June 1829 – 13 August 1896) was an English painter and illustrator who was one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.

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John Fisher (c. 19 October 1469 – 22 June 1535), venerated by Roman Catholics as Saint John Fisher, was an English Catholic bishop and theologian.

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Sir Arthur John Gielgud, OM, CH (14 April 1904 – 21 May 2000), was an English actor and theatre director whose career spanned eight decades.

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John Gower (c. 1330 – October 1408) was an English poet, a contemporary of William Langland and a personal friend of Geoffrey Chaucer.

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John Keats (31 October 1795 – 23 February 1821) was an English Romantic poet.

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John Locke FRS (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and known as the "Father of Classical Liberalism".

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John Milton (9 December 16088 November 1674) was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and a civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under Oliver Cromwell.

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John Playford (1623–1686/7) was a London bookseller, publisher, minor composer, and member of the Stationers' Company, who published books on music theory, instruction books for several instruments, and psalters with tunes for singing in churches.

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John Ridgway, MBE, (born 1938), is a British yachtsman and rower.

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John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist and civil servant.

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John Surtees, (born 11 February 1934) is a British former Grand Prix motorcycle road racer and Formula One driver.

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John Wesley (2 March 1791) was an Anglican minister and theologian who, with his brother Charles Wesley and fellow cleric George Whitefield, is credited with the foundation of the evangelical movement known as Methodism.

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John Wilkins FRS (14 February 1614 – 19 November 1672) was an Anglican clergyman, natural philosopher and author, and was one of the founders of the Royal Society.

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Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister, Bt., OM, FRS, PC (5 April 182710 February 1912), known as Sir Joseph Lister, Bt., between 1883 and 1897, was a British surgeon and a pioneer of antiseptic surgery.

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Joseph of Arimathea was, according to all four canonical Gospels, the man who donated his own prepared tomb for the burial of Jesus after Jesus' crucifixion.

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Joseph Priestley (– 6 February 1804) was an 18th-century English theologian, dissenting clergyman, natural philosopher, chemist, educator, and Liberal political theorist who published over 150 works.

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Sir Joshua Reynolds (16 July 1723 – 23 February 1792) was an influential eighteenth-century English painter, specialising in portraits.

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Juan Antonio Samaranch y Torelló, 1st Marquis of Samaranch (17 July 1920 – 21 April 2010), was a Spanish sports administrator who served as the seventh president of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) from 1980 to 2001.

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The House of Lords, in addition to having a legislative function, historically also had a judicial function.

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The Old English poem Judith describes the beheading of Assyrian general Holofernes by Israelite Judith of Bethulia.

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Julian of Norwich (c. 8 November 1342 – c. 1416) was an English anchoress who is regarded as an important Christian mystic.

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Dame Julia "Julie" Elizabeth Andrews, DBE, (née Wells; born 1 October 1935) is an English film and stage actress, singer, author, theatre director and dancer.

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The Jurassic Coast is a World Heritage Site on the English Channel coast of southern England.

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Justin Peter Rose (born 30 July 1980) is an English professional golfer who plays most of his golf on the PGA Tour, while keeping his membership on the European Tour.

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The Jutes, Iuti, or Iutæ were a Germanic people.

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Karen Louise Stupples (born 24 June 1973) is an English professional golfer who plays primarily on the U.S. based LPGA Tour and is also a member of the Ladies European Tour.

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Karst topography is a landscape formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum.

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Kate Elizabeth Winslet, CBE (born 5 October 1975), is an English actress and singer.

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Killamarsh is a town and civil parish in North East Derbyshire.

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King Arthur is a legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders in the late 5th to early 6th century A.D. The details of Arthur's story are mainly composed of folklore and literary invention, and his historical existence is debated and disputed by modern historians.

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The King James Version (KJV), also known as the Authorized Version (AV) or King James Bible (KJB), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.

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King's College London (informally King's or KCL; formerly styled King's College, London) is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.

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The King's School, Rochester is an English independent school in Rochester, Kent.

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The kingdom of the East Angles (Ēast Engla Rīce; Regnum Orientalium Anglorum), today known as the Kingdom of East Anglia, was a small independent kingdom of the Angles comprising what are now the English counties of Norfolk and Suffolk and perhaps the eastern part of the Fens.

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The Kingdom of England was a state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century, when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.

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The kingdom of the East Saxons (Ēast Seaxna Rīce; Regnum Orientalium Saxonum), today referred to as the Kingdom of Essex, was one of the seven traditional kingdoms of the so-called Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy.

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The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially Great Britain,"After the political union of England and Scotland in 1707, the nation's official name became 'Great Britain'", The American Pageant, Volume 1, Cengage Learning (2012)"From 1707 until 1801 Great Britain was the official designation of the kingdoms of England and Scotland".

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The Kingdom of Ireland (Classical Irish: Ríoghacht Éireann; Modern Irish: Ríocht Éireann) was a state in Ireland from the proclamation of King Henry VIII of England as King of Ireland by the Crown of Ireland Act 1542 until the Acts of Union 1800.

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The kingdom of the Kentish (Cantaware Rīce; Regnum Cantuariorum), today referred to as the Kingdom of Kent (Ceint), was an early medieval kingdom in what is now South East England.

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The Kingdom of Northumbria (Norþhymbra rīce, "kingdom of the Northumbrians") was a medieval Anglian kingdom in what is now northern England and south-east Scotland, which subsequently became an earldom in a unified English kingdom.

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The Kingdom of Scotland (Kinrick o Scotland; Rìoghachd na h-Alba) was a state in north-west Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843, which joined with the Kingdom of England to form a unified Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707.

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Sussex (Sūþseaxna rīce, "kingdom of the South Saxons") was a Saxon colony and later independent kingdom of the Saxons, on the south coast of England.

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Kingswood is an urban area in South Gloucestershire, England, on the eastern border of the City of Bristol.

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The La Tène culture was a European Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel in Switzerland, where a rich cache of artifacts was discovered by Hansli Kopp in 1857.

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The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.

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Godiva (Godgifu; fl. 1040–1067), known as Lady Godiva, was an 11th-century Anglo-Saxon noblewoman who, according to a legend dating back at least to the 13th century, rode naked – only covered in her long hair – through the streets of Coventry in order to gain a remission of the oppressive taxation imposed by her husband on his tenants.

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The Lake District, also known as The Lakes or Lakeland, is a mountainous region in North West England.

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Lamb, hogget, and mutton (UK, India, South Africa, Canada, New Zealand and Australia) are terms for the meat of domestic sheep (species Ovis aries) at different ages.

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A lamp is a replaceable component that produces light from electricity.

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Lancashire (archaically the County Palatine of Lancaster; abbreviated Lancs.) is a county in north west England.

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Lancashire hotpot is a dish made traditionally from lamb or mutton and onion, topped with sliced potatoes, left to bake in the oven all day in a heavy pot and on a low heat.

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Sir Lancelot du Lac (baptised as Galahad) was one of the Knights of the Round Table in the Arthurian legend.

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A land bridge, in biogeography, is an isthmus or wider land connection between otherwise separate areas, over which animals and plants are able to cross and colonise new lands.

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"Land of Hope and Glory" is a British patriotic song, with music by Edward Elgar and lyrics by A. C. Benson, written in 1902.

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Land Rover is a brand of the British car manufacturer Jaguar Land Rover, which specialises in four-wheel-drive vehicles.

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A language school is a school where one studies a foreign language.

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The Functional Urban Area (FUA) - formerly known as larger urban zone (LUZ) - is a measure of the population and expanse of metropolitan areas in Europe.

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The last glacial period, popularly known as the Ice Age was the most recent glacial period within the Quaternary glaciation occurring during the last one hundred thousand years of the Pleistocene, from approximately 110,000 to 12,000 years ago.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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The Latin Church is part of the Catholic Church.

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Latin literature includes the essays, histories, poems, plays, and other writings written in the Latin language.

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In geography, latitude (φ) is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north-south position of a point on the Earth's surface.

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Dame Laura Jane Davies, (born 5 October 1963), is an English professional golfer who has achieved the status of her nation's most accomplished female golfer of modern times, being the first non-American to finish at the top of the LPGA money list as well as winning the Ladies European Tour (LET) Order of Merit a record seven times: in 1985, 1986, 1992, 1996, 1999, 2004 and 2006.

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Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM (/ˈlɒɹəns kɜːɹ ɒˈlɪvi.eɪ/; 22 May 190711 July 1989) was an English actor who, along with his contemporaries Ralph Richardson and John Gielgud, dominated the British stage of the mid-20th century.

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A lawn mower (mower, etc.) is a machine utilizing one or more revolving blades to cut a grass surface to an even height.

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The Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542 (Y Deddfau Cyfreithiau yng Nhgymru 1535 a 1542) were parliamentary measures by which Wales became a full and equal part of the Kingdom of England and the legal system of England was extended to Wales and the norms of English administration introduced.

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The Laws of the Game, updated 2012 are the codified rules that help define association football.

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Led Zeppelin were an English rock band formed in London in 1968.

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Leeds is a city in West Yorkshire, England.

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Leeds Rhinos are a professional rugby league club in Leeds, West Yorkshire, England.

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Leeds United Football Club is an English football club in Leeds, West Yorkshire.

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Leicester Tigers (officially Leicester Football Club) is an English rugby union club based in Leicester, England that plays in the Aviva Premiership.

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Lennox Claudius Lewis, CM, CBE (born 2 September 1965) is a retired boxer and the last undisputed world heavyweight champion.

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Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by his pen name, Lewis Carroll, was an English writer, mathematician, logician, Anglican deacon, and photographer.

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Lewis Carl Davidson Hamilton, MBE (born 7 January 1985) is a British Formula One racing driver from England, currently racing for the Mercedes AMG team.

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The Liberal Democrats (often referred to as the Lib Dems) are a liberal political party in the United Kingdom, with policies ranging from the centre-left to the centre-right.

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Liberty, in philosophy, involves free will as contrasted with determinism.

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A library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing.

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Life expectancy is a statistical measure of how long a person or organism may live, based on the year of their birth, their current age and other demographic factors including gender.

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Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

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The Lindisfarne Gospels (London, British Library Cotton MS Nero D.IV) is an illuminated manuscript gospel book produced around the year 700 in a monastery off the coast of Northumberland at Lindisfarne and which is now on display in the British Library in London.

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A lingua franca (plural lingua francas), also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language or vehicular language, is a language or dialect systematically (as opposed to occasionally, or casually) used to make communication possible between persons not sharing a native language or dialect, in particular when it is a third language, distinct from both native languages.

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There have been 12 monarchs of Great Britain and the United Kingdom (see the Monarchy of the United Kingdom).

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This list of castles in England is not a list of every building and site that has "castle" as part of its name, nor does it list only buildings that conform to a strict definition of a castle as a medieval fortified residence.

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This is a list of cathedrals in England and Wales and the Crown Dependencies of the Isle of Man, Gibraltar and those in the Channel Islands, by country.

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This is a list of official cities in the United Kingdom as of 2015.

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This article includes four lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product per capita at nominal values.

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This article includes three lists of countries by gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita, i.e. the purchasing power parity (PPP) value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year.

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This is a list of countries by incarceration rate.

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This is a list of sovereign states and other territories by population, with population figures estimated for 1 July 2005 (rounded to the nearest 1,000).

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Comparison of tax rates around the world is difficult and somewhat subjective.

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This is intended to be as full a list as possible of country houses, castles, palaces, other stately homes, and manor houses in the United Kingdom and the Channel Islands; any architecturally notable building which has served as a residence for a significant family or a notable figure in history.

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The monarchy of the Kingdom of England began with Alfred the Great and ended with Queen Anne, who became Queen of Great Britain when England merged with Scotland to form a union in 1707.

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This is a list of Further education colleges and Sixth form colleges that are publicly funded by the Skills Funding Agency in England.

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Films generate income from several revenue streams, including theatrical exhibition, home video, television broadcast rights and merchandising.

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This is a list of islands of England, as well as a table of the largest English islands by area and by population.

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This is a list of lakes and reservoirs in England.

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This is a list of the 100 largest cities in the European Union by population within city limits.

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The list of motorways in the United Kingdom is a complete list of motorways in the United Kingdom.

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There are a large number of music festivals in the United Kingdom, covering a wide variety of genres.

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The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland.

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The following is a list of the world's busiest airports by international passenger traffic.

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As of August 2008, there were ninety-one universities in England, out of a total of 109 in the United Kingdom.

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This is a list of all the urban areas of the European Union which have greater than 500,000 inhabitants each, in 2014.

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This is a list of films from Walt Disney Animation Studios, an American animation studio headquartered in Burbank, California, and formerly known as Walt Disney Feature Animation, Walt Disney Productions and Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio, which creates animated feature films for The Walt Disney Company.

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Liverpool is a city in Merseyside, England, on the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary.

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The Liverpool and Manchester Railway (L&MR) was a railway opened on 15 September 1830 between the Lancashire towns of Liverpool and Manchester in the United Kingdom.

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Liverpool Football Club are a Premier League football club based in Liverpool, England.

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The "Liverpool Urban Area" is a term used by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) to denote the urban area around Liverpool in England, to the east of the River Mersey.

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Lloegyr is the medieval Welsh name for that part of Britain south and east of a line extending from the Humber Estuary to the Severn Estuary, exclusive of Cornwall and Devon.

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Local authority leaders' boards are voluntary associations of council leaders that have been established in England following the abolition of the regional chambers established in 1998 by the Regional Development Agencies Act 1998.

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The pattern of local government in England is complex, with the distribution of functions varying according to the local arrangements.

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The Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II is a family of single-seat, single-engine, all-weather stealth multirole fighters undergoing final development and testing by the United States.

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A locomotive or engine is a rail transport vehicle that provides the motive power for a train.

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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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The London Assembly is an elected body, part of the Greater London Authority, that scrutinises the activities of the Mayor of London and has the power, with a two-thirds majority, to amend the Mayor's annual budget and to reject the Mayor's draft statutory strategies.

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The London Borough of Barnet is a suburban London borough in north London, England, forming part of Outer London.

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The London Borough of Bromley is one of the 32 London Boroughs (plus the City) which make up Greater London.

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The London Borough of Croydon is a London borough in south London, England and is part of Outer London.

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The London Borough of Ealing is a London Borough in west London, England, and forms part of Outer London.

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London boroughs are 32 of the 33 principal subdivisions of the administrative area of Greater London (the 33rd is the City of London) and are each governed by a London borough council.

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"London Bridge Is Falling Down" (also known as "My Fair Lady" or simply "London Bridge") is a traditional English nursery rhyme and singing game, which is found in different versions all over the world.

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London Business School (LBS) is a graduate business school and a constituent college of the University of London, located in central London, England.

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The London School of Economics and Political Science (commonly referred to as the London School of Economics or LSE) is a public research university located in London, England which specialises in social sciences, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.

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London Stansted Airport is an international airport located at Stansted Mountfitchet in the local government district of Uttlesford in Essex, northeast of Central London and from the Hertfordshire border.

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The London Stock Exchange is a stock exchange located in the City of London in the United Kingdom.

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The London Symphony Orchestra (LSO), founded in 1904, is the oldest of London's symphony orchestras.

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The London Underground (also known as the Tube or simply the Underground) is a public rapid transit system serving a large part of Greater London and parts of the home counties of Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire and Essex.

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Long Eaton is a town in Derbyshire, England.

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The Long Parliament was an English Parliament summoned on 3 November 1640This article uses the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January – for a more detailed explanation, see Old Style and New Style dates#Differences between the start of the year old style and new style dates: differences between the start of the year.

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Yorkshire The Long Sword dance is a hilt-and-point sword dance recorded mainly in Yorkshire, England.

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George Gordon Byron (later Noel), 6th Baron Byron, FRS (22 January 1788 – 19 April 1824), commonly known simply as Lord Byron, was an English poet and a leading figure in the Romantic movement.

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The Lord Lieutenant is the Queen's personal representative in each county of the United Kingdom.

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Lord Protector (pl. Lords Protector) is a title that has been used in British constitutional law for heads of state.

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Lord's Cricket Ground, generally known as Lord's, is a cricket venue in St John's Wood, London.

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The Lordship of Ireland (Tiarnas na hÉireann.) was a period of feudal rule in Ireland between 1177 and 1542 under the King of England, styled as Lord of Ireland.

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Lothian (Lodainn) is a region of the Scottish Lowlands, lying between the southern shore of the Firth of Forth and the Lammermuir Hills.

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Lotus Cars is a British manufacturer of sports and racing cars, famous for its Esprit, Elan, Europa and Elise sports cars and for the highly successful Team Lotus in Formula One.

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Louisiana (or; État de Louisiane,; Louisiana Creole: Léta de la Lwizyàn) is a state located in the southern region of the United States.

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Low church is a term of distinction in the Church of England or other Anglican churches initially designed to be pejorative.

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A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house.

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Lucian Michael Freud, OM, CH (8 December 1922 – 20 July 2011) was a German-born British painter.

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Lucius is a legendary 2nd-century King of the Britons and saint traditionally credited with introducing Christianity into Britain.

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Lullingstone Roman Villa is a villa built during the Roman occupation of Britain, situated near the village of Eynsford in Kent, south eastern England.

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London Luton Airport (previously called Luton International Airport) is an international airport located east of the town centre in the Borough of Luton in Bedfordshire, England and is north of Central London.

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The Luttrell Psalter (British Library, Additional Manuscript 42130) is an illuminated psalter commissioned by Sir Geoffrey Luttrell (1276-1345), lord of the manor of Irnham in Lincolnshire, written and illustrated on parchment circa 1320–1340 in England by anonymous scribes and artists.

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The M1 is a north–south motorway in England connecting London to Leeds, where it joins the A1(M) near Aberford.

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The M25 or London Orbital Motorway is a motorway which almost encircles Greater London, England (with the exception of North Ockendon), in the United Kingdom.

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The M4 is a motorway which runs between London and South Wales in the United Kingdom.

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The M5 is a motorway in England.

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The M6 motorway runs from junction 19 of the M1 at the Catthorpe Interchange, near Rugby via Birmingham then heads north, passing Stoke-on-Trent, Liverpool, Manchester, Preston, Lancaster, Carlisle and terminating at the Gretna junction (J45).

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The M60 motorway, Manchester Ring Motorway, or Manchester Outer Ring Road, is an orbital motorway in Greater Manchester, a metropolitan county in North West England.

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The M62 is a west–east trans-Pennine motorway in Northern England, connecting Liverpool and Hull via Manchester and Leeds.

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Macbeth (full title The Tragedy of Macbeth) is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare.

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"Maggie May" (or "Maggie Mae") is a traditional Liverpool folk song (Roud #1757) about a prostitute who robbed a "homeward bounder": a sailor coming home from a round trip.

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Magna Carta (Latin for "the Great Charter"), also called Magna Carta Libertatum (Latin for "the Great Charter of the Liberties"), is a charter agreed by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.

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Malcolm (Gaelic: Máel Coluim; c. 1031 - 13 November 1093) was King of Scots from 1058 to 1093.

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Malta, officially the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country comprising an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.

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A mammoth is any species of the extinct genus Mammuthus, proboscideans commonly equipped with long, curved tusks and, in northern species, a covering of long hair.

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Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 514,417 in 2013.

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Manchester Airport, is an international airport in Ringway, Manchester, England.

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Metrolink (also known as Manchester Metrolink) is a tram/light rail system in Greater Manchester, England.

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The Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM), nicknamed Baby, was the world's first stored-program computer.

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Manchester United Football Club is a professional football club based in Old Trafford, Greater Manchester, England.

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Mangotsfield is a large village in South Gloucestershire, England, in the suburbs of Bristol.

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Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation.

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Saint Margaret Clitherow (1556 – 25 March 1586) is an English saint and martyr of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Dame Margot Fonteyn de Arias, DBE (18 May 191921 February 1991), was an English ballerina.

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The Marquess of Queensberry rules is a code of generally accepted rules in the sport of boxing.

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Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558) was the Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death.

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Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (née Godwin; 30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was an English novelist, short story writer, dramatist, essayist, biographer, and travel writer, best known for her Gothic novel ''Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus'' (1818).

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The Massaliote Periplus or Massaliot Periplus is a now-lost merchants' handbook possibly dating from as early as the 6th century BC describing the sea routes used by traders from Phoenicia and Tartessus in their journeys around Iron Age Europe.

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A match race is a race between two competitors, going head-to-head.

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Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all phenomena, including mental phenomena and consciousness, are identical with material interactions.

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The Matter of Britain is a name given collectively to the body of medieval literature and legendary material associated with Great Britain, and sometimes Brittany, and the legendary kings and heroes associated with it, particularly King Arthur.

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Matthew Boulton (3 September 1728 – 17 August 1809) was an English manufacturer and business partner of Scottish engineer James Watt.

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A maypole is a tall wooden pole erected as a part of various European folk festivals, around which a maypole dance often takes place.

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McLaren Automotive, commonly referred to as McLaren, is a British automotive manufacturer of high-performance vehicles.

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A meat pie is a pie with a filling of meat and often other savory ingredients.

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Medieval demography is the study of human demography in Europe and the Mediterranean during the Middle Ages.

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A Member of the European Parliament (MEP) is a person who has been elected to serve as a popular representative in the European Parliament.

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A menhir (French, from Middle Breton: maen, "stone" and hir, "long"), standing stone, orthostat, lith or masseba/matseva is a large upright standing stone.

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The Kingdom of Mercia (Miercna rīce), usually referred to as Mercia, was one of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy.

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Merlin is a legendary figure best known as the wizard featured in Arthurian legend.

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The Merry Men are the group of outlaws who follow Robin Hood in English literature and folklore.

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Messiah (HWV 56) is an English-language oratorio composed in 1741 by George Frideric Handel, with a scriptural text compiled by Charles Jennens from the King James Bible, and from the version of the Psalms included with the Book of Common Prayer.

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The Methodist Church (also called yr Eglwys Fethodistaidd in Welsh) is the largest Wesleyan Methodist body and fourth largest Christian denomination in the United Kingdom, with congregations across Great Britain (although more limited in Scotland).

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The metric system is an internationally agreed decimal system of measurement.

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Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties are one of the four levels of subdivisions of England used for the purposes of local government outside Greater London and the Isles of Scilly.

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A metropolitan borough is a type of local government district in England, and is a subdivision of a metropolitan county.

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The metropolitan counties are a type of county-level administrative division of England.

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Sir Michael Caine, (born Maurice Joseph Micklewhite; 14 March 1933), is an English actor and author.

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Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.

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Michael Laurence Nyman, CBE (born 23 March 1944) is an English composer of minimalist music, pianist, librettist and musicologist, known for numerous film scores (many written during his lengthy collaboration with the filmmaker Peter Greenaway), and his multi-platinum soundtrack album to Jane Campion's The Piano.

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Michael Steed is a British psephologist, political scientist, broadcaster, activist and Liberal Democrat politician.

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Michael David Wood (born 23 July 1948) is an English historian and broadcaster.

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In European history, the Middle Ages or Medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Middle English (ME) refers to the dialects of the English language spoken in parts of the British Isles after the Norman conquest (1066) until the late 15th century.

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The term Middle English literature refers to the literature written in the form of the English language known as Middle English, from the 12th century until the 1470s.

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The Midland Metro is a light-rail/tram line in the West Midlands of England operating between Birmingham and Wolverhampton via West Bromwich and Wednesbury.

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Mike Golding (born 27 August 1960) is an English yachtsman, born in Great Yarmouth and educated at Reading Blue Coat School.

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Stanley Michael Bailey Hailwood,, (2 April 1940 – 23 March 1981) was a British Grand Prix motorcycle road racer.

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Michael Cormac "Mike" Newell (born 28 March 1942) is an English director and producer of motion pictures for film and television.

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Mild ale is a low-gravity beer with a predominantly malty palate that originated in Britain in the 17th century or earlier.

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The Roman military was intertwined with the Roman state much more closely than in a modern European nation.

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A mill town, also known as factory town or mill village, is typically a settlement that developed around one or more mills or factories (usually cotton mills or factories producing textiles).

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A mince pie is a small British fruit-based mincemeat sweet pie traditionally served during the Christmas season.

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The Ministry of Justice (MOJ) is a ministerial department of the UK Government headed by the Secretary of State for Justice and Lord Chancellor (a combined position).

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Minority group is a term referring to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, i.e. those who hold the majority of positions of social power in a society, and may be defined by law.

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Mixed is an ethnicity category that has been used by the United Kingdom's Office for National Statistics since the 1991 Census.

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Mod is a subculture that began in 1960s Britain and spread, in varying degrees, to other countries"Revolution in Men's Clothes: Mod Fashions from Britain are Making a Smash in the U.S.", Life Magazine, May 13, 1966; pp.

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Modern architecture or modernist architecture is a term applied to an overarching movement, with its exact definition and scope varying widely.

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Modern English (sometimes New English or NE as opposed to Middle English and Old English) is the form of the English language spoken since the Great Vowel Shift in England, which began in the late 15th century and was completed in roughly 1550.

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The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories.

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Monasticism (from Greek μοναχός, monachos, derived from μόνος, monos, "alone") or monkhood is a religious way of life in which one renounces worldly pursuits to devote oneself fully to spiritual work.

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The Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) is a committee of the Bank of England, which meets for three and a half days twelve times a year to decide the official interest rate in the United Kingdom (the Bank of England Base Rate).

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Monty Python's Life of Brian, also known as Life of Brian, is a 1979 British comedy film starring and written by the comedy group Monty Python (Graham Chapman, John Cleese, Terry Gilliam, Eric Idle, Terry Jones and Michael Palin), and directed by Jones.

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Moorland or moor is a type of habitat found in upland areas in temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands and montane grasslands and shrublands biomes, characterised by low-growing vegetation on acidic soils.

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Morris dance is a form of English folk dance usually accompanied by music.

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Ursula Southeil (c. 1488–1561) (also variously spelt as Ursula Southill, Ursula Soothtell or Ursula Sontheil), better known as Mother Shipton, is said to have been an English soothsayer and prophetess.

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A motorcycle (also called a motorbike, bike, moto or cycle) is a two or three wheeled motor vehicle.

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A mousetrap is a specialized type of animal trap designed primarily to catch mice; however, it may also trap other small animals.

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Mummers Plays (also known as mummering) are seasonal folk plays performed by troupes of actors known as mummers or guisers (or by local names such as rhymers, pace-eggers, soulers, tipteerers, galoshins, guysers, and so on), originally from the British Isles (see wrenboys), but later in other parts of the world.

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A mushroom (or toadstool) is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source.

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The Music for the Royal Fireworks (HWV 351) is a wind band suite composed by George Frideric Handel in 1749 under contract of George II of Great Britain for the fireworks in London's Green Park on 27 April 1749.

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A Muslim, sometimes spelled Moslem, relates to a person who follows the religion of Islam, a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the Quran.

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Napoléon Bonaparte (born Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the Revolutionary Wars.

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Napoleon's planned invasion of the United Kingdom at the start of the War of the Third Coalition, although never carried out, was a major influence on British naval strategy and the fortification of the coast of southeast England.

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The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire led by Emperor Napoleon I against an array of European powers formed into various coalitions.

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Naseem Hamed (Arabic: نسيم حميد, Nasīm Ḥamīd; also known as Prince Naseem; born 12 February 1974) is an British former professional boxer from Sheffield, England of Yemeni descent.

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While there is no official national anthem of England, there are many songs which are considered to fill such a role.

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The National Day is a designated date on which celebrations mark the nationhood of a nation or non-sovereign country.

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A national emblem is an official emblem or seal reserved for use by a nation state as a symbol of that nation.

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National Express Group plc is a British multinational public transport company headquartered in Birmingham that operates bus, coach, train and tram services in the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Spain, Portugal, Malta and Morocco and long-distance coach services across Europe.

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The National Gallery is an art museum in Trafalgar Square in the City of Westminster, in Central London.

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The National Health Service (NHS) is the publicly funded healthcare system for England.

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The National Health Service Act 1946 came into effect on 5 July 1948 and created the National Health Service in England and Wales.

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National Insurance (NI) in the United Kingdom is a system of contributions paid by workers and employers towards the cost of certain state benefits.

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A national library is a library specifically established by the government of a country to serve as the preeminent repository of information for that country.

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The National Parks of England and Wales are areas of relatively undeveloped and scenic landscape that are designated under the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949.

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The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, usually known as the National Trust, is a conservation organisation in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

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Nationalisation (an alternative spelling is nationalization) is the process of taking a private industry or private assets into public ownership by a national government or state.

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The Neolithic Age, Era, or Period, from νέος (néos, "new") and λίθος (líthos, "stone"), or New Stone Age, was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world from First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies by Peter Bellwood, 2004 and ending between 4,500 and 2,000 BC.

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Netball is a ball sport played by two teams of seven players.

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Newcastle upon Tyne (RP:; Locally), commonly known as Newcastle, is a city in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 103 miles (166 km) south of Edinburgh and 277 miles (446 km) north of London on the northern bank of the River Tyne, from the North Sea.

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The atmospheric engine invented by Thomas Newcomen in 1712, often referred to simply as a Newcomen engine, was the first practical device to harness the power of steam to produce mechanical work.

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Newton's law of universal gravitation states that any two bodies in the universe attract each other with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

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Nicholas Hilliard (c. 1547 – 7 January 1619) was an English goldsmith and limner best known for his portrait miniatures of members of the courts of Elizabeth I and James I of England.

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Sir Nicholas Alexander Faldo MBE (born 18 July 1957) is an English professional golfer on the European Tour, now mainly an on-air golf analyst.

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Nicola Adams, MBE (born 26 October 1982) is a British boxer and the first woman to win an Olympic boxing title.

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Nigel Gregory Benn (born 22 January 1964), known as the "Dark Destroyer", is a British former professional boxer who held the WBO middleweight and WBC super middleweight titles.

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Nigel Ernest James Mansell, (born 8 August 1953) is a British former racing driver who won both the Formula One World Championship (1992) and the CART Indy Car World Series (1993).

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A non-metropolitan county, or shire county, is a county-level entity in England that is not a metropolitan county.

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"Nonconformist" or "Non-conformist" was a term used in England and Wales after the Act of Uniformity 1662 to refer to a Protestant Christian who did not "conform" to the governance and usages of the established Church of England.

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The term Norman architecture is used to categorise styles of Romanesque architecture developed by the Normans in the various lands under their dominion or influence in the 11th and 12th centuries.

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The Norman conquest of England was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled as William the Conqueror.

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Norman Robert Foster, Baron Foster of Thames Bank, OM, HonFREng (born 1 June 1935) is a British architect whose company, Foster + Partners, maintains an international design practice famous for high-tech architecture.

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No description.

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Normandy (Normandie, pronounced, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is a geographical region of France corresponding to the former Duchy of Normandy.

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The Normans (Normands; Nortmanni) were the people who in the 10th and 11th centuries gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.

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The North Downs are a ridge of chalk hills in south east England that stretch from Farnham in Surrey to the White Cliffs of Dover in Kent.

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The North East is one of the nine regions of England that are classified at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes.

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The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.

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North Sea oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons, comprising liquid petroleum and natural gas, produced from petroleum reservoirs beneath the North Sea.

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North Shields is a town on the north bank of the River Tyne, in the metropolitan borough of North Tyneside, Tyne and Wear in North East England.

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North West England, one of nine official regions of England, consists of the five counties of Cheshire, Cumbria, Greater Manchester, Lancashire and Merseyside.

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North Yorkshire is a county in England.

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Northampton Saints are a professional rugby union club from Northampton, England.

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Northern England, also known as the North of England, the North or the North Country, is a cultural region of England.

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Devolution referendums in Northern England were proposed under provisions of the Regional Assemblies (Preparations) Act 2003.

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Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann.; or Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in the northeast of the island of Ireland.

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Northumberland National Park is the northernmost national park in England.

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Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk)), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a sovereign and unitary monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus Jan Mayen and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard.

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The Norwich School of painters, founded in 1803 in Norwich, was the first provincial art movement in Britain.

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Nottingham is a city in Nottinghamshire, England, south of Sheffield and north of Leicester.

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Nottingham Forest Football Club is an association football club in Nottinghamshire, England.

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The Nottingham Built-up Area or Nottingham Urban Area is an area of land defined by the Office for National Statistics, consisting of the city of Nottingham and the adjoining urban areas of Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire, in the East Midlands of England.

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A nursery rhyme is a traditional poem or song for young children in Britain and many other countries, but usage only dates from the late 18th/early 19th century and in North America the term Mother Goose Rhymes, introduced in the mid-1700s, is still often used.

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An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.

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Oak Apple Day or Royal Oak Day was a formal public holiday celebrated in England on 29 May to commemorate the restoration of the English monarchy, in May 1660.

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An oceanic climate (also known as marine, west coast and maritime) is the climate typical of the west coasts at the middle latitudes of most continents, and generally features warm (but not hot) summers and cool (but not cold) winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range.

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Offa is a legendary king of the Angles in the genealogy of the kings of Mercia presented in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.

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The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department which reports directly to the UK Parliament.

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An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.

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The Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills (Ofsted) is a non-ministerial department of the UK government. The official position of Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Education, Children's Services and Skills (HMCI) is appointed by an Order in Council and thus becomes an office holder under the Crown. The current office holder is Sir Michael Wilshaw. Provision for the inspections of schools by teams of inspectors, and direct reports to schools, parents, and government, was made in the Education (Schools) Act 1992. Schedule 11 of the Education and Inspections Act 2006 changed the way in which Ofsted works without significantly changing the provision. Since 2006 the structure of Ofsted has derived elements from business models, with a Chair, an executive board, regional officers, and a formal annual report to Parliament in the light of concerns about schools, and local authority children's services. From September 2014 the Chair of Ofsted has been David Hoare. The services Ofsted inspects or regulates include: local services, childminding, child day care, children's centres, children's social care, CAFCASS, state schools, independent schools and teacher training providers, colleges, and learning and skills providers in England. It also monitors the work of the Independent Schools Inspectorate. HMI are empowered and required to provide independent advice to the United Kingdom government and parliament on matters of policy and to publish an annual report to parliament on the quality of educational provision in England. The Education and Training Inspectorate in Northern Ireland, Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education in Scotland, and Estyn in Wales perform similar functions within their education systems. Ofsted distributes its functions amongst its offices in London, Manchester, Nottingham, and Bristol.

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Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation.

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Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc) or Anglo-Saxon is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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Old English literature (sometimes referred to as Anglo-Saxon literature) encompasses literature written in Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon) in Anglo-Saxon England from the 7th century to the decades after the Norman Conquest of 1066.

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Oldham is a large town in Greater Manchester, England.

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Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English military and political leader and later Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland.

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The modern Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques) are the leading international sporting event featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.

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De mundo (Περὶ Κόσμου), known in English as On the Universe, is the work of an unknown author who wrote under the name of Aristotle.

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Open Library is an online project intended to create "one web page for every book ever published".

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An opera house is a theatre building used for opera performances that consists of a stage, an orchestra pit, audience seating, and backstage facilities for costumes and set building.

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An orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble that contains sections of string (violin, viola, cello and double bass), brass, woodwind, and percussion instruments.

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