326 relations: Act of Settlement 1701, Acts of Union 1707, An Act for prohibiting Trade with the Barbadoes, Virginia, Bermuda and Antego, Antigua, Apostolic succession, Archbishop of Canterbury, Arminianism in the Church of England, Army Plots (1641), Arthur Capell, 1st Baron Capell of Hadham, Banqueting House, Whitehall, Barbados, Battle of Adwalton Moor, Battle of Carbisdale, Battle of Dunbar (1650), Battle of Edgehill, Battle of Gainsborough, Battle of Hopton Heath, Battle of Inverkeithing, Battle of Langport, Battle of Lansdowne, Battle of Lostwithiel, Battle of Maidstone, Battle of Marston Moor, Battle of Naseby, Battle of Powick Bridge, Battle of Preston (1648), Battle of Rathmines, Battle of Roundway Down, Battle of St Fagans, Battle of the Severn, Battle of Turnham Green, Battle of Winceby, Battle of Worcester, Behemoth (Hobbes book), Bermuda, Bill of attainder, Bishops' Wars, Black Death, Book of Common Prayer, Bourgeoisie, Bristol, Burden of proof (law), C. A. Patrides, Cambridgeshire, Carlisle, Cumbria, Castle Cornet, Catholic Church, Cavalier, Channel Islands in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, Charles Harding Firth, ..., Charles I of England, Charles I's journey from Oxford to the Scottish army camp near Newark, Charles II of England, Charles Lucas, Christian state, Christopher Hill (historian), Church of England, Church of Scotland, City status in the United Kingdom, Clubmen, Colchester, Commission of array, Committee of Both Kingdoms, Commonwealth of England, Confederate Ireland, Conrad Russell, 5th Earl Russell, Constitutional monarchy, Convention Parliament (1660), Cotswolds, County of Moray, Court of High Commission, Cousin, Covenanter, Coventry, Cumberland, David Leslie, 1st Lord Newark, Decapitation, Declaration of Breda, Democracy, Diggers, Divine right of kings, Dragoon, Dublin, Dunbar, Dundee, Durham, England, Ecclesiology, Edinburgh, Edward Coke, Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester, Eighty 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London Company, Long Parliament, Lord Protector, Lord-Lieutenant, Magna Carta, Magnum Concilium, Maidstone, Marmaduke Langdale, 1st Baron Langdale of Holme, Martin Marprelate, Marxism, Massachusetts, Mercenary, Militia Ordinance, Monarchy of the United Kingdom, Musketeer, Napoleon, New England, New Model Army, Newark-on-Trent, Newcastle upon Tyne, Nonconformist, North Wales, Northampton, Northumberland, Nottingham, Oliver Cromwell, Oxford, Oxford Parliament (1644), Palace of Westminster, Palace of Whitehall, Parliament of Bermuda, Parliament of England, Parliamentary sovereignty, Patronage, Pejorative, Personal Rule, Perth, Scotland, Petition of Right, Pike (weapon), Pike and shot, Pitched battle, Prelate, Presbyterianism, Preston, Lancashire, Pride's Purge, Prince Rupert of the Rhine, Privateer, Protestant Ascendancy, Protestation of 1641, Puritans, Religious images in Christian theology, Renaissance reenactment, Restoration (England), Richard Bennett (Governor), Richard Cromwell, River Severn, River Teme, Robert Bertie, 1st Earl of Lindsey, Robert Blake (admiral), Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex, Ross-shire, Roundhead, Rowland Laugharne, Royal assent, Royal Navy, Royal Oak, Royal standards of England, Rump Parliament, Saint Helier, Samuel Rawson Gardiner, Scotland, Scotland in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, Second Anglo-Dutch War, Second Battle of Newbury, Second English Civil War, Self-denying Ordinance, Ship money, Short Parliament, Shrewsbury, Siege of Colchester, Siege of Drogheda, Siege of Dublin (1649), Siege of Gloucester, Siege of Hull (1642), Siege of La Rochelle, Siege of Pembroke, Sir John Gell, 1st Baronet, Sir John Hotham, 1st Baronet, Solemn League and Covenant, Southwell, Nottinghamshire, Spencer Compton, 2nd Earl of Northampton, St Giles' Cathedral, Stafford, Star Chamber, Stirling, Tender of Union, The Bahamas, The English Historical Review, The Fens, The Midlands, The Protectorate, The Sealed Knot (reenactment), The Souldiers Pocket Bible, Third English Civil War, Thirty Years' War, Thomas Fairfax, Thomas Hobbes, Thomas Horton (soldier), Thomas Pride, Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford, Timeline of the English Civil War, Toleration, Tonnage and poundage, Tory, Treason, Treaty of Berwick (1639), Triennial Acts, Union of the Crowns, Vestments controversy, Virginia, Virginia Cavaliers (historical), Wales, Walton-le-Dale, Wars of the Three Kingdoms, Waterman (occupation), Wellington Declaration, Wellington, Shropshire, West Indies, Westminster Abbey, Whig history, Whigs (British political party), William Hiseland, William Laud, William Lenthall, William Petty, William Prynne, William Sayle, William Waller, Worcester, York, Yorkshire. 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The Act of Settlement is an Act of the Parliament of England that was passed in 1701 to settle the succession to the English and Irish crowns on Protestants only.
The Acts of Union were two Acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland.
An Act for prohibiting Trade with the Barbadoes, Virginia, Bermuda and Antego or Act prohibiting Commerce and Trade with the Barbodoes, Antigo, Virginia, and Bermudas alias Summer's Islands was an Act of law passed by the Rump Parliament of England during the Interregnum against English colonies which sided with the Crown in the English Civil War.
Antigua, also known as Waladli or Wadadli by the native population, is an island in the West Indies.
Apostolic succession is the method whereby the ministry of the Christian Church is held to be derived from the apostles by a continuous succession, which has usually been associated with a claim that the succession is through a series of bishops.
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury.
Arminianism in the Church of England was a controversial theological position within the Church of England particularly evident in the second quarter of the 17th century (the reign of Charles I of England).
The Army Plots of 1641 were two real or alleged attempts by Royalist supporters of Charles I of England to use the army to crush dissent among members of the English parliament in the run-up to the English Civil War.
Arthur Capell, 1st Baron Capell (20 February 16089 March 1649), of Hadham Hall and Cassiobury House, Watford, both in Hertfordshire, was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1640 until 1641 when he was raised to the peerage as Baron Capell.
The Banqueting House, Whitehall, is the grandest and best known survivor of the architectural genre of banqueting house and the only remaining component of the Palace of Whitehall.
Barbados is an island country in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, in the Caribbean region of North America.
The Battle of Adwalton Moor was a battle in the English Civil War on 30 June 1643.
The Battle of Carbisdale (also known as Invercarron) took place close to the village of Culrain on 27 April 1650 and was part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.
The Battle of Dunbar (3 September 1650) was a battle of the Third English Civil War.
The Battle of Edgehill (or Edge Hill) was a pitched battle of the First English Civil War.
The Battle of Gainsborough was a battle in the English Civil War, fought on 28 July 1643.
The Battle of Hopton Heath, in Staffordshire, was a battle of the First English Civil War, fought on Sunday 19 March 1643 between Parliamentarian forces led by Sir John Gell, 1st Baronet and Sir William Brereton and a Royalist force under Spencer Compton, 2nd Earl of Northampton.
The Battle of Inverkeithing in Inverkeithing, Scotland was a battle during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.
The Battle of Langport was a Parliamentarian victory late in the First English Civil War which destroyed the last Royalist field army and gave Parliament control of the West of England, which had hitherto been a major source of manpower, raw materials and imports for the Royalists.
The English Civil War battle of Lansdowne (or Lansdown) was fought on 5 July 1643, near Bath, Somerset, southwest England.
The Battles of Lostwithiel or Lostwithiel Campaign, took place near Lostwithiel and Fowey in Cornwall during the First English Civil War in 1644.
The Battle of Maidstone (1 June 1648) was fought in the Second English Civil War and was a victory for the attacking parliamentarian troops over the defending Royalist forces.
The Battle of Marston Moor was fought on 2 July 1644, during the First English Civil War of 1642–1646.
The Battle of Naseby was a decisive engagement of the English Civil War, fought on 14 June 1645 between the main Royalist army of King Charles I and the Parliamentarian New Model Army, commanded by Sir Thomas Fairfax and Oliver Cromwell.
The Battle of Powick Bridge, fought on 23 September 1642, was the first major cavalry engagement of the English Civil War.
The Battle of Preston (17–19 August 1648), fought largely at Walton-le-Dale near Preston in Lancashire, resulted in a victory for the New Model Army under the command of Oliver Cromwell over the Royalists and Scots commanded by the Duke of Hamilton.
The Battle of Rathmines was fought in and around what is now the Dublin suburb of Rathmines in August 1649, during the Irish Confederate Wars, the Irish theatre of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.
The Battle of Roundway Down was fought on 13 July 1643, during the First English Civil War.
The Battle of St Fagans was a pitched battle in the Second English Civil War in 1648.
The Battle of the Severn was a skirmish fought on March 25, 1655, on the Severn River at Horn Point, across Spa Creek from Annapolis, Maryland, in what at that time was referred to as the Puritan settlement of "Providence", and what is now the neighborhood of Eastport.
The Battle of Turnham Green occurred on 13 November 1642 near the village of Turnham Green, at the end of the first campaigning season of the First English Civil War.
The Battle of Winceby took place on 11 October 1643 during the English Civil War near the village of Winceby, Lincolnshire about 4 miles (6 km) east of Horncastle.
The Battle of Worcester took place on 3 September 1651 at Worcester, England, and was the final battle of the English Civil War.
Behemoth, full title Behemoth: the history of the causes of the civil wars of England, and of the counsels and artifices by which they were carried on from the year 1640 to the year 1660, also known as The Long Parliament, is a book written by Thomas Hobbes discussing the English Civil War.
Bermuda is a British Overseas Territory in the North Atlantic Ocean.
A bill of attainder (also known as an act of attainder or writ of attainder or bill of pains and penalties) is an act of a legislature declaring a person or group of persons guilty of some crime and punishing them, often without a trial.
The Bishops' Wars (Bellum Episcopale) were conflicts, both political and military, which occurred in 1639 and 1640 centred on the nature of the governance of the Church of Scotland, and the rights and powers of the Crown.
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
The Book of Common Prayer (BCP) is the short title of a number of related prayer books used in the Anglican Communion, as well as by the Continuing Anglican, Anglican realignment and other Anglican Christian churches.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of 456,000.
The burden of proof (onus probandi) is the obligation of a party in a trial to produce the evidence that will prove the claims they have made against the other party.
Constantinos Apostolos Patrides (1930 – 23 September 1986) was a Greek–American academic and writer, and “one of the greatest scholars of Renaissance literature of his generation”.
Cambridgeshire (abbreviated Cambs.), is an East Anglian county in England, bordering Lincolnshire to the north, Norfolk to the north-east, Suffolk to the east, Essex and Hertfordshire to the south, and Bedfordshire and Northamptonshire to the west.
Carlisle (or from Cumbric: Caer Luel Cathair Luail) is the county town of Cumbria.
Castle Cornet is a large island castle in Guernsey, and former tidal island, also known as Cornet Rock or Castle Rock.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The term Cavalier was first used by Roundheads as a term of abuse for the wealthier Royalist supporters of King Charles I and his son Charles II of England during the English Civil War, the Interregnum, and the Restoration (1642 – c. 1679).
Between 1642 and 1651 the Channel Islands were involved in an eleven-year-long, wide-scale armed conflict known as the English Civil War, between the Parliamentarians (nicknamed pejoratively as the Roundheads) and Royalists (nicknamed the Cavaliers) over, principally, the manner of England's government and the amount of power the monarch should be able to wield.
Sir Charles Harding Firth, FBA (16 March 1857 – 19 February 1936) was a British historian.
Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.
Charles I of England left Oxford on 27 April 1646 and travelled by a circuitous route through enemy held territory to arrive at the Scottish army camp located close to Southwell near Newark-on-Trent on 5 May 1646.
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Sir Charles Lucas (1613 – 28 August 1648) was an English soldier, a Royalist commander in the English Civil War.
A Christian state is a country that recognizes a form of Christianity as its official religion and often has a state church, which is a Christian denomination that supports the government and is supported by the government.
John Edward Christopher Hill (6 February 1912 – 23 February 2003) was an English Marxist historian and academic, specialising in 17th-century English history.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
The Church of Scotland (The Scots Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba), known informally by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national church of Scotland.
City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the monarch of the United Kingdom to a select group of communities:, there are 69 cities in the United Kingdom – 51 in England, six in Wales, seven in Scotland and five in Northern Ireland.
Clubmen were bands of local defence vigilantes during the English Civil War (1642–1651) who tried to protect their localities against the excesses of the armies of both sides in the war.
Colchester is an historic market town and the largest settlement within the borough of Colchester in the county of Essex.
A commission of array was a commission given by English sovereigns to officers or gentry in a given territory to muster and array the inhabitants and to see them in a condition for war, or to put soldiers of a country in a condition for military service.
The Committee of Both Kingdoms, (known as the Derby House Committee from late 1647), was a committee set up during the English Civil War by the Parliamentarian faction in association with representatives from the Scottish Covenanters, after they made an alliance (the Solemn League and Covenant) in late 1643.
The Commonwealth was the period from 1649 to 1660 when England and Wales, later along with Ireland and Scotland, was ruled as a republic following the end of the Second English Civil War and the trial and execution of Charles I. The republic's existence was declared through "An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth", adopted by the Rump Parliament on 19 May 1649.
Confederate Ireland or the Union of the Irish (Hiberni Unanimes) refers to the period of Irish self-government between 1642 and 1649, during the Eleven Years' War.
Conrad Sebastian Robert Russell, 5th Earl Russell (15 April 1937 – 14 October 2004) was a British historian and politician.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
The Convention Parliament (25 April 1660 – 29 December 1660) followed the Long Parliament that had finally voted for its own dissolution on 16 March that year.
The Cotswolds is an area in south central England containing the Cotswold Hills, a range of rolling hills which rise from the meadows of the upper Thames to an escarpment, known as the Cotswold Edge, above the Severn Valley and Evesham Vale.
Moray (Moireibh), or Elginshire, is one of the registration counties of Scotland, bordering Nairnshire to the west, Inverness-shire to the south, and Banffshire to the east.
The Court of High Commission was the supreme ecclesiastic court in England.
Commonly, "cousin" refers to a "first cousin" or equivalently "full cousin", people whose most recent common ancestor is a grandparent.
The Covenanters were a Scottish Presbyterian movement that played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent that of England and Ireland, during the 17th century.
Coventry is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England.
Cumberland is a historic county of North West England that had an administrative function from the 12th century until 1974.
David Leslie, 1st Lord Newark (c. 1600–1682) was a cavalry officer.
Decapitation is the complete separation of the head from the body.
The Declaration of Breda (dated 4 April 1660) was a proclamation by Charles II of England in which he promised a general pardon for crimes committed during the English Civil War and the Interregnum for all those who recognised Charles as the lawful king; the retention by the current owners of property purchased during the same period; religious toleration; and the payment of pay arrears to members of the army, and that the army would be recommissioned into service under the crown.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
The Diggers were a group of Protestant radicals in England, sometimes seen as forerunners of modern anarchism, and also associated with agrarian socialism and Georgism.
The divine right of kings, divine right, or God's mandate is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy.
Dragoons originally were a class of mounted infantry, who used horses for mobility but dismounted to fight on foot.
Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.
Dunbar is a coastal town in East Lothian on the south-east coast of Scotland, approximately east of Edinburgh and from the English border north of Berwick-upon-Tweed.
Dundee (Dùn Dè) is Scotland's fourth-largest city and the 51st-most-populous built-up area in the United Kingdom.
Durham (locally) is a historic city and the county town of County Durham in North East England.
In Christian theology, ecclesiology is the study of the Christian Church, the origins of Christianity, its relationship to Jesus, its role in salvation, its polity, its discipline, its destiny, and its leadership.
Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.
Sir Edward Coke ("cook", formerly; 1 February 1552 – 3 September 1634) was an English barrister, judge, and politician who is considered to be the greatest jurist of the Elizabethan and Jacobean eras.
Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon (18 February 16099 December 1674) was an English statesman who served as Lord Chancellor to King Charles II from 1658, two years before the Restoration of the Monarchy, until 1667.
Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester, KG, KB, FRS (1602 – 5 May 1671) was an important commander of Parliamentary forces in the First English Civil War, and for a time Oliver Cromwell's superior.
The Eighty Years' War (Tachtigjarige Oorlog; Guerra de los Ochenta Años) or Dutch War of Independence (1568–1648) was a revolt of the Seventeen Provinces of what are today the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg against the political and religious hegemony of Philip II of Spain, the sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands.
The Eleutheran Adventurers were a group of English Puritans and religious Independents who left Bermuda to settle on the island of Eleuthera in the Bahamas in the late 1640s.
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.
The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica.
The Engagers were a faction of the Scottish Covenanters, who made "The Engagement" with King Charles I in December 1647 while he was imprisoned in Carisbrooke Castle by the English Parliamentarians after his defeat in the First Civil War.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
The English Civil War Society was founded in 1980 and is the umbrella organisation for the King's Army and the Roundhead Association.
The Committee of Safety, established by the Parliamentarians in July 1642, was the first of a number of successive committees set up to oversee the English Civil War against King Charles I, and the Interregnum.
English Dissenters or English Separatists were Protestant Christians who separated from the Church of England in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries.
"English Revolution" has been used to describe two different events in English history.
An episcopal polity is a hierarchical form of church governance ("ecclesiastical polity") in which the chief local authorities are called bishops.
The escape of Charles II from England in 1651 was a key episode in his life.
Essex is a county in the East of England.
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.
Fife (Fìobha) is a council area and historic county of Scotland.
The First Battle of Newbury was a battle of the First English Civil War that was fought on 20 September 1643 between a Royalist army, under the personal command of King Charles, and a Parliamentarian force led by the Earl of Essex.
The First English Civil War (1642–1646) began the series of three wars known as the English Civil War (or "Wars").
The First English Civil War started in 1642.
1643 was the second year of the First English Civil War.
1644 was the third year of the First English Civil War.
1645 was the fourth year of the First English Civil War.
1646 was the fifth and final year of the First English Civil War.
The Firth of Forth (Linne Foirthe) is the estuary (firth) of several Scottish rivers including the River Forth.
Garmouth (Geàrr Magh; spurious date A' Ghairmich; Germouth, Gairmou′), is a village in Moray, north east Scotland.
In modern parlance, a gentleman (from gentle + man, translating the Old French gentilz hom) is any man of good, courteous conduct.
The gentry (genterie; Old French gentil: "high-born") are the "well-born, genteel, and well-bred people" of the social class below the nobility of a society.
George Goring, Lord Goring (14 July 1608 – 1657) was an English Royalist soldier.
Sir George Lisle (c. 1610 – 28 August 1648) was a Royalist leader in the English Civil War.
George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle, KG (6 December 1608 – 3 January 1670) was an English soldier and politician, and a key figure in the Restoration of the monarchy to King Charles II in 1660.
George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, (28 August 1592 – 23 August 1628), was an English courtier, statesman, and patron of the arts.
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.
The Great Famine (an Gorta Mór) or the Great Hunger was a period of mass starvation, disease, and emigration in Ireland between 1845 and 1849.
The Habeas Corpus Act 1640 (16 Car 1 c 10) was an Act of the Parliament of England.
Henrietta Maria of France (Henriette Marie; 25 November 1609 – 10 September 1669) was queen consort of England, Scotland, and Ireland as the wife of King Charles I. She was mother of his two immediate successors, Charles II and James II/VII.
Henry Burton (Yorkshire, 1578–1648), was an English puritan.
Henry Rich, 1st Earl of Holland (19 August 1590 (baptised) – 9 March 1649), known as The Lord Kensington between 1623 and 1624, was an English courtier, peer and soldier.
Sir Henry Vane, the elder (18 February 15891655) was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1614 and 1654.
Sir Henry Vane (baptised 26 March 161314 June 1662) (often referred to as Harry Vane to distinguish him from his father), son of Henry Vane the Elder, was an English politician, statesman, and colonial governor.
A hierarchy (from the Greek hierarchia, "rule of a high priest", from hierarkhes, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally.
The term "high church" refers to beliefs and practices of ecclesiology, liturgy, and theology, generally with an emphasis on formality and resistance to "modernisation." Although used in connection with various Christian traditions, the term originated in and has been principally associated with the Anglican/Episcopal tradition, where it describes Anglican churches using a number of ritual practices associated in the popular mind with Roman Catholicism.
The High Court of Justice was the court established by the Rump Parliament to try King Charles I of England.
Treason is criminal disloyalty.
In historiography, the term historical revisionism identifies the re-interpretation of the historical record.
History is a peer-reviewed academic journal published quarterly by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Historical Association.
History (originally The History Channel from 1995 to 2008) is a history-based digital cable and satellite television network that is owned by A&E Networks, a joint venture between the Hearst Communications and the Disney–ABC Television Group division of the Walt Disney Company.
History Today is an illustrated history magazine.
The House of Commons of England was the lower house of the Parliament of England (which incorporated Wales) from its development in the 14th century to the union of England and Scotland in 1707, when it was replaced by the House of Commons of Great Britain.
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Huguenots (Les huguenots) are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants who follow the Reformed tradition.
Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body formally levels charges against a high official of government.
An indentured servant or indentured laborer is an employee (indenturee) within a system of unfree labor who is bound by a signed or forced contract (indenture) to work for a particular employer for a fixed time.
The Interregnum was the period between the execution of Charles I on 30 January 1649 and the arrival of his son Charles II in London on 29 May 1660 which marked the start of the Restoration.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
The Irish Rebellion of 1641 (Éirí Amach 1641) began as an attempted coup d'état by Irish Catholic gentry, who tried to seize control of the English administration in Ireland to force concessions for Catholics.
The Ironsides were troopers in the Parliamentarian cavalry formed by English political leader Oliver Cromwell in the 17th century, during the English Civil War.
Jacob Astley, 1st Baron Astley of Reading (1579February 1652) was a Royalist commander in the English Civil War.
A Jacobin was a member of the Jacobin Club, a revolutionary political movement that was the most famous political club during the French Revolution (1789–99).
Lieutenant-General James FitzThomas Butler, 1st Duke of Ormond, 1st Marquess of Ormond, 12th Earl of Ormond, 5th Earl of Ossory, 4th Viscount Thurles, 1st Baron Butler of Llanthony, 1st Earl of Brecknock, KG, PC (19 October 1610 – 21 July 1688) was an Anglo-Irish statesman and soldier, known as Earl of Ormond from 1634 to 1642 and Marquess of Ormond from 1642 to 1661.
James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose (1612 – 21 May 1650) was a Scottish nobleman, poet and soldier, who initially joined the Covenanters in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, but subsequently supported King Charles I as the English Civil War developed.
James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Hamilton KG PC (19 June 1606 – 9 March 1649) was a Scottish nobleman and influential political and military leader during the Thirty Years' War and the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.
James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that James II died 6 September 1701 (17 September 1701 New Style) may result from a miscalculation done by an author of anonymous "An Exact Account of the Sickness and Death of the Late King James II, as also of the Proceedings at St. Germains thereupon, 1701, in a letter from an English gentleman in France to his friend in London" (Somers Tracts, ed. 1809–1815, XI, pp. 339–342). The account reads: "And on Friday the 17th instant, about three in the afternoon, the king died, the day he always fasted in memory of our blessed Saviour's passion, the day he ever desired to die on, and the ninth hour, according to the Jewish account, when our Saviour was crucified." As 17 September 1701 New Style falls on a Saturday and the author insists that James died on Friday, "the day he ever desired to die on", an inevitable conclusion is that the author miscalculated the date, which later made it to various reference works. See "English Historical Documents 1660–1714", ed. by Andrew Browning (London and New York: Routledge, 2001), 136–138.) was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
Jared Sparks (May 10, 1789 – March 14, 1866) was an American historian, educator, and Unitarian minister.
Jenny Geddes (c. 1600 – c. 1660) was a Scottish market-trader in Edinburgh who is alleged to have thrown her stool at the head of the minister in St Giles' Cathedral in objection to the first public use of an Episcopalian Book of Common Prayer in Scotland.
Jersey (Jèrriais: Jèrri), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (Bailliage de Jersey; Jèrriais: Bailliage dé Jèrri), is a Crown dependency located near the coast of Normandy, France.
John Bastwick (1593–1654) was an English Puritan physician and controversial writer.
John Calvin (Jean Calvin; born Jehan Cauvin; 10 July 150927 May 1564) was a French theologian, pastor and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation.
Sir John Eliot (11 April 1592 – 27 November 1632) was an English statesman who was serially imprisoned in the Tower of London, where he would die, by King Charles I for advocating the rights and privileges of Parliament.
John Hampden (ca. 1595 – 1643) was an English politician who was one of the leading parliamentarians involved in challenging the authority of Charles I of England in the run-up to the English Civil War.
John Knox (– 24 November 1572) was a Scottish minister, theologian, and writer who was a leader of the country's Reformation.
John Lambert (Autumn 1619 – March 1684) was an English Parliamentary general and politician.
John Poyer (died 25 April 1649) was a Welsh soldier in the Parliamentary army during the English Civil War in South Wales.
John Pym (1584 – 8 December 1643) was an English parliamentarian, leader of the Long Parliament and a prominent critic of Kings James I and then Charles I. He was one of the Five Members whose attempted arrest by King Charles I in the House of Commons of England in 1642 sparked the Civil War.
John Whitgift (c. 1530 – 29 February 1604) was the Archbishop of Canterbury from 1583 to his death.
Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties.
The kibibyte is a multiple of the unit byte for quantities of digital information.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
The Kingdom of Ireland (Classical Irish: Ríoghacht Éireann; Modern Irish: Ríocht Éireann) was a nominal state ruled by the King or Queen of England and later the King or Queen of Great Britain that existed in Ireland from 1542 until 1800.
The Kingdom of Scotland (Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843.
Kingston upon Hull, usually abbreviated to Hull, is a city and unitary authority in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England.
Kinsale (meaning "Tide Head") is a historic port and fishing town in County Cork, Ireland, which also has significant military history.
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political leader for service to the monarch or a Christian Church, especially in a military capacity.
Lèse-majesté (or; also lese-majesty, lese majesty or leze majesty) is the crime of violating majesty, an offence against the dignity of a reigning sovereign or against a state.
Leicester ("Lester") is a city and unitary authority area in the East Midlands of England, and the county town of Leicestershire.
The Levellers was a political movement during the English Civil War (1642–1651).
Leviathan or The Matter, Forme and Power of a Common-Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil—commonly referred to as Leviathan—is a book written by Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679) and published in 1651 (revised Latin edition 1668). Its name derives from the biblical Leviathan. The work concerns the structure of society and legitimate government, and is regarded as one of the earliest and most influential examples of social contract theory. Leviathan ranks as a classic western work on statecraft comparable to Machiavelli's The Prince. Written during the English Civil War (1642–1651), Leviathan argues for a social contract and rule by an absolute sovereign. Hobbes wrote that civil war and the brute situation of a state of nature ("the war of all against all") could only be avoided by strong, undivided government.
Lichfield is a cathedral city and civil parish in Staffordshire, England.
Lieutenant general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries.
Lincoln is a cathedral city and the county town of Lincolnshire in the East Midlands of England.
Several (8) military conflicts are considered English civil wars.
This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great, King of Wessex, one of the petty kingdoms to rule a portion of modern England.
Following the trial of Charles I in January 1649, 59 commissioners (judges) signed his death warrant.
This is a list of the Speakers of the House of Commons of England, up to 1707.
The London Company (also called the Virginia Company of London) was an English joint stock company established in 1606 by royal charter by King James I with the purpose of establishing colonial settlements in North America.
The Long Parliament was an English Parliament which lasted from 1640 until 1660.
Lord Protector (pl. Lords Protectors) is a title that has been used in British constitutional law for the head of state.
The Lord-Lieutenant is the British monarch's personal representative in each county of the United Kingdom.
Magna Carta Libertatum (Medieval Latin for "the Great Charter of the Liberties"), commonly called Magna Carta (also Magna Charta; "Great Charter"), is a charter agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.
In the Kingdom of England, the Magnum Concilium, or Great Council, was an assembly convened at certain times of the year when church leaders and wealthy landowners were invited to discuss the affairs of the country with the king.
Maidstone is a large, historically important town in Kent, England, of which it is the county town.
Sir Marmaduke Langdale (1598 at Pighall – 5 August 1661 at Holme-on-Spalding-Moor) was a Royalist commander in the English Civil War.
Martin Marprelate (sometimes printed as Martin Mar-prelate and Marre–Martin) was the name used by the anonymous author or authors of the seven Marprelate tracts that circulated illegally in England in the years 1588 and 1589.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
A mercenary is an individual who is hired to take part in an armed conflict but is not part of a regular army or other governmental military force.
The Militia Ordinance was a piece of legislation passed by the Long Parliament of England in March 1642, which was a major step towards the Civil War between the King and Parliament of England.
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories.
A musketeer (mousquetaire) was a type of soldier equipped with a musket.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
The New Model Army of England was formed in 1645 by the Parliamentarians in the English Civil War, and was disbanded in 1660 after the Restoration.
Newark-on-Trent or Newark is a market town and civil parish in the Newark and Sherwood district of the county of Nottinghamshire, in the East Midlands of England.
Newcastle upon Tyne, commonly known as Newcastle, is a city in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 103 miles (166 km) south of Edinburgh and 277 miles (446 km) north of London on the northern bank of the River Tyne, from the North Sea.
In English church history, a nonconformist was a Protestant who did not "conform" to the governance and usages of the established Church of England.
North Wales (Gogledd Cymru) is an unofficial region of Wales.
Northampton is the county town of Northamptonshire in the East Midlands of England.
Northumberland (abbreviated Northd) is a county in North East England.
Nottingham is a city and unitary authority area in Nottinghamshire, England, north of London, in the East Midlands.
Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English military and political leader.
Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.
The Oxford Parliament (also known as the King's Oxford Parliament or Mongrel Parliament) was the Parliament assembled by King Charles I for the first time 22 January 1644 and adjourned for the last time on 10 March 1645, with the purpose of instrumenting the Royalist war campaign.
The Palace of Westminster is the meeting place of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Palace of Whitehall (or Palace of White Hall) at Westminster, Middlesex, was the main residence of the English monarchs from 1530 until 1698, when most of its structures, except for Inigo Jones's Banqueting House of 1622, were destroyed by fire.
The Parliament of Bermuda is the bicameral legislature in the British Overseas Territory of Bermuda.
The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it became the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Parliamentary sovereignty (also called parliamentary supremacy or legislative supremacy) is a concept in the constitutional law of some parliamentary democracies.
Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another.
A pejorative (also called a derogatory term, a slur, a term of abuse, or a term of disparagement) is a word or grammatical form expressing a negative connotation or a low opinion of someone or something, showing a lack of respect for someone or something.
The Personal Rule (also known as the Eleven Years' Tyranny) was the period from 1629 to 1640, when King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland ruled without recourse to Parliament.
Perth (Peairt) is a city in central Scotland, located on the banks of the River Tay.
The Petition of Right is a major English constitutional document that sets out specific liberties of the subject that the king is prohibited from infringing.
A pike is a pole weapon, a very long thrusting spear formerly used extensively by infantry.
Pike and shot is a historical infantry combat formation that evolved during the Italian Wars before the late seventeenth century evolution of the bayonet.
A pitched battle or set piece battle is a battle in which both sides choose the fighting location and time.
A prelate is a high-ranking member of the clergy who is an ordinary or who ranks in precedence with ordinaries.
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland.
Preston is the administrative centre of Lancashire, England, on the north bank of the River Ribble.
Pride's Purge was an event that took place in December 1648, during the Second English Civil War, when troops of the New Model Army under the command of Colonel Thomas Pride forcibly removed from the Long Parliament all those who were not supporters of the Grandees in the New Model Army and the Independents.
Prince Rupert of the Rhine, Duke of Cumberland (17 December 1619 – 29 November 1682) was a noted German soldier, admiral, scientist, sportsman, colonial governor and amateur artist during the 17th century.
A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war.
The Protestant Ascendancy, known simply as the Ascendancy, was the political, economic and social domination of Ireland between the 17th century and the early 20th century by a minority of landowners, Protestant clergy and members of the professions, all members of the Church of Ireland or the Church of England.
The Protestation was an attempt to avert the English Civil War.
The Puritans were English Reformed Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to "purify" the Church of England from its "Catholic" practices, maintaining that the Church of England was only partially reformed.
Religious images in Christian theology have a role within the liturgical and devotional life of adherents of certain Christian denominations.
Renaissance reenactment is historical reenactment of events of the Renaissance period and the European Age of Exploration.
The Restoration of the English monarchy took place in the Stuart period.
Richard Bennett (6 August 1609 – 12 April 1675) was an English Governor of the Colony of Virginia.
Richard Cromwell (4 October 162612 July 1712) became the second Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, and was one of only two commoners to become the English head of state, the other being his father, Oliver Cromwell, from whom he inherited the post.
The River Severn (Afon Hafren, Sabrina) is a river in the United Kingdom.
The River Teme (pronounced; Afon Tefeidiad) rises in Mid Wales, south of Newtown, and flows through Knighton where it crosses the border into England down to Ludlow in Shropshire, then to the north of Tenbury Wells on the Shropshire/Worcestershire border there, on its way to join the River Severn south of Worcester.
Robert Bertie, 1st Earl of Lindsey (16 December 1582 – 24 October 1642, in Edge Hill) was an English peer, soldier and courtier.
Robert Blake (27 September 1598 – 7 August 1657) was one of the most important military commanders of the Commonwealth of England and one of the most famous English admirals of the 17th century, whose successes have "never been excelled, not even by Nelson" according to one biographer.
Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex, KB, PC (11 January 1591 – 14 September 1646) was an English Parliamentarian and soldier during the first half of the 17th century.
Ross-shire (Siorrachd Rois) is a historic county in the Scottish Highlands.
Roundheads were supporters of the Parliament of England during the English Civil War.
Major General Rowland Laugharne (c. 1607–1675) was a member of the Welsh gentry and a prominent soldier in the English Civil War, during which he fought on both sides.
Royal assent or sanction is the method by which a country's monarch (possibly through a delegated official) formally approves an act of that nation's parliament.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The Royal Oak is the English oak tree within which the future King Charles II of England hid to escape the Roundheads following the Battle of Worcester in 1651.
The royal standards of England were narrow, tapering swallow-tailed heraldic flags, of considerable length, used mainly for mustering troops in battle, in pageants and at funerals, by the monarchs of England.
The Rump Parliament was the English Parliament after Colonel Thomas Pride purged the Long Parliament, on 6 December 1648, of those members hostile to the Grandees' intention to try King Charles I for high treason.
Saint Helier (Saint-Hélier) is one of the twelve parishes of Jersey, the largest of the Channel Islands in the English Channel.
Samuel Rawson Gardiner (4 March 1829 – 24 February 1902) was an English historian, who specialized in 17th-century English history.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Between 1639–53, Scotland was involved in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, a series of wars starting with the Bishops Wars (between Scotland and England), the Irish Rebellion of 1641, the English Civil War (and closely related war in Scotland), the Irish Confederate Wars, and finally the subjugation of Ireland and Scotland by the English Roundhead New Model Army.
The Second Anglo-Dutch War (4 March 1665 – 31 July 1667), or the Second Dutch War (Tweede Engelse Oorlog "Second English War") was a conflict fought between England and the Dutch Republic for control over the seas and trade routes, where England tried to end the Dutch domination of world trade during a period of intense European commercial rivalry.
The Second Battle of Newbury was a battle of the English Civil War fought on 27 October 1644, in Speen, adjoining Newbury in Berkshire.
The Second English Civil War (1648–1649) was the second of three wars known collectively as the English Civil War (or Wars), which refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651 and also include the First English Civil War (1642–1646) and the Third English Civil War (1649–1651).
The Self-denying Ordinance was passed by the Long Parliament of England on 3 April 1645.
Ship money was a tax of medieval origin levied intermittently in the Kingdom of England until the middle of the 17th century.
The Short Parliament was a Parliament of England that was summoned by King Charles I of England on 20 February 1640 and sat from 13 April to 5 May 1640.
Shrewsbury is the county town of Shropshire, England.
The siege of Colchester occurred in the summer of 1648 when the English Civil War reignited in several areas of Britain.
The Siege of Drogheda took place on 3–11 September 1649, at the outset of the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland.
The Siege of Dublin took place in 1649 during the War of the Three Kingdoms.
The Siege of Gloucester was an engagement in the First English Civil War.
The Siege of Hull in 1642 was the first major action of the English Civil War.
The Siege of La Rochelle (French: Le Siège de La Rochelle, or sometimes Le Grand Siège de La Rochelle) was a result of a war between the French royal forces of Louis XIII of France and the Huguenots of La Rochelle in 1627–28.
The Siege of Pembroke took place in 1648 during the Second English Civil War.
Sir John Gell, 1st Baronet (22 June 1593 – 26 October 1671) was a Parliamentarian politician and military figure in the English Civil War.
Sir John Hotham, 1st Baronet, of Scorborough (circa July 1589 – 3 January 1645) was an English politician and Member of Parliament, who was governor of Hull in 1642 shortly before the start of the English Civil War.
The Solemn League and Covenant was an agreement between the Scottish Covenanters and the leaders of the English Parliamentarians in 1643 during the First English Civil War.
Southwell is a town in Nottinghamshire, England, the site of Southwell Minster, the cathedral of the Anglican Diocese of Southwell and Nottingham covering Nottinghamshire.
Spencer Compton, 2nd Earl of Northampton (May 1601 – 19 March 1643), styled Lord Compton from 1618 to 1630, was an English soldier and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1621 to 1622.
St Giles' Cathedral, also known as the High Kirk of Edinburgh, is the principal place of worship of the Church of Scotland in Edinburgh.
Stafford is the county town of Staffordshire, in the West Midlands of England.
The Star Chamber (Latin: Camera stellata) was an English court of law which sat at the royal Palace of Westminster, from the late to the mid-17th century (c. 1641), and was composed of Privy Councillors and common-law judges, to supplement the judicial activities of the common-law and equity courts in civil and criminal matters.
Stirling (Stirlin; Sruighlea) is a city in central Scotland.
The Tender of Union was a declaration of the Parliament of England during the Interregnum following the War of the Three Kingdoms stating that Scotland would cease to have an independent parliament and would join England in its emerging Commonwealth republic.
The Bahamas, known officially as the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, is an archipelagic state within the Lucayan Archipelago.
The English Historical Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal that was established in 1886 and published by Oxford University Press (formerly Longman).
The Fens, also known as the, are a coastal plain in eastern England.
The Midlands is a cultural and geographic area roughly spanning central England that broadly corresponds to the early medieval Kingdom of Mercia.
The Protectorate was the period during the Commonwealth (or, to monarchists, the Interregnum) when England and Wales, Ireland and Scotland were governed by a Lord Protector as a republic.
The Sealed Knot is an English historical association and charity, dedicated to costumed reenactment of battles and events surrounding the English Civil War.
The Souldiers Pocket Bible (aka Cromwell's Soldiers' Pocket Bible, The Soldier's Pocket Bible, Cromwell's Soldier's Bible) was a pamphlet version of the Protestant Bible that was carried by the soldiers of Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army during the English Civil War.
The Third English Civil War (1649–1651) was the last of the English Civil Wars (1642–1651), a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists.
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
Thomas Fairfax, 3rd Lord Fairfax of Cameron (17 January 1612 – 12 November 1671), also known as Sir Thomas, Lord Fairfax, was an English nobleman, peer, politician, general, and Parliamentary commander-in-chief during the English Civil War.
Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
Thomas Horton (1603 – October 1649) was an English soldier in the parliamentary army during the English Civil War.
General Sir Thomas Pride (died 23 October 1658) was a parliamentarian commander in the Civil War, best known as one of the Regicides of King Charles I and as the instigator of "Pride's Purge".
Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford (13 April 1593 (O.S.) – 12 May 1641) was an English statesman and a major figure in the period leading up to the English Civil War.
This is a timeline of events leading up to, culminating in, and resulting from the English Civil Wars.
Toleration is the acceptance of an action, object, or person which one dislikes or disagrees with, where one is in a position to disallow it but chooses not to.
Tonnage and Poundage were certain duties and taxes first levied in Edward II's reign on every tun (cask) of imported wine, which came mostly from Spain and Portugal, and on every pound weight of merchandise exported or imported.
A Tory is a person who holds a political philosophy, known as Toryism, based on a British version of traditionalism and conservatism, which upholds the supremacy of social order as it has evolved throughout history.
In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's nation or sovereign.
The Treaty of Berwick (also known as the Peace of Berwick or the Pacification of Berwick) was signed on 19 June 1639 between England and Scotland.
The Triennial Act 1641 (16 Cha. I c. 1) (also known as the Dissolution Act) was an Act passed on 15 February 1641,, Accessed 7 May 2008 by the English Long Parliament, during the reign of King Charles I. The act requires that Parliament meet for at least a fifty-day session once every three years.
The Union of the Crowns (Aonadh nan Crùintean; Union o the Crouns) was the accession of James VI of Scotland to the thrones of England and Ireland, and the consequential unification for some purposes (such as overseas diplomacy) of the three realms under a single monarch on 24 March 1603.
The vestments controversy or vestarian controversy arose in the English Reformation, ostensibly concerning vestments or clerical dress.
Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
Virginia Cavaliers were royalist supporters in the Royal Colony of Virginia at various times during the era of the English Civil War and Restoration.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
Walton-le-Dale is a large village in the Borough of South Ribble, in Lancashire, England.
The Wars of the Three Kingdoms, sometimes known as the British Civil Wars, formed an intertwined series of conflicts that took place in the kingdoms of England, Ireland and Scotland between 1639 and 1651.
A waterman is a river worker who transfers passengers across and along city centre rivers and estuaries in the United Kingdom and its colonies.
The "Wellington Declaration" (otherwise known as the Declaration of Wellington) was a manifesto by King Charles I near the start of the English Civil War On 18 September 1642, before the first major pitched battle of Civil War, King Charles I raised his standard "in the vicinity of" (i.e. not actually in) Wellington, at the time a small, though highly influential, market town in Shropshire and addressed his troops the next day.
Wellington is a town in the unitary authority of Telford and Wrekin and ceremonial county of Shropshire, England and now forms part of the new town of Telford, with which it has gradually become contiguous.
The West Indies or the Caribbean Basin is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean in the Caribbean that includes the island countries and surrounding waters of three major archipelagoes: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago.
Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster.
Whig history (or Whig historiography) is an approach to historiography that presents the past as an inevitable progression towards ever greater liberty and enlightenment, culminating in modern forms of liberal democracy and constitutional monarchy.
The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom.
William Hiseland (August 6, 1620 – 7 February 1732), sometimes spelt William Hasland or Haseland, was an English and later British soldier and reputed supercentenarian.
William Laud (7 October 1573 – 10 January 1645) was an English archbishop and academic.
William Lenthall (1591 – 9 November 1662) was an English politician of the Civil War period.
Sir William Petty FRS (Romsey, 26 May 1623 – 16 December 1687) was an English economist, physician, scientist and philosopher.
William Prynne (1600 – 24 October 1669) was an English lawyer, author, polemicist, and political figure.
Captain William Sayle (c. 1590–1671) was a prominent Bermudian landholder who was Governor of Bermuda in 1643 and again in 1658.
Sir William Waller (c. 1597 – 19 September 1668) was an English Parliamentary general during the English Civil War.
Worcester is a city in Worcestershire, England, southwest of Birmingham, west-northwest of London, north of Gloucester and northeast of Hereford.
York is a historic walled city at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England.
Yorkshire (abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England and the largest in the United Kingdom.
Civil War (England), Civil war in England, England Civil War, England civil war, English Civil war, English civil war, Puritan Revolution, Puritan revolution, The english civil war, War of Three Nations, War of the English Revolution, Wars of the English Revolution.