871 relations: A Bend in the River, A Clockwork Orange (novel), A Dance to the Music of Time, A Dictionary of the English Language, A Glastonbury Romance, A Man for All Seasons, A Modest Proposal, A Passage to India, A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful, A Shropshire Lad, A Slight Ache, A. E. Housman, Absurdism, Actor, Adonaïs, Adrian Henri, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Aestheticism, African literature, Agatha Christie, Age of Enlightenment, Alan Moore, Alan Paton, Alasdair Gray, Aldous Huxley, Alexander Pope, Alfred Cellier, Alfred the Great, Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Algernon Charles Swinburne, Alice Munro, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, All That Fall, Allegory, Alliterative verse, Alton Locke, American Civil War, American Revolution, Amherst, Massachusetts, An Apology for Poetry, An Apology for the Life of Mrs. Shamela Andrews, Ancient Rome, Andrew Marvell, Angela Carter, Angles, Anglo-Frisian languages, Anglo-Norman language, Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Anglo-Saxons, Angry young men, ..., Angus Cameron (academic), Ann Radcliffe, Annals, Anne Brontë, Anne Carson, Anthony Burgess, Anthony Hope, Anthony Powell, Anthony Trollope, Anthropomorphism, Antiphon, Aphra Behn, Areopagitica, Art movement, Arthur C. Clarke, Arthur Conan Doyle, Arthur Hugh Clough, Arthur Rimbaud, Arthur Sullivan, Arthur Symons, Astrophel and Stella, Athol Fugard, Attila, August Strindberg, August Wilhelm Schlegel, Augustan literature, Augustan poetry, Australian literature, B. C. Stephenson, Bartholomew Fair (play), Basil Bunting, Battle of Maldon, BBC, BBC Light Programme, Beat Generation, Beatrix Potter, Beaumont and Fletcher, Bede, Ben Jonson, Benjamin Disraeli, Beowulf, Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics, Bertrand Russell, Bible, Bible translations, Bible translations into English, Blank verse, Bleak House, Bob Dylan, Boethius, Book of Common Prayer, Book of Negroes, Booker Prize, Bram Stoker, Brave New World, Brendan Behan, Brian Patten, Briggflatts, Brighton Rock (novel), British Agricultural Revolution, British Empire, British literature, British Poetry Revival, Broadsheet, Brontë family, Byronic hero, C. S. 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A Bend in the River is a 1979 novel by Nobel laureate V. S. Naipaul.
A Clockwork Orange is a dystopian satirical black comedy novel by English writer Anthony Burgess, published in 1962.
A Dance to the Music of Time is a 12-volume cycle of novels by Anthony Powell, inspired by the painting of the same name by Nicolas Poussin and published between 1951 and 1975 to critical acclaim.
Published on 4 April 1755 and written by Samuel Johnson, A Dictionary of the English Language, sometimes published as Johnson's Dictionary, is among the most influential dictionaries in the history of the English language.
A Glastonbury Romance was written by John Cowper Powys (1873–1963) in rural upstate New York and first published by Simon and Schuster in New York City in March 1932.
A Man for All Seasons is a play by Robert Bolt based on the life of Sir Thomas More.
A Modest Proposal For preventing the Children of Poor People From being a Burthen to Their Parents or Country, and For making them Beneficial to the Publick, commonly referred to as A Modest Proposal, is a Juvenalian satirical essay written and published anonymously by Jonathan Swift in 1729.
A Passage to India (1924) is a novel by English author E. M. Forster set against the backdrop of the British Raj and the Indian independence movement in the 1920s.
A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful is a 1757 treatise on aesthetics written by Edmund Burke.
A Shropshire Lad is a collection of sixty-three poems by the English poet Alfred Edward Housman, published in 1896.
A Slight Ache is a tragicomic play written by Harold Pinter in 1958 and first published by Methuen in London in 1961.
Alfred Edward Housman (26 March 1859 – 30 April 1936), usually known as A. E. Housman, was an English classical scholar and poet, best known to the general public for his cycle of poems A Shropshire Lad.
In philosophy, "the Absurd" refers to the conflict between the human tendency to seek inherent value and meaning in life and the human inability to find any.
An actor (often actress for women; see terminology) is a person who portrays a character in a performance.
Adonaïs: An Elegy on the Death of John Keats, Author of Endymion, Hyperion, etc., also spelled Adonaies, is a pastoral elegy written by Percy Bysshe Shelley for John Keats in 1821, and widely regarded as one of Shelley's best and most well-known works.
Adrian Henri (10 April 1932 – 20 December 2000) was a British poet and painter best remembered as the founder of poetry-rock group the Liverpool Scene and as one of three poets in the best-selling anthology The Mersey Sound, along with Brian Patten and Roger McGough.
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (or, in more recent editions, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn) is a novel by Mark Twain, first published in the United Kingdom in December 1884 and in the United States in February 1885.
Aestheticism (also the Aesthetic Movement) is an intellectual and art movement supporting the emphasis of aesthetic values more than social-political themes for literature, fine art, music and other arts.
African literature is literature of or from Africa and includes oral literature (or "orature", in the term coined by Ugandan scholar Pio Zirimu).
Dame Agatha Mary Clarissa Christie, Lady Mallowan, (born Miller; 15 September 1890 – 12 January 1976) was an English writer.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Alan Moore (born 18 November 1953) is an English writer known primarily for his work in comic books including Watchmen, V for Vendetta, The Ballad of Halo Jones and From Hell.
Alan Stewart Paton (11 January 1903 – 12 April 1988) was a South African author and anti-apartheid activist.
Alasdair Gray (born 28 December 1934) is a Scottish writer and artist.
Aldous Leonard Huxley (26 July 1894 – 22 November 1963) was an English writer, novelist, philosopher, and prominent member of the Huxley family.
Alexander Pope (21 May 1688 – 30 May 1744) was an 18th-century English poet.
Alfred Cellier (1 December 184428 December 1891) was an English composer, orchestrator and conductor.
Alfred the Great (Ælfrēd, Ælfrǣd, "elf counsel" or "wise elf"; 849 – 26 October 899) was King of Wessex from 871 to 899.
Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (6 August 1809 – 6 October 1892) was Poet Laureate of Great Britain and Ireland during much of Queen Victoria's reign and remains one of the most popular British poets.
Algernon Charles Swinburne (5 April 1837 – 10 April 1909) was an English poet, playwright, novelist, and critic.
Alice Ann Munro (née Laidlaw; born 10 July 1931) is a Canadian short story writer who won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2013.
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (commonly shortened to Alice in Wonderland) is an 1865 novel written by English author Charles Lutwidge Dodgson under the pseudonym Lewis Carroll.
All That Fall is a one-act radio play by Samuel Beckett produced following a request from the BBC.
As a literary device, an allegory is a metaphor in which a character, place or event is used to deliver a broader message about real-world issues and occurrences.
In prosody, alliterative verse is a form of verse that uses alliteration as the principal ornamental device to help indicate the underlying metrical structure, as opposed to other devices such as rhyme.
Alton Locke is an 1850 novel, by Charles Kingsley, written in sympathy with the Chartist movement, in which Carlyle is introduced as one of the personages.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
Amherst is a town in Hampshire County, Massachusetts, United States, in the Connecticut River valley.
An Apology for Poetry (or, The Defence of Poesy) is a work of literary criticism by Elizabethan poet Philip Sidney.
An Apology for the Life of Mrs.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Andrew Marvell (31 March 1621 – 16 August 1678) was an English metaphysical poet, satirist and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1659 and 1678.
Angela Olive Carter-Pearce (née Stalker; 7 May 1940 – 16 February 1992), who published under the pen name Angela Carter, was an English novelist, short story writer and journalist, known for her feminist, magical realism, and picaresque works.
The Angles (Angli) were one of the main Germanic peoples who settled in Great Britain in the post-Roman period.
The Anglo-Frisian languages are the West Germanic languages which include Anglic (or English) and Frisian.
Anglo-Norman, also known as Anglo-Norman French, is a variety of the Norman language that was used in England and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere in the British Isles during the Anglo-Norman period.
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of annals in Old English chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons.
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
The "angry young men" were a group of mostly working- and middle-class British playwrights and novelists who became prominent in the 1950s.
Angus Fraser Cameron (11 February 1941 – 27 May 1983) was a Canadian linguist and lexicographer.
Ann Radcliffe (born Ward, 9 July 1764 – 7 February 1823) was an English author and pioneer of the Gothic novel.
Annals (annāles, from annus, "year") are a concise historical record in which events are arranged chronologically, year by year, although the term is also used loosely for any historical record.
Anne Brontë (commonly; 17 January 1820 – 28 May 1849) was an English novelist and poet, the youngest member of the Brontë literary family.
Anne Carson (born June 21, 1950) is a Canadian poet, essayist, translator, and professor of Classics.
John Anthony Burgess Wilson, (25 February 1917 – 22 November 1993), who published under the name Anthony Burgess, was an English writer and composer.
Sir Anthony Hope Hawkins, better known as Anthony Hope (9 February 1863 – 8 July 1933), was an English novelist and playwright.
Anthony Dymoke Powell (21 December 1905 – 28 March 2000) was an English novelist best known for his twelve-volume work A Dance to the Music of Time, published between 1951 and 1975.
Anthony Trollope (24 April 1815 – 6 December 1882) was an English novelist of the Victorian era.
Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, emotions, or intentions to non-human entities.
An antiphon (Greek ἀντίφωνον, ἀντί "opposite" and φωνή "voice") is a short chant in Christian ritual, sung as a refrain.
Aphra Behn (14 December 1640? (baptismal date)–16 April 1689) was a British playwright, poet, translator and fiction writer from the Restoration era.
Areopagitica; A speech of Mr.
An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a restricted period of time, (usually a few months, years or decades) or, at least, with the heyday of the movement defined within a number of years.
Sir Arthur Charles Clarke (16 December 1917 – 19 March 2008) was a British science fiction writer, science writer and futurist, inventor, undersea explorer, and television series host.
Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was a British writer best known for his detective fiction featuring the character Sherlock Holmes.
Arthur Hugh Clough (1 January 181913 November 1861) was an English poet, an educationalist, and the devoted assistant to Florence Nightingale.
Jean Nicolas Arthur Rimbaud (20 October 1854 – 10 November 1891) was a French poet who is known for his influence on modern literature and arts, which prefigured surrealism.
Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan MVO (13 May 1842 – 22 November 1900) was an English composer.
Arthur William Symons (28 February 186522 January 1945), was a British poet, critic and magazine editor.
Probably composed in the 1580s, Philip Sidney's Astrophil and Stella is an English sonnet sequence containing 108 sonnets and 11 songs.
Harold Athol Lanigan Fugard OIS (born 11 June 1932) is a South African playwright, novelist, actor, and director who writes in South African English.
Attila (fl. circa 406–453), frequently called Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns from 434 until his death in March 453.
Johan August Strindberg (22 January 184914 May 1912) was a Swedish playwright, novelist, poet, essayist and painter.
August Wilhelm (after 1812: von) Schlegel (8 September 176712 May 1845), usually cited as August Schlegel, was a German poet, translator and critic, and with his brother Friedrich Schlegel the leading influence within Jena Romanticism.
Augustan literature (sometimes referred to misleadingly as Georgian literature) is a style of British literature produced during the reigns of Queen Anne, King George I, and George II in the first half of the 18th century and ending in the 1740s, with the deaths of Alexander Pope and Jonathan Swift, in 1744 and 1745, respectively.
In Latin literature, Augustan poetry is the poetry that flourished during the reign of Caesar Augustus as Emperor of Rome, most notably including the works of Virgil, Horace, and Ovid.
Australian literature is the written or literary work produced in the area or by the people of the Commonwealth of Australia and its preceding colonies.
Benjamin Charles Stephenson or B. C. Stephenson (1839 – 22 January 1906) was an English dramatist, lyricist and librettist.
Bartholomew Fair is a Jacobean comedy in five acts by Ben Jonson.
Basil Cheesman Bunting (1 March 1900 – 17 April 1985) was a British modernist poet whose reputation was established with the publication of Briggflatts in 1966.
The Battle of Maldon took place on 11 August 991 CE near Maldon beside the River Blackwater in Essex, England, during the reign of Æthelred the Unready.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
The Light Programme was a BBC radio station which broadcast chiefly mainstream light entertainment and music from 1945 until 1967, when it was rebranded as BBC Radio 2.
The Beat Generation was a literary movement started by a group of authors whose work explored and influenced American culture and politics in the post-World War II era.
Helen Beatrix Potter (British English, North American English also, 28 July 186622 December 1943) was an English writer, illustrator, natural scientist, and conservationist best known for her children's books featuring animals, such as those in The Tale of Peter Rabbit.
Beaumont and Fletcher were the English dramatists Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher, who collaborated in their writing during the reign of James I of England (James VI of Scotland, 1567–1625; he reigned in England from 1603).
Bede (italic; 672/3 – 26 May 735), also known as Saint Bede, Venerable Bede, and Bede the Venerable (Bēda Venerābilis), was an English Benedictine monk at the monastery of St.
Benjamin Jonson (c. 11 June 1572 – 6 August 1637) was an English playwright, poet, actor, and literary critic, whose artistry exerted a lasting impact upon English poetry and stage comedy.
Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, (21 December 1804 – 19 April 1881) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who twice served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
Beowulf is an Old English epic story consisting of 3,182 alliterative lines.
"Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics" was a 1936 lecture given by J. R. R. Tolkien on literary criticism on the Old English heroic epic poem Beowulf.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
The Bible has been translated into many languages from the biblical languages of Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek.
Partial Bible translations into languages of the English people can be traced back to the late 7th century, including translations into Old and Middle English.
Blank verse is poetry written with regular metrical but unrhymed lines, almost always in iambic pentameter.
Bleak House is a novel by English author Charles Dickens, first published as a serial between March 1852 and September 1853.
Bob Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman, May 24, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter, author, and painter who has been an influential figure in popular music and culture for more than five decades.
Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius, commonly called Boethius (also Boetius; 477–524 AD), was a Roman senator, consul, magister officiorum, and philosopher of the early 6th century.
The Book of Common Prayer (BCP) is the short title of a number of related prayer books used in the Anglican Communion, as well as by the Continuing Anglican, Anglican realignment and other Anglican Christian churches.
The Book of Negroes is a historical document that records names and descriptions of 3,000 Black Loyalists, enslaved Africans who escaped to the British lines during the American Revolution and were evacuated to points in Nova Scotia as free people of colour.
The Man Booker Prize for Fiction (formerly known as the Booker–McConnell Prize and commonly known simply as the Booker Prize) is a literary prize awarded each year for the best original novel written in the English language and published in the UK.
Abraham "Bram" Stoker (8 November 1847 – 20 April 1912) was an Irish author, best known today for his 1897 Gothic novel Dracula.
Brave New World is a dystopian novel written in 1931 by English author Aldous Huxley, and published in 1932.
Brendan Francis Aidan Behan (christened Francis Behan) (Breandán Ó Beacháin; 9 February 1923 – 20 March 1964) was an Irish poet, short story writer, novelist and playwright who wrote in both English and Irish.
Brian Patten (born 29 February 1946) is an English poet and author.
Briggflatts is a long poem by Basil Bunting published in 1966.
Brighton Rock is a novel by Graham Greene, published in 1938 and later adapted for film in 1947 and 2010.
The British Agricultural Revolution, or Second Agricultural Revolution, was the unprecedented increase in agricultural production in Britain due to increases in labour and land productivity between the mid-17th and late 19th centuries.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
British literature is literature in the English language from the United Kingdom, Isle of Man, and Channel Islands.
"The British Poetry Revival" is the general name given to a loose poetry movement in Britain that took place in the 1960s and 1970s.
A broadsheet is the largest newspaper format and is characterized by long vertical pages (typically). Other common newspaper formats include the smaller Berliner and tabloid/compact formats.
The Brontës (commonly) were a nineteenth-century literary family, born in the village of Thornton and later associated with the village of Haworth in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England.
The Byronic hero is a variant of the Romantic hero as a type of character, named after the English Romantic poet Lord Byron.
Clive Staples Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963) was a British novelist, poet, academic, medievalist, literary critic, essayist, lay theologian, broadcaster, lecturer, and Christian apologist.
The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organizing a liturgical year by associating each day with one or more saints and referring to the day as the feast day or feast of said saint.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Canadian literature (widely abbreviated as CanLit) is literature originating from Canada.
Canterbury Cathedral in Canterbury, Kent, is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England.
Caribbean literature is the term generally accepted for the literature of the various territories of the Caribbean region.
Carmilla is a Gothic novella by Irish author, Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu and one of the early works of vampire fiction, predating Bram Stoker's Dracula (1897) by 26 years.
Dame Carol Ann Duffy HonFBA HonFRSE (born 23 December 1955) is a Scottish poet and playwright.
Carol Ann Shields, (née Warner; June 2, 1935 – July 16, 2003) was an American-born Canadian novelist and short story writer.
Caryl Churchill (born 3 September 1938, London) is a British playwright known for dramatising the abuses of power, for her use of non-naturalistic techniques, and for her exploration of sexual politics and feminist themes.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The cavalier poets was a school of English poets of the 17th century, that came from the classes that supported King Charles I during the English Civil War (1642–1651).
Cædmon (fl. c. AD 657–684) is the earliest English (Northumbrian) poet whose name is known.
Cædmon's "Hymn" is a short Old English poem originally composed by Cædmon, an illiterate cow-herder who was able to sing in honour of God the Creator, using words that he had never heard before.
Charles Pierre Baudelaire (April 9, 1821 – August 31, 1867) was a French poet who also produced notable work as an essayist, art critic, and pioneering translator of Edgar Allan Poe.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
Charles John Huffam Dickens (7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic.
Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Charles Kingsley (12 June 1819 – 23 January 1875) was a broad church priest of the Church of England, a university professor, social reformer, historian and novelist.
Alfred Charles Tomlinson, CBE (8 January 1927 – 22 August 2015) was a British poet, translator, academic and illustrator.
Charley's Aunt is a farce in three acts written by Brandon Thomas.
Charlie and the Chocolate Factory is a 1964 children's novel by British author Roald Dahl.
Charlotte Brontë (commonly; 21 April 1816 – 31 March 1855) was an English novelist and poet, the eldest of the three Brontë sisters who survived into adulthood and whose novels have become classics of English literature.
Children's literature or juvenile literature includes stories, books, magazines, and poems that are enjoyed by children.
Chinua Achebe (born Albert Chinụalụmọgụ Achebe, 16 November 1930 – 21 March 2013) was a Nigerian novelist, poet, professor, and critic.
As a literary genre of high culture, romance or chivalric romance is a type of prose and verse narrative that was popular in the aristocratic circles of High Medieval and Early Modern Europe.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christopher Marlowe, also known as Kit Marlowe (baptised 26 February 156430 May 1593), was an English playwright, poet and translator of the Elizabethan era.
Christopher John Reid, FRSL (born 13 May 1949) is a Hong Kong-born British poet, essayist, cartoonist, and writer.
A chronicle (chronica, from Greek χρονικά, from χρόνος, chronos, "time") is a historical account of facts and events ranged in chronological order, as in a time line.
A church building or church house, often simply called a church, is a building used for Christian religious activities, particularly for worship services.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
Clarissa, or, the History of a Young Lady is an epistolary novel by English writer Samuel Richardson, published in 1748.
Colley Cibber (6 November 1671 – 11 December 1757) was an English actor-manager, playwright and Poet Laureate.
Colm Tóibín (born 30 May 1955) is an Irish novelist, short story writer, essayist, playwright, journalist, critic and poet.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
A comic book or comicbook, also called comic magazine or simply comic, is a publication that consists of comic art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panels that represent individual scenes.
Comic opera denotes a sung dramatic work of a light or comic nature, usually with a happy ending.
Commonwealth Foundation presented a number of prizes between 1987 and 2011.
Comus (A Masque Presented at Ludlow Castle, 1634) is a masque in honour of chastity, written by John Milton.
Concrete, pattern, or shape poetry is an arrangement of linguistic elements in which the typographical effect is more important in conveying meaning than verbal significance.
Confessio Amantis ("The Lover's Confession") is a 33,000-line Middle English poem by John Gower, which uses the confession made by an ageing lover to the chaplain of Venus as a frame story for a collection of shorter narrative poems.
Confessions of an English Opium-Eater (1821) is an autobiographical account written by Thomas De Quincey, about his laudanum addiction and its effect on his life.
Cornish (Kernowek) is a revived language that became extinct as a first language in the late 18th century.
County Durham (locally) is a county in North East England.
Covent Garden is a district in Greater London, on the eastern fringes of the West End, between Charing Cross Road and Drury Lane.
Craig Anthony Raine, FRSL (born 3 December 1944) is an English poet.
Crime fiction is the literary genre that fictionalises crimes, their detection, criminals, and their motives.
Crown colony, dependent territory and royal colony are terms used to describe the administration of United Kingdom overseas territories that are controlled by the British Government.
Cry, the Beloved Country is a novel by Alan Paton, published in 1948.
Cubism is an early-20th-century art movement which brought European painting and sculpture historically forward toward 20th century Modern art.
A cultural movement is a change in the way a number of different disciplines approach their work.
Cynewulf is one of twelve Old English poets known by name, and one of four whose work is known to survive today.
Herman Melville, Friedrich Nietzsche, Arthur Schopenhauer, Lev Shestov, Walt Whitman | influenced.
Daniel Defoe (13 September 1660 - 24 April 1731), born Daniel Foe, was an English trader, writer, journalist, pamphleteer and spy.
Gabriel Charles Dante Rossetti (12 May 1828 – 9 April 1882), generally known as Dante Gabriel Rossetti, was a British poet, illustrator, painter and translator, and a member of the Rossetti family.
Das Kapital, also known as Capital.
Walter David Jones CH, CBE (known as David Jones, 1 November 1895 – 28 October 1974) was both a painter and one of the first-generation British modernist poets.
Death of a Naturalist (1966) is a collection of poems written by Seamus Heaney, who received the 1995 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Derek Mahon (born 23 November 1941) is an Irish poet.
Sir Derek Alton Walcott, KCSL, OBE, OCC (23 January 1930 – 17 March 2017) was a Saint Lucian poet and playwright.
Detective fiction is a subgenre of crime fiction and mystery fiction in which an investigator or a detective—either professional, amateur or retired—investigates a crime, often murder.
The Dictionary of the Middle Ages is a 13-volume encyclopedia of the Middle Ages published by the American Council of Learned Societies between 1982 and 1989.
Doris May Lessing (22 October 1919 – 17 November 2013) was a British novelist, poet, playwright, librettist, biographer and short story writer.
Dorothy is a comic opera in three acts with music by Alfred Cellier and a libretto by B. C. Stephenson.
Dorothy Leigh Sayers (13 June 1893 – 17 December 1957) was a renowned English crime writer and poet.
Dorothy Miller Richardson (17 May 1873 – 17 June 1957) was a British author and journalist.
Douglas Noel Adams (11 March 1952 – 11 May 2001) was an English author, scriptwriter, essayist, humorist, satirist and dramatist.
John H. Watson, known as Dr.
Dracula is an 1897 Gothic horror novel by Irish author Bram Stoker.
Drama is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance: a play performed in a theatre, or on radio or television.
Dramatic monologue, also known as a persona poem, is a type of poetry written in the form of a speech of an individual character.
A drawing room play is a type of play, developed during the Victorian period in the United Kingdom, in which the actions take place in a drawing room or which is designed to be reenacted in the drawing room of a home.
The Dream of the Rood is one of the Christian poems in the corpus of Old English literature and an example of the genre of dream poetry.
Dylan Marlais Thomas (27 October 1914 – 9 November 1953) was a Welsh poet and writer whose works include the poems "Do not go gentle into that good night" and "And death shall have no dominion"; the 'play for voices' Under Milk Wood; and stories and radio broadcasts such as A Child's Christmas in Wales and Portrait of the Artist as a Young Dog.
A dystopia (from the Greek δυσ- "bad" and τόπος "place"; alternatively, cacotopia,Cacotopia (from κακός kakos "bad") was the term used by Jeremy Bentham in his 19th century works kakotopia, or simply anti-utopia) is a community or society that is undesirable or frightening.
Edward Morgan Forster (1 January 18797 June 1970) was an English novelist, short story writer, essayist and librettist.
Eadmer or Edmer (&ndash) was an English historian, theologian, and ecclesiastic.
Early Modern English, Early New English (sometimes abbreviated to EModE, EMnE or EME) is the stage of the English language from the beginning of the Tudor period to the English Interregnum and Restoration, or from the transition from Middle English, in the late 15th century, to the transition to Modern English, in the mid-to-late 17th century.
Edgar Allan Poe (born Edgar Poe; January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American writer, editor, and literary critic.
Edmund Burke (12 January 17309 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman born in Dublin, as well as an author, orator, political theorist and philosopher, who after moving to London in 1750 served as a member of parliament (MP) between 1766 and 1794 in the House of Commons with the Whig Party.
Edmund Colledge (14 August 1910 – 16 November 1999) was an English academic, military officer, and Roman Catholic priest.
Edmund Spenser (1552/1553 – 13 January 1599) was an English poet best known for The Faerie Queene, an epic poem and fantastical allegory celebrating the Tudor dynasty and Elizabeth I. He is recognized as one of the premier craftsmen of nascent Modern English verse, and is often considered one of the greatest poets in the English language.
Philip Edward Thomas (3 March 1878 – 9 April 1917) was a British poet, essayist, and novelist.
Edward Young (3 July 1683 – 5 April 1765) was an English poet, best remembered for Night-Thoughts.
The Edwardian era or Edwardian period of British history covers the brief reign of King Edward VII, 1901 to 1910, and is sometimes extended in both directions to capture long-term trends from the 1890s to the First World War.
Edwardian musical comedy was a form of British musical theatre that extended beyond the reign of King Edward VII in both direction, beginning in the early 1890s, when the Gilbert and Sullivan operas' dominance had ended, until the rise of the American musicals by Jerome Kern, Rodgers and Hart, George Gershwin and Cole Porter following the First World War.
Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard is a poem by Thomas Gray, completed in 1750 and first published in 1751.
Elizabeth Barrett Browning (née Moulton-Barrett,; 6 March 1806 – 29 June 1861) was an English poet of the Victorian era, popular in Britain and the United States during her lifetime.
Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell, (née Stevenson; 29 September 1810 – 12 November 1865), often referred to as Mrs Gaskell, was an English novelist, biographer, and short story writer.
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.
The Elizabethan era is the epoch in the Tudor period of the history of England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558–1603).
Emily Jane Brontë (commonly; 30 July 1818 – 19 December 1848) was an English novelist and poet who is best known for her only novel, Wuthering Heights, now considered a classic of English literature.
Emily Elizabeth Dickinson (December 10, 1830 – May 15, 1886) was an American poet.
Emma, by Jane Austen, is a novel about youthful hubris and the perils of misconstrued romance.
Baroness Emma Magdolna Rozália Mária Jozefa Borbála "Emmuska" Orczy de Orci (23 September 1865 – 12 November 1947) was a Hungarian-born British novelist and playwright.
Enclosure (sometimes inclosure) was the legal process in England of consolidating (enclosing) small landholdings into larger farms.
Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (English: Encyclopedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts), better known as Encyclopédie, was a general encyclopedia published in France between 1751 and 1772, with later supplements, revised editions, and translations.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The English novel is an important part of English literature.
This article focuses on poetry written in English from the United Kingdom: England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland (and Ireland before 1922).
The English Reformation was a series of events in 16th century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church.
The English Renaissance was a cultural and artistic movement in England dating from the late 15th century to the early 17th century.
English Renaissance theatre—also known as early modern English theatre and Elizabethan theatre—refers to the theatre of England between 1562 and 1642.
An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.
An epistolary novel is a novel written as a series of documents.
Ermanaric (*Aírmanareiks; Ermanaricus; Eormanrīc; Jǫrmunrekr; died 376) was a Greuthungian Gothic King who before the Hunnic invasion evidently ruled a sizable portion of Oium, the part of Scythia inhabited by the Goths at the time.
Ernest Christopher Dowson (2 August 186723 February 1900) was an English poet, novelist, short-story writer, often associated with the Decadent movement.
Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short story writer, and journalist.
Ernst Waldfried Josef Wenzel Mach (18 February 1838 – 19 February 1916) was an Austrian physicist and philosopher, noted for his contributions to physics such as study of shock waves.
Eugene Gladstone O'Neill (October 16, 1888 – November 27, 1953) was an American playwright and Nobel laureate in Literature.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
European dragons are legendary creatures in folklore and mythology among the overlapping cultures of Europe.
Evelina, or the History of a Young Lady's Entrance into the World is a novel written by English author Fanny Burney and first published in 1778.
Arthur Evelyn St.
The of Everyman (The Summoning of Everyman), usually referred to simply as Everyman, is a late 15th-century morality play.
The Exeter Book, Exeter Cathedral Library MS 3501, also known as the Codex Exoniensis, is a tenth-century book or codex which is an anthology of Anglo-Saxon poetry.
An extravaganza is a literary or musical work (often musical theatre) characterized by freedom of style and structure and usually containing elements of burlesque, pantomime, music hall and parody.
Ezra Weston Loomis Pound (30 October 1885 – 1 November 1972) was an expatriate American poet and critic, as well as a major figure in the early modernist poetry movement.
Fantastic Mr Fox is a children's novel written by British author Roald Dahl.
Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction set in a fictional universe, often without any locations, events, or people referencing the real world.
Fantasy literature is literature set in an imaginary universe, often but not always without any locations, events, or people from the real world.
In theatre, a farce is a comedy that aims at entertaining the audience through situations that are highly exaggerated, extravagant, and thus improbable.
Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes.
Fiction is any story or setting that is derived from imagination—in other words, not based strictly on history or fact.
Fin de siècle is a French term meaning end of the century, a term which typically encompasses both the meaning of the similar English idiom turn of the century and also makes reference to the closing of one era and onset of another.
Finnegans Wake is a work of fiction by Irish writer James Joyce.
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
Four Quartets is a set of four poems written by T. S. Eliot that were published over a six-year period.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Frances Burney (13 June 17526 January 1840), also known as Fanny Burney and after her marriage as Madame d'Arblay, was an English satirical novelist, diarist and playwright.
Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, (22 January 15619 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author.
Francis Beaumont (1584 – 6 March 1616) was a dramatist in the English Renaissance theatre, most famous for his collaborations with John Fletcher.
Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus is a novel written by English author Mary Shelley (1797–1851) that tells the story of Victor Frankenstein, a young scientist who creates a grotesque but sapient creature in an unorthodox scientific experiment.
The Franks Casket (or the Auzon Casket) is a small Anglo-Saxon whale's bone (not "whalebone" in the sense of baleen) chest from the early 8th century, now in the British Museum.
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.
Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (10 November 17599 May 1805) was a German poet, philosopher, physician, historian, and playwright.
Fyodor Mikhailovich DostoevskyHis name has been variously transcribed into English, his first name sometimes being rendered as Theodore or Fedor.
Genre is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed upon conventions developed over time.
Genre fiction, also known as popular fiction, is plot-driven fictional works written with the intent of fitting into a specific literary genre, in order to appeal to readers and fans already familiar with that genre.
Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1343 – 25 October 1400), known as the Father of English literature, is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages.
Sir Geoffrey William Hill, FRSL (18 June 1932 – 30 June 2016) was an English poet, professor emeritus of English literature and religion, and former co-director of the Editorial Institute, at Boston University.
George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856 – 2 November 1950), known at his insistence simply as Bernard Shaw, was an Irish playwright, critic, polemicist, and political activist.
George Chapman (Hitchin, Hertfordshire, c. 1559 – London, 12 May 1634) was an English dramatist, translator, and poet.
George Crabbe (24 December 1754 – 3 February 1832) was an English poet, surgeon and clergyman.
Mary Anne Evans (22 November 1819 – 22 December 1880; alternatively "Mary Ann" or "Marian"), known by her pen name George Eliot, was an English novelist, poet, journalist, translator, and one of the leading writers of the Victorian era.
Sir George Etherege (c. 1636, Maidenhead, Berkshire – c. 10 May 1692, Paris) was an English dramatist.
George Robert Gissing (22 November 1857 – 28 December 1903) was an English novelist who published 23 novels between 1880 and 1903.
George Herbert (3 April 1593 – 1 March 1633) was a Welsh-born poet, orator, and priest of the Church of England.
George I (George Louis; Georg Ludwig; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) in the Holy Roman Empire from 1698 until his death.
George Lillo (3 February 1691 – 4 September 1739) was an English playwright and tragedian.
George MacDonald (10 December 1824 – 18 September 1905) was a Scottish author, poet and Christian minister.
George Meredith, OM (12 February 1828 – 18 May 1909) was an English novelist and poet of the Victorian era.
Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950), better known by his pen name George Orwell, was an English novelist, essayist, journalist and critic whose work is marked by lucid prose, awareness of social injustice, opposition to totalitarianism and outspoken support of democratic socialism.
Georgette Heyer (16 August 1902 – 4 July 1974) was an English historical romance and detective fiction novelist.
Georgian Poetry refers to a series of anthologies showcasing the work of a school of British poetry that established itself during the early years of the reign of King George V of the United Kingdom.
Gerard Manley Hopkins (28 July 1844 – 8 June 1889) was an English poet and Jesuit priest, whose posthumous fame established him among the leading Victorian poets.
The German Reed Entertainments were founded in 1855 and operated by Thomas German Reed (1817–1888) together with his wife, Priscilla German Reed (née Horton) (1818–1895).
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
Gesta Danorum ("Deeds of the Danes") is a patriotic work of Danish history, by the 13th century author Saxo Grammaticus ("Saxo the Literate", literally "the Grammarian").
A ghost story may be any piece of fiction, or drama, that includes a ghost, or simply takes as a premise the possibility of ghosts or characters' belief in them.
Gilbert and Sullivan refers to the Victorian-era theatrical partnership of the dramatist W. S. Gilbert (1836–1911) and the composer Arthur Sullivan (1842–1900) and to the works they jointly created.
Glasgow (Glesga; Glaschu) is the largest city in Scotland, and third most populous in the United Kingdom.
The Tragedie of Gorboduc, also titled Ferrex and Porrex, is an English play from 1561.
Gothic fiction, which is largely known by the subgenre of Gothic horror, is a genre or mode of literature and film that combines fiction and horror, death, and at times romance.
Henry Graham Greene (2 October 1904 – 3 April 1991), better known by his pen name Graham Greene, was an English novelist regarded by many as one of the greatest writers of the 20th century.
A graphic novel is a book made up of comics content.
See also: Romantic literature in English The "Graveyard Poets", also termed "Churchyard Poets", were a number of pre-Romantic English poets of the 18th century characterised by their gloomy meditations on mortality, "skulls and coffins, epitaphs and worms" elicited by the presence of the graveyard.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
The Great Vowel Shift was a major series of changes in the pronunciation of the English language that took place, beginning in southern England, primarily between 1350 and the 1600s and 1700s, today influencing effectively all dialects of English.
Grevel Lindop (born 1948) is an English poet, academic and literary critic.
Gulliver's Travels, or Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World.
Herbert George Wells.
Sir Henry Rider Haggard, (22 June 1856 – 14 May 1925), known as H. Rider Haggard, was an English writer of adventure novels set in exotic locations, predominantly Africa, and a pioneer of the Lost World literary genre.
H.M.S. Pinafore; or, The Lass That Loved a Sailor is a comic opera in two acts, with music by Arthur Sullivan and a libretto by W. S. Gilbert.
A hagiography is a biography of a saint or an ecclesiastical leader.
Harlequin (Arlecchino, Arlequin, Old French Harlequin) is the best-known of the zanni or comic servant characters from the Italian Commedia dell'arte.
Harold Heslop (1 October 1898–10 November 1983) was an English author, left-wing political actrivist, and coalminer, from near Bishop Auckland, County Durham.
Harold Pinter (10 October 1930 – 24 December 2008) was a Nobel Prize-winning British playwright, screenwriter, director and actor.
Harry Potter is a series of fantasy novels written by British author J. K. Rowling.
Havelok the Dane, also known as Havelok or Lay of Havelok the Dane, is a Middle English romance considered to be part of the Matter of England.
Heart of Darkness (1899) is a novella by Polish-English novelist Joseph Conrad, about a voyage up the Congo River into the Congo Free State, in the heart of Africa, by the story's narrator Charles Marlow.
Henri-Louis Bergson (18 October 1859 – 4 January 1941) was a French-Jewish philosopher who was influential in the tradition of continental philosophy, especially during the first half of the 20th century until World War II.
Henry Fielding (22 April 1707 – 8 October 1754) was an English novelist and dramatist known for his rich, earthy humour and satirical prowess, and as the author of the picaresque novel Tom Jones.
Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey (1516/1517 – 19 January 1547), KG, (courtesy title), an English nobleman, was one of the founders of English Renaissance poetry.
Henry James, OM (–) was an American author regarded as a key transitional figure between literary realism and literary modernism, and is considered by many to be among the greatest novelists in the English language.
Henry Mackenzie FRSE (26 July 1745 – 14 January 1831) was a Scottish lawyer, novelist and writer.
Henry Valentine Miller (December 26, 1891 – June 7, 1980) was an American writer, expatriated in Paris at his flourishing.
Henry Vaughan (17 April 1621 – 23 April 1695) was a Welsh metaphysical poet, author, translator and physician, who wrote in English.
Herman Melville (August 1, 1819 – September 28, 1891) was an American novelist, short story writer, and poet of the American Renaissance period.
A heroic couplet is a traditional form for English poetry, commonly used in epic and narrative poetry, and consisting of a rhyming pair of lines in iambic pentameter.
Hervarar saga ok Heiðreks (The Saga of Hervör and Heidrek) is a legendary saga from the 13th century combining matter from several older sagas.
Historical fiction is a literary genre in which the plot takes place in a setting located in the past.
Historical romance (also historical novel) is a broad category of fiction in which the plot takes place in a setting located in the past.
Anglo-Saxon England was early medieval England, existing from the 5th to the 11th century from the end of Roman Britain until the Norman conquest in 1066.
Hlöðskviða or The Battle of the Goths and Huns is sometimes counted among the Eddic Poems.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
Horatio Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford (24 September 1717 – 2 March 1797), also known as Horace Walpole, was an English art historian, man of letters, antiquarian and Whig politician.
Horror is a genre of speculative fiction which is intended to, or has the capacity to frighten, scare, disgust, or startle its readers or viewers by inducing feelings of horror and terror.
The House of Tudor was an English royal house of Welsh origin, descended in the male line from the Tudors of Penmynydd.
How late it was, how late is a 1994 stream of consciousness novel written by Scottish writer James Kelman.
Christopher Murray Grieve (11 August 1892 – 9 September 1978), known by his pen name Hugh MacDiarmid, was a Scottish poet, journalist, essayist and political figure.
Humorism, or humoralism, was a system of medicine detailing the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers, positing that an excess or deficiency of any of four distinct bodily fluids in a person—known as humors or humours—directly influences their temperament and health.
The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe, between the 4th and 6th century AD.
Hunter Stockton Thompson (July 18, 1937 – February 20, 2005) was an American journalist and author, and the founder of the gonzo journalism movement.
Ian Lancaster Fleming (28 May 1908 – 12 August 1964) was an English author, journalist and naval intelligence officer who is best known for his James Bond series of spy novels.
Ian Russell McEwan (born 21 June 1948) is an English novelist and screenwriter.
Ian James Rankin, (born 28 April 1960) is a Scottish crime writer, best known for his Inspector Rebus novels.
Il Penseroso (The Serious Man) is a vision of poetic melancholy by John Milton, first found in the 1645/1646 quarto of verses The Poems of Mr.
The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.
Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterised by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles.
In Parenthesis is an epic poem of the First World War by David Jones first published in England in 1937.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indian English Literature (IEL) refers to the body of work by writers in India who write in the English language and whose native or co-native language could be one of the numerous languages of India.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.
Invasion literature (or the invasion novel) is a literary genre most notable between 1871 and the First World War (1914) but still practised to this day.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Dame Jean Iris Murdoch (15 July 1919 – 8 February 1999) was a British novelist and philosopher born in Ireland to Irish parentage.
Irish literature comprises writings in the Irish, Latin, and English (including Ulster Scots) languages on the island of Ireland.
The history of Irish theatre begins with the rise of the English administration in Dublin at the start of the 17th century.
Isaac Bashevis Singer (יצחק באַשעװיס זינגער; November 21, 1902 – July 24, 1991) was a Polish-born Jewish writer in Yiddish, awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1978.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
Isaac Rosenberg (25 November 1890 – 1 April 1918) was an English poet and artist.
Joanne Rowling, ("rolling";Rowling, J.K. (16 February 2007).. Accio Quote (accio-quote.org). Retrieved 28 April 2008. born 31 July 1965), writing under the pen names J. K. Rowling and Robert Galbraith, is a British novelist, philanthropist, film and television producer and screenwriter best known for writing the Harry Potter fantasy series.
John Maxwell Coetzee (born 9 February 1940) is a South African novelist, essayist, linguist, translator and recipient of the 2003 Nobel Prize in Literature.
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, (Tolkien pronounced his surname, see his phonetic transcription published on the illustration in The Return of the Shadow: The History of The Lord of the Rings, Part One. Christopher Tolkien. London: Unwin Hyman, 1988. (The History of Middle-earth; 6). In General American the surname is also pronounced. This pronunciation no doubt arose by analogy with such words as toll and polka, or because speakers of General American realise as, while often hearing British as; thus or General American become the closest possible approximation to the Received Pronunciation for many American speakers. Wells, John. 1990. Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow: Longman, 3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English writer, poet, philologist, and university professor who is best known as the author of the classic high fantasy works The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, and The Silmarillion.
Jack Jones CBE (24 November 1884 – 7 May 1970) was a Welsh miner, Trade Union official, politician, novelist and playwright.
The Jacobean era refers to the period in English and Scottish history that coincides with the reign of James VI of Scotland (1567–1625), who also inherited the crown of England in 1603 as James I. The Jacobean era succeeds the Elizabethan era and precedes the Caroline era, and is often used for the distinctive styles of Jacobean architecture, visual arts, decorative arts, and literature which characterized that period.
James and the Giant Peach is a popular children's novel written in 1961 by British author Roald Dahl.
The James Bond series focuses on a fictional British Secret Service agent created in 1953 by writer Ian Fleming, who featured him in twelve novels and two short-story collections.
James Fenimore Cooper (September 15, 1789 – September 14, 1851) was an American writer of the first half of the 19th century.
Sir James George Frazer (1 January 1854 – 7 May 1941) was a Scottish social anthropologist influential in the early stages of the modern studies of mythology and comparative religion.
James (Joseph) Hanley (3 September 1897 – 11 November 1985) was a British novelist, short story writer, and playwright of Irish descent.
James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish novelist, short story writer, and poet.
The James Joyce Quarterly (JJQ) is a peer-reviewed academic journal established in 1963 that covers critical and theoretical work focusing on the life, writing, and reception of James Joyce.
James Kelman (born 9 June 1946) is a Scottish novelist, short story writer, playwright and essayist.
James Macpherson (Gaelic: Seumas MacMhuirich or Seumas Mac a' Phearsain; 27 October 1736 – 17 February 1796) was a Scottish writer, poet, literary collector and politician, known as the "translator" of the Ossian cycle of epic poems.
James Robinson Planché (27 February 1796 – 30 May 1880) was a British dramatist, antiquary and officer of arms.
James Thomson (c. 11 September 1700 – 27 August 1748) was a British poet and playwright, known for his poems The Seasons and The Castle of Indolence, and for the lyrics of "Rule, Britannia!".
Jane Austen (16 December 1775 – 18 July 1817) was an English novelist known primarily for her six major novels, which interpret, critique and comment upon the British landed gentry at the end of the 18th century.
Jane Eyre (originally published as Jane Eyre: An Autobiography) is a novel by English writer Charlotte Brontë, published under the pen name "Currer Bell", on 16 October 1847, by Smith, Elder & Co. of London, England.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jean Rhys, (born Ella Gwendolyn Rees Williams; 24 August 1890 – 14 May 1979) was a mid-20th-century novelist who was born and grew up in the Caribbean island of Dominica, though she was mainly resident in England from the age of 16.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
Jeremy Collier (23 September 1650 – 26 April 1726) was an English theatre critic, non-juror bishop and theologian.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.
William John Banville (born 8 December 1945), who sometimes writes as Benjamin Black, is an Irish novelist, adapter of dramas, and screenwriter.
John Bunyan (baptised November 30, 1628August 31, 1688) was an English writer and Puritan preacher best remembered as the author of the Christian allegory The Pilgrim's Progress.
John Clare (13 July 1793 – 20 May 1864) was an English poet, the son of a farm labourer, who became known for his celebrations of the English countryside and sorrows at its disruption.
John Cowper Powys (8 October 187217 June 1963) was a British philosopher, lecturer, novelist, literary critic, and poet.
John Donne (22 January 1572 – 31 March 1631) was an English poet and cleric in the Church of England.
John Dryden (–) was an English poet, literary critic, translator, and playwright who was made England's first Poet Laureate in 1668.
Sir John Everett Millais, 1st Baronet, PRA (8 June 1829 – 13 August 1896) was an English painter and illustrator who was one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.
John Fletcher (1579–1625) was a Jacobean playwright.
John Galsworthy (14 August 1867 – 31 January 1933) was an English novelist and playwright.
John Gower (c. 1330 – October 1408) was an English poet, a contemporary of William Langland and the Pearl Poet, and a personal friend of Geoffrey Chaucer.
John Keats (31 October 1795 – 23 February 1821) was an English Romantic poet.
David John Moore Cornwell (born 19 October 1931), better known by the pen name John le Carré, is a British author of espionage novels.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
Edmund John Millington Synge (16 April 1871 – 24 March 1909) was an Irish playwright, poet, prose writer, travel writer and collector of folklore.
John Milton (9 December 16088 November 1674) was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under its Council of State and later under Oliver Cromwell.
Sir John Clifford Mortimer, CBE, QC (21 April 1923 – 16 January 2009) was an English barrister, dramatist, screenwriter, and author.
John D. Niles (born 1945) is an American scholar of medieval English literature best known for his work on Beowulf and the theory of oral literature.
John James Osborne (Fulham, London, 12 December 1929 – 24 December 1994) was an English playwright, screenwriter and actor, known for his excoriating prose and intense critical stance towards established social and political norms.
John Rich (1692–1761) was an important director and theatre manager in 18th-century London.
John Ruskin (8 February 1819 – 20 January 1900) was the leading English art critic of the Victorian era, as well as an art patron, draughtsman, watercolourist, a prominent social thinker and philanthropist.
John Ernst Steinbeck Jr. --> (February 27, 1902 – December 20, 1968) was an American author.
Sir John Suckling (10 February 1609 – after May 1641) was an English poet and a prominent figure among those renowned for careless gaiety and wit, the accomplishments of a Cavalier poet.
Sir John Vanbrugh (24 January 1664 (baptised) – 26 March 1726) was an English architect and dramatist, perhaps best known as the designer of Blenheim Palace and Castle Howard.
John Webster (c. 1580 – c. 1634) was an English Jacobean dramatist best known for his tragedies The White Devil and The Duchess of Malfi, which are often regarded as masterpieces of the early 17th-century English stage.
John Wilmot (1 April 1647 – 26 July 1680) was an English poet and courtier of King Charles II's Restoration court.
John Wycliffe (also spelled Wyclif, Wycliff, Wiclef, Wicliffe, Wickliffe; 1320s – 31 December 1384) was an English scholastic philosopher, theologian, Biblical translator, reformer, English priest, and a seminary professor at the University of Oxford.
Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 – 19 October 1745) was an Anglo-Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for the Whigs, then for the Tories), poet and cleric who became Dean of St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin.
Joseph Addison (1 May 1672 – 17 June 1719) was an English essayist, poet, playwright, and politician.
Joseph Andrews, or The History of the Adventures of Joseph Andrews and of his Friend Mr.
Iosif Aleksandrovich Brodsky (Ио́сиф Алекса́ндрович Бро́дский; 24 May 1940 – 28 January 1996) was a Russian and American poet and essayist.
Joseph Conrad (born Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski; 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924) was a Polish-British writer regarded as one of the greatest novelists to write in the English language.
Joseph Heller (May 1, 1923 – December 12, 1999) was an American author of novels, short stories, plays and screenplays.
Journalism refers to the production and distribution of reports on recent events.
Jules Gabriel Verne (Longman Pronunciation Dictionary.; 8 February 1828 – 24 March 1905) was a French novelist, poet, and playwright.
Julian Patrick Barnes (born 19 January 1946) is an English writer.
Julian of Norwich (c. 8 November 1342 – c. 1416), also called Juliana of Norwich, was an English anchoress and an important Christian mystic and theologian.
Juliet Gardiner (born 24 June 1943) is a British historian and a commentator on British social history from Victorian times through to the 1950s.
The Jutes, Iuti, or Iutæ were a Germanic people.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Kathleen Mansfield Murry (née Beauchamp; 14 October 1888 – 9 January 1923) was a prominent New Zealand modernist short story writer who was born and brought up in colonial New Zealand and wrote under the pen name of Katherine Mansfield.
Sir Kazuo Ishiguro (born 8 November 1954) is a Nobel Prize-winning British novelist, screenwriter, and short-story writer.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
Kenyan literature describes literature which comes from Kenya.
Kidnapped is a historical fiction adventure novel by Scottish author Robert Louis Stevenson, written as a boys' novel and first published in the magazine Young Folks from May to July 1886.
King Arthur is a legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders in the late 5th and early 6th centuries.
King Horn is a Middle English chivalric romance dating back to the middle of the thirteenth century.
The King James Version (KJV), also known as the King James Bible (KJB) or simply the Version (AV), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.
King Lear is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare.
King Solomon's Mines (1885) is a popular novel by the English Victorian adventure writer and fabulist Sir H. Rider Haggard.
Kipps: The Story of a Simple Soul is a novel by H. G. Wells, first published in 1905.
Kitchen sink realism (or kitchen sink drama) is a British cultural movement that developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s in theatre, art, novels, film, and television plays, whose protagonists usually could be described as "angry young men" who were disillusioned with modern society.
The Knights of the Round Table were the knightly members of the legendary fellowship of the King Arthur in the literary cycle of the Matter of Britain, in which the first written record of them appears in the Roman de Brut written by the Norman poet Wace in 1155.
Kurt Vonnegut Jr. (November 11, 1922April 11, 2007) was an American writer.
L'Allegro is a pastoral poem by John Milton published in his 1645 ''Poems''.
The Lake Poets were a group of English poets who all lived in the Lake District of England, United Kingdom, in the first half of the nineteenth century.
Lanark, subtitled A Life in Four Books, is the first novel of Scottish writer Alasdair Gray.
The Lannan Literary Awards are a series of CATS and literary fellowships given out in various fields by the Lannan Foundation.
Larry's Party is a 1997 novel by Carol Shields.
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.
Laurence Sterne (24 November 1713 – 18 March 1768) was an Irish novelist and an Anglican clergyman.
Lawrence Hill (born 1957) is a Canadian novelist, essayist and memoirist.
Layamon or Laghamon – spelled Laȝamon or Laȝamonn in his time, occasionally written Lawman – was a poet of the late 12th/early 13th century and author of the Brut, a notable work that was the first to present the legends of Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table in English poetry.
Layamon's Brut (ca. 1190 - 1215), also known as The Chronicle of Britain, is a Middle English poem compiled and recast by the English priest Layamon.
Le Morte d'Arthur (originally spelled Le Morte Darthur, Middle French for "the death of Arthur") is a reworking of existing tales by Sir Thomas Malory about the legendary King Arthur, Guinevere, Lancelot, Merlin, and the Knights of the Round Table.
Leaves of Grass is a poetry collection by the American poet Walt Whitman (1819–1892).
Leonard Norman Cohen (September 21, 1934 – November 7, 2016) was a Canadian singer-songwriter, poet and novelist.
Leslie Allan "Les" Murray AO (born 17 October 1938) is an Australian poet, anthologist and critic.
Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by his pen name Lewis Carroll, was an English writer, mathematician, logician, Anglican deacon, and photographer.
Lewis Jones, writer, and political activist of the left, (December 28 1897 – January 27, 1939) was born in Clydach Vale in industrialized South Wales.
LibraryThing is a social cataloging web application for storing and sharing book catalogs and various types of book metadata.
The Licensing Act of 1737 was a pivotal moment in theatrical history.
The title, Lines Written (or Composed) a Few Miles above Tintern Abbey, on Revisiting the Banks of the Wye during a Tour, July 13, 1798, is often abbreviated simply to Tintern Abbey, although that building does not appear within the poem.
Lionel Pigot Johnson (15 March 1867 – 4 October 1902) was an English poet, essayist, and critic.
This is a list of English-language poets, who wrote or write much of their poetry in English.
This list contains people who contributed to the field of lexicography, the theory and practice of compiling dictionaries.
A literary genre is a category of literary composition.
Literary realism is part of the realist art movement beginning with mid nineteenth-century French literature (Stendhal), and Russian literature (Alexander Pushkin) and extending to the late nineteenth and early twentieth century.
In addition to English, literature has been written in a wide variety of other languages in Britain, that is the United Kingdom, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands (the Isle of Man and the Bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey are not part of the United Kingdom, but are closely associated with it, being British Crown Dependencies).
The literary tradition of Birmingham originally grew out of the culture of religious puritanism that developed in the town in the 16th and 17th centuries.
That part of the United Kingdom called Northern Ireland was created in 1922, with the partition of the island of Ireland.
Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group, according to its beliefs, customs and traditions.
The Liverpool Poets are a number of influential 1960s poets from Liverpool, England, influenced by 1950s Beat poetry.
Lloyd Chudley Alexander (January 30, 1924 – May 17, 2007) was an American author of more than forty books, primarily fantasy novels for children and young adults.
Lollardy (Lollardism, Lollard movement) was a pre-Protestant Christian religious movement that existed from the mid-14th century to the English Reformation.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Look Back in Anger (1956) is a realist play written by John Osborne.
George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron (22 January 1788 – 19 April 1824), known as Lord Byron, was an English nobleman, poet, peer, politician, and leading figure in the Romantic movement.
Lord Jim is a novel by Joseph Conrad originally published as a serial in Blackwood's Magazine from October 1899 to November 1900.
Lord of the Flies is a 1954 novel by Nobel Prize–winning British author William Golding.
The lost world is a subgenre of the fantasy or science fiction genres that involves the discovery of an unknown world out of time, place, or both.
"Lycidas" is a poem by John Milton, written in 1637 as a pastoral elegy.
Lyrical Ballads, with a Few Other Poems is a collection of poems by William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, first published in 1798 and generally considered to have marked the beginning of the English Romantic movement in literature.
Mac Flecknoe (full title: Mac Flecknoe; or, A satyr upon the True-Blew-Protestant Poet, T.S.Cox, Michael, editor, The Concise Oxford Chronology of English Literature, Oxford University Press, 2004) is a verse mock-heroic satire written by John Dryden.
Macbeth (full title The Tragedy of Macbeth) is a tragedy by William Shakespeare; it is thought to have been first performed in 1606.
Machismo ((from Spanish and Portuguese "macho", male) is the sense of being 'manly' and self-reliant, the concept associated with "a strong sense of masculine pride: an exaggerated masculinity." It is associated with "a man’s responsibility to provide for, protect, and defend his family." In American political usage, William Safire said that it refers to the... "condescension of the swaggering male; the trappings of manliness used to dominate women and keep them 'in their place....'" The word macho has a long history in both Spain and Portugal as well as in Spanish and Portuguese languages. It was originally associated with the ideal societal role men were expected to play in their communities, most particularly, Iberian language-speaking societies and countries. Macho in Portuguese and Spanish is a strictly masculine term, derived from the Latin mascŭlus meaning male (today hombre or varón, c.f. Portuguese homem and now-obsolete for humans varão; macho and varão, in their most common sense, are used for males of non-human animal species). Machos in Iberian-descended cultures are expected to possess and display bravery, courage and strength as well as wisdom and leadership, and ser macho (literally, "to be a macho") was an aspiration for all boys. During the women's liberation movement of the 1960s and 1970s, the term began to be used by Latin American feminists to describe male aggression and violence. The term was used by Latina feminists and scholars to criticize the patriarchal structure of gendered relations in Latino communities. Their goal was to describe a particular Latin American brand of patriarchy.Opazo, R. M (2008). Latino Youth and Machismo: Working Towards a More Complex Understanding of Marginalized Masculinities. Retrieved From Ryerson University Digital Commons Thesis Dissertation Paper 108. http://digitalcommons.ryerson.ca/dissertations/108 The English word "machismo" derives from the identical Spanish and Portuguese word. Portuguese and Spanish machismo refers to the assumption that masculinity is superior to femininity in males, a concept similar to R. W. Connell's hegemonic masculinity.Connell, R. W. (1995). Masculinities. Los Angeles, California, United States: University of California Press Gender roles make an important part of human identity as we conduct our identities through our historical and current social actions. Machismo's attitudes and behaviours may be frowned upon or encouraged at various degrees in various societies or subcultures – albeit it is frequently associated with more patriarchial undertones, primarily in present views on the past.
Clarence Malcolm Lowry (28 July 1909 – 26 June 1957) was an English poet and novelist who is best known for his 1947 novel Under the Volcano, which was voted No. 11 in the Modern Library 100 Best Novels list.
The Man Booker International Prize is an international literary award hosted in the United Kingdom.
A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, traditionally, any document written by hand -- or, once practical typewriters became available, typewritten -- as opposed to being mechanically printed or reproduced in some indirect or automated way.
Margaret Eleanor Atwood (born November 18, 1939) is a Canadian poet, novelist, literary critic, essayist, inventor, teacher and environmental activist.
Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher, and lecturer.
A Martian is a native inhabitant of the planet Mars.
'Martian poetry' was a minor movement in British poetry in the late 1970s and early 1980s, in which everyday things and human behaviour are described in a strange way, as if by a visiting Martian who does not understand them.
Martin Louis Amis (born 25 August 1949) is a British novelist, essayist and memoirist.
Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (née Godwin; 30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was an English novelist, short story writer, dramatist, essayist, biographer, and travel writer, best known for her Gothic novel ''Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus'' (1818).
Matilda is a book by British writer Roald Dahl.
Matthew Arnold (24 December 1822 – 15 April 1888) was an English poet and cultural critic who worked as an inspector of schools.
The term metaphysical poets was coined by the critic Samuel Johnson to describe a loose group of 17th-century English poets whose work was characterized by the inventive use of conceits, and by a greater emphasis on the spoken rather than lyrical quality of their verse.
Michael John Moorcock (born 18 December 1939) is an English writer and musician, primarily of science fiction and fantasy, who has also published literary novels.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
Middle English Bible translations (1066-1500) covers the age of Middle English, beginning with the Norman conquest and ending about 1500.
Middlemarch, A Study of Provincial Life is a novel by the English author George Eliot, (Mary Anne Evans) first published in eight installments (volumes) during 1871–72.
Midnight's Children is a 1981 novel by British Indian author Salman Rushdie.
Migrant literature is either written by migrants or tells the stories of migrants and their migration.
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States.
Moby-Dick; or, The Whale is an 1851 novel by American writer Herman Melville.
Mock-heroic, mock-epic or heroi-comic works are typically satires or parodies that mock common Classical stereotypes of heroes and heroic literature.
Modern English (sometimes New English or NE as opposed to Middle English and Old English) is the form of the English language spoken since the Great Vowel Shift in England, which began in the late 14th century and was completed in roughly 1550.
Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
The Fortunes and Misfortunes of the Famous Moll Flanders Who was born in Newgate, and during a life of continu'd Variety for Threescore Years, besides her Childhood, was Twelve Years a Whore, five times a Wife (whereof once to her brother) Twelve Years a Thief, Eight Years a Transported Felon in Virginia, at last grew Rich, liv'd Honest and died a Penitent (commonly known simply as Moll Flanders) is a novel by Daniel Defoe, first published in 1722.
Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.
The morality play is a genre of Medieval and early Tudor theatrical entertainment.
Morris dance is a form of English folk dance usually accompanied by music.
Mrs Dalloway (published on 14 May 1925) is a novel by Virginia Woolf that details a day in the life of Clarissa Dalloway, a fictional high-society woman in post–First World War England.
Mummers' Plays are folk plays performed by troupes of amateur actors, traditionally all male, known as mummers or guisers (also by local names such as rhymers, pace-eggers, soulers, tipteerers, wrenboys, and galoshins).
Dame Muriel Sarah Spark DBE, CLit, FRSE, FRSL (née Camberg; 1 February 1918 – 13 April 2006).
Mystery plays and miracle plays (they are distinguished as two different forms although the terms are often used interchangeably) are among the earliest formally developed plays in medieval Europe.
Nadine Gordimer (20 November 1923 – 13 July 2014) was a South African writer, political activist and recipient of the 1991 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Narrative poetry is a form of poetry that tells a story, often making the voices of a narrator and characters as well; the entire story is usually written in metered verse.
Nathaniel Hawthorne (né Hathorne; July 4, 1804 – May 19, 1864) was an American novelist, dark romantic, and short story writer.
A national epic is an epic poem or a literary work of epic scope which seeks or is believed to capture and express the essence or spirit of a particular nation; not necessarily a nation state, but at least an ethnic or linguistic group with aspirations to independence or autonomy.
"Nature" is an essay written by Ralph Waldo Emerson, and published by James Munroe and Company in 1836.
Neil Richard MacKinnon GaimanBorn as Neil Richard Gaiman, with "MacKinnon" added on the occasion of his marriage to Amanda Palmer.
New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
New Grub Street is a novel by George Gissing published in 1891, which is set in the literary and journalistic circles of 1880s London.
New Zealand literature is literature written in or by the people of New Zealand.
The John Newbery Medal is a literary award given by the Association for Library Service to Children, a division of the American Library Association (ALA).
Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o (born 5 January 1938) is a Kenyan writer, formerly working in English and now working in Gikuyu.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
Nigerian literature is the literature of Nigeria which is written by Nigerians, for Nigerians and addresses Nigerian issues.
The Complaint: or, Night-Thoughts on Life, Death, & Immortality, better known simply as Night-Thoughts, is a long poem by Edward Young published in nine parts (or "nights") between 1742 and 1745.
Nineteen Eighty-Four, often published as 1984, is a dystopian novel published in 1949 by English author George Orwell.
Sir Noël Peirce Coward (16 December 189926 March 1973) was an English playwright, composer, director, actor and singer, known for his wit, flamboyance, and what Time magazine called "a sense of personal style, a combination of cheek and chic, pose and poise".
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
North and South is a social novel by English writer Elizabeth Gaskell.
A novel is a relatively long work of narrative fiction, normally in prose, which is typically published as a book.
The French novelist Honoré de Balzac was a founder of literary realism, of which the novel of manners is a subgenre. A novel of manners is work of fiction that re-creates a social world, conveying with finely detailed observation the customs, values, and mores of a highly developed and complex society.
The Nowell Codex is the second of two manuscripts comprising the bound volume Cotton Vitellius A.xv, one of the four major Anglo-Saxon poetic manuscripts.
"Ode on a Grecian Urn" is a poem written by the English Romantic poet John Keats in May 1819 and published anonymously in the January 1820, Number 15, issue of the magazine Annals of the Fine Arts (see 1820 in poetry).
"Ode to a Nightingale" is a poem by John Keats written either in the garden of the Spaniards Inn, Hampstead, London or, according to Keats' friend Charles Armitage Brown, under a plum tree in the garden of Keats' house at Wentworth Place, also in Hampstead.
"Ode to the West Wind" is an ode, written by Percy Bysshe Shelley in 1819 near Florence, Italy.
"Ode: Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood" (also known as "Ode", "Immortality Ode" or "Great Ode") is a poem by William Wordsworth, completed in 1804 and published in Poems, in Two Volumes (1807).
The Odyssey (Ὀδύσσεια Odýsseia, in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old English literature or Anglo-Saxon literature, encompasses literature written in Old English, in Anglo-Saxon England from the 7th century to the decades after the Norman Conquest of 1066.
Olive Schreiner (24 March 1855 – 11 December 1920) was a South African author, anti-war campaigner and intellectual.
Oliver Goldsmith (10 November 1728 – 4 April 1774) was an Irish novelist, playwright and poet, who is best known for his novel The Vicar of Wakefield (1766), his pastoral poem The Deserted Village (1770), and his plays The Good-Natur'd Man (1768) and She Stoops to Conquer (1771, first performed in 1773).
Oliver Twist; or, the Parish Boy's Progress is author Charles Dickens's second novel, and was first published as a serial 1837–39.
Opera (English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere) is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers.
Oral literature or folk literature corresponds in the sphere of the spoken (oral) word to literature as literature operates in the domain of the written word.
The Ordinalia are three medieval mystery plays dating to the late fourteenth century, written primarily in Middle Cornish, with stage directions in Latin.
Oroonoko: or, the Royal Slave is a short work of prose fiction by Aphra Behn (1640–1689), published in 1688 by William Canning and reissued with two other fictions later that year.
Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 185430 November 1900) was an Irish poet and playwright.
Ossian (Irish Gaelic/Scottish Gaelic: Oisean) is the narrator and purported author of a cycle of epic poems published by the Scottish poet James Macpherson from 1760.
The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were the eastern branch of the later Goths (the other major branch being the Visigoths).
Our Boys is a comedy in three acts written by Henry James Byron, first performed in London on 16 January 1875 at the Vaudeville Theatre.
Publius Ovidius Naso (20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus.
Phyllis Dorothy James, Baroness James of Holland Park, (3 August 1920 – 27 November 2014), known professionally as P. D. James, was an English crime writer.
Pakistani English literature refers to English literature that has been developed and evolved in Pakistan, as well as by members of the Pakistani diaspora who write in the English language.
Pamela; or, Virtue Rewarded is an epistolary novel by English writer Samuel Richardson, first published in 1740.
Pantomime (informally panto) is a type of musical comedy stage production designed for family entertainment.
Paradise Lost is an epic poem in blank verse by the 17th-century English poet John Milton (1608–1674).
A pastoral lifestyle (see pastoralism) is that of shepherds herding livestock around open areas of land according to seasons and the changing availability of water and pasture.
Patricia Mary W. Barker, CBE, FRSL (née Drake; born 8 May 1943) is an English writer and novelist.
Patrick Victor Martindale White (28 May 191230 September 1990) was an Australian writer who, from 1935 to 1987, published 12 novels, three short-story collections and eight plays.
Paul Muldoon (born 20 June 1951) is an Irish poet.
Paul Mark Scott (25 March 19201 March 1978) was an English novelist, playwright, and poet, best known for his monumental tetralogy The Raj Quartet. His novel Staying On won the Booker Prize for 1977.
Pearl (Middle English: Perle) is a late 14th-century Middle English poem.
The "Pearl Poet", or the "Gawain Poet", is the name given to the author of Pearl, an alliterative poem written in 14th-century Middle English.
Pearl Sydenstricker Buck (June 26, 1892 – March 6, 1973; also known by her Chinese name Sai Zhenzhu) was an American writer and novelist.
A pentalogy (from Greek πεντα- penta-, "five" and -λογία -logia, "discourse") is a compound literary or narrative work that is explicitly divided into five parts.
Percy Bysshe Shelley (4 August 17928 July 1822) was one of the major English Romantic poets, and is regarded by some as among the finest lyric and philosophical poets in the English language, and one of the most influential.
Performance poetry is poetry that is specifically composed for or during a performance before an audience.
Peter Philip Carey AO (born 7 May 1943) is an Australian novelist.
Francesco Petrarca (July 20, 1304 – July 18/19, 1374), commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was a scholar and poet of Renaissance Italy who was one of the earliest humanists.
Phantastes: A Faerie Romance for Men and Women is a fantasy novel by Scottish writer George MacDonald, first published in London in 1858.
Philip Arthur Larkin (9 August 1922 – 2 December 1985) was an English poet, novelist and librarian.
Sir Philip Sidney (30 November 1554 – 17 October 1586) was an English poet, courtier, scholar, and soldier, who is remembered as one of the most prominent figures of the Elizabethan age.
The picaresque novel (Spanish: picaresca, from pícaro, for "rogue" or "rascal") is a genre of prose fiction that depicts the adventures of a roguish hero of low social class who lives by their wits in a corrupt society.
Piers Plowman (written 1370–90) or Visio Willelmi de Petro Ploughman (William's Vision of Piers Plowman) is a Middle English allegorical narrative poem by William Langland.
Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.
A play is a form of literature written by a playwright, usually consisting of dialogue between characters, intended for theatrical performance rather than just reading.
A playwright or dramatist (rarely dramaturge) is a person who writes plays.
A poet is a person who creates poetry.
A poet laureate (plural: poets laureate) is a poet officially appointed by a government or conferring institution, typically expected to compose poems for special events and occasions.
Poetry of Scotland includes all forms of verse written in Brythonic, Latin, Scottish Gaelic, Scots, French, English and Esperanto and any language in which poetry has been written within the boundaries of modern Scotland, or by Scottish people.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Postcolonial literature is the literature of countries that were colonised, mainly by European countries.
Postmodern literature is literature characterized by reliance on narrative techniques such as fragmentation, paradox, and the unreliable narrator; and is often (though not exclusively) defined as a style or a trend which emerged in the post–World War II era.
Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late-20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism.
The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (later known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters, poets, and critics, founded in 1848 by William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais and Dante Gabriel Rossetti.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
Pride and Prejudice is a romantic novel by Jane Austen, first published in 1813.
A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink.
Project Gutenberg (PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks".
Prose is a form of language that exhibits a natural flow of speech and grammatical structure rather than a rhythmic structure as in traditional poetry, where the common unit of verse is based on meter or rhyme.
A protagonist In modern usage, a protagonist is the main character of any story (in any medium, including prose, poetry, film, opera and so on).
The Pulitzer Prize for Fiction is one of the seven American Pulitzer Prizes that are annually awarded for Letters, Drama, and Music.
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
Ronald Stuart Thomas (29 March 1913 – 25 September 2000), published as R. S. Thomas, was a Welsh poet and Anglican priest who was noted for his nationalism, spirituality and deep dislike of the anglicisation of Wales.
Rabindranath Tagore FRAS, also written Ravīndranātha Ṭhākura (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali polymath who reshaped Bengali literature and music, as well as Indian art with Contextual Modernism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Radio drama (or audio drama, audio play, radio play, radio theater, or audio theater) is a dramatized, purely acoustic performance.
Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, lecturer, philosopher, and poet who led the transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century.
In sociology, rationalization or rationalisation refers to the replacement of traditions, values, and emotions as motivators for behavior in society with concepts based on rationality and reason.
The Representation of the People Act 1832 (known informally as the 1832 Reform Act, Great Reform Act or First Reform Act to distinguish it from subsequent Reform Acts) was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom (indexed as 2 & 3 Will. IV c. 45) that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of England and Wales.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
The broad definition of regicide (regis "of king" + cida "killer" or cidium "killing") is the deliberate killing of a monarch, or the person responsible for the killing of a person of royalty.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
"Resolution and Independence" is a lyric poem by the English romantic poet William Wordsworth, composed in 1802 and published in 1807 in Poems in Two Volumes.
The term "Restoration comedy" refers to English comedies written and performed in the Restoration period from 1660 to 1710.
The Revelations of Divine Love (which also bears the title A Revelation of Love — in Sixteen Shewings above the first chapter) is a 14th-century book of Christian mystical devotions written by Julian of Norwich.
The revenge tragedy, or revenge play, is a dramatic genre in which the protagonist seeks revenge for an imagined or actual injury.
The Rhymers' Club was a group of London-based male poets, founded in 1890 by W. B. Yeats and Ernest Rhys.
Richard Brinsley Butler Sheridan (30 October 17517 July 1816) was an Irish satirist, a playwright and poet, and long-term owner of the London Theatre Royal, Drury Lane.
Richard Crashaw (c. 1613 – 21 August 1649), was an English poet, teacher, Anglican cleric and Catholic convert, who was among the major figures associated with the metaphysical poets in seventeenth-century English literature.
Richard Lovelace (pronounced, homophone of "loveless") (9 December 1617 – 1657) was an English poet in the seventeenth century.
Richard Rolle (1305×10–30 September 1349) was an English hermit, mystic, and religious writer.
Sir Richard Steele (bap. 12 March 1672 – 1 September 1729) was an Irish writer, playwright, and politician, remembered as co-founder, with his friend Joseph Addison, of the magazine The Tatler.
"Rip Van Winkle" is a short story by the American author Washington Irving first published in 1819.
Roald Dahl (13 September 1916 – 23 November 1990) was a British novelist, short story writer, poet, screenwriter, and fighter pilot.
Robert Oxton Bolt, CBE (15 August 1924 – 21 February 1995) was an English playwright and a two-time Oscar-winning screenwriter, known for writing the screenplays for Lawrence of Arabia, Doctor Zhivago and A Man for All Seasons, the latter two of which won him the Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay.
Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor.
Robert Browning (7 May 1812 – 12 December 1889) was an English poet and playwright whose mastery of the dramatic monologue made him one of the foremost Victorian poets.
Robert Burns (25 January 175921 July 1796), also known as Rabbie Burns, the Bard of Ayrshire, Ploughman Poet and various other names and epithets, was a Scottish poet and lyricist.
Robert Erskine Childers DSC (25 June 1870 – 24 November 1922), universally known as Erskine Childers, was an Irish writer, whose works included the influential novel The Riddle of the Sands, and a Fenian revolutionary who smuggled guns to Ireland in his sailing yacht Asgard.
Robert Herrick (baptised 24 August 1591 – buried 15 October 1674) was a 17th-century English lyric poet and cleric.
Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson (13 November 1850 – 3 December 1894) was a Scottish novelist, poet, essayist, musician and travel writer.
Robert Southey (or 12 August 1774 – 21 March 1843) was an English poet of the Romantic school, one of the "Lake Poets" along with William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and England's Poet Laureate for 30 years from 1813 until his death in 1843.
Robin Hood is a legendary heroic outlaw originally depicted in English folklore and subsequently featured in literature and film.
Robinson Crusoe is a novel by Daniel Defoe, first published on 25 April 1719.
Roger McGough CBE, FRSL (born 9 November 1937) is an English poet, performance poet, broadcaster, children's author and playwright.
Romance of Horn is an Anglo-Norman literature romans d'aventure ("adventure story") tale written around 1170 by an author apparently named "Thomas".
Romantic poetry is the poetry of the Romantic era, an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead, often referred to as just Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, is an absurdist, existential tragicomedy by Tom Stoppard, first staged at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe in 1966.
Roxana: The Fortunate Mistress (full title: The Fortunate Mistress: Or, A History of the Life and Vast Variety of Fortunes of Mademoiselle de Beleau, Afterwards Called the Countess de Wintselsheim, in Germany, Being the Person known by the Name of the Lady Roxana, in the Time of King Charles II) is a 1724 novel by Daniel Defoe.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
Joseph Rudyard Kipling (30 December 1865 – 18 January 1936)The Times, (London) 18 January 1936, p. 12 was an English journalist, short-story writer, poet, and novelist.
Runes are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter.
Rupert Chawner Brooke (middle name sometimes given as "Chaucer;" 3 August 1887 – 23 April 1915The date of Brooke's death and burial under the Julian calendar that applied in Greece at the time was 10 April. The Julian calendar was 13 days behind the Gregorian calendar.) was an English poet known for his idealistic war sonnets written during the First World War, especially "The Soldier.” He was also known for his boyish good looks, which were said to have prompted the Irish poet W. B. Yeats to describe him as "the handsomest young man in England.”.
Ruritanian romance is a genre of literature, film and theatre comprising novels, stories, plays and films set in a fictional country, usually in Central or Eastern Europe, such as the "Ruritania" that gave the genre its name.
Ruth Barbara Rendell, Baroness Rendell of Babergh, (17 February 1930 – 2 May 2015), was an English author of thrillers and psychological murder mysteries.
The Ruthwell Cross is a stone Anglo-Saxon cross probably dating from the 8th century, when the village of Ruthwell, now in Scotland, was part of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria.
Saint George (Γεώργιος, Geṓrgios; Georgius;; to 23 April 303), according to legend, was a Roman soldier of Greek origin and a member of the Praetorian Guard for Roman emperor Diocletian, who was sentenced to death for refusing to recant his Christian faith.
Saint Lucia (Sainte-Lucie) is a sovereign island country in the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean.
Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie (born 19 June 1947) is a British Indian novelist and essayist.
Salvation in Christianity, or deliverance, is the saving of the soul from sin and its consequences.
Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish avant-garde novelist, playwright, theatre director, poet, and literary translator who lived in Paris for most of his adult life.
Samuel Johnson LL.D. (18 September 1709 – 13 December 1784), often referred to as Dr.
Samuel Richardson (19 August 1689 – 4 July 1761) was an 18th-century English writer and printer.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge (21 October 177225 July 1834) was an English poet, literary critic, philosopher and theologian who, with his friend William Wordsworth, was a founder of the Romantic Movement in England and a member of the Lake Poets.
Saul Bellow (born Solomon Bellows; 10 June 1915 – 5 April 2005) was a Canadian-American writer.
The Saxons (Saxones, Sachsen, Seaxe, Sahson, Sassen, Saksen) were a Germanic people whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, Saxonia) near the North Sea coast of what is now Germany.
Science fiction (often shortened to Sci-Fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction, typically dealing with imaginative concepts such as advanced science and technology, spaceflight, time travel, and extraterrestrial life.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Scottish literature is literature written in Scotland or by Scottish writers.
Seamus Justin Heaney (13 April 1939 – 30 August 2013) was an Irish poet, playwright and translator.
Seán O'Casey (Seán Ó Cathasaigh; born John Casey; 30 March 1880 – 18 September 1964) was an Irish dramatist and memoirist.
A secret identity is a person's alter ego which is not known to the general populace, most often used in fiction.
Senecan tragedy refers to a set of ancient Roman tragedies.
Sensibility refers to an acute perception of or responsiveness toward something, such as the emotions of another.
The sentimental novel or the novel of sensibility is an 18th-century literary genre which celebrates the emotional and intellectual concepts of sentiment, sentimentalism, and sensibility.
Sentimentalism is a practice of being sentimental, and thus tending toward basing actions and reactions upon emotions and feelings, in preference to reason.
A sermon is an oration, lecture, or talk by a member of a religious institution or clergy.
The late romances, often simply called the romances, are a grouping of William Shakespeare's last plays, comprising Pericles, Prince of Tyre; Cymbeline; The Winter's Tale; and The Tempest.
Shakespeare's sonnets are poems that William Shakespeare wrote on a variety of themes.
In the First Folio, the plays of William Shakespeare were grouped into three categories: comedies, histories, and tragedies, though today many scholars recognize a fourth category, romance, to describe the specific types of comedies that appear as Shakespeare's later works.
In the First Folio, the plays of William Shakespeare were grouped into three categories: comedies, histories, and tragedies.
In Shakespeare studies, the problem plays are three plays that William Shakespeare wrote between the late 1590s and the first years of the seventeenth century: All's Well That Ends Well, Measure for Measure and Troilus and Cressida.
Shakespearean tragedy is the designation given to most tragedies written by playwright William Shakespeare.
She Stoops to Conquer is a comedy by the Anglo-Irish author Oliver Goldsmith, first performed in London in 1773.
Joseph Thomas Sheridan Le Fanu (28 August 1814 – 7 February 1873) was an Irish writer of Gothic tales, mystery novels, and horror fiction.
Sherlock Holmes is a fictional private detective created by British author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.
A short story is a piece of prose fiction that typically can be read in one sitting and focuses on a self-contained incident or series of linked incidents, with the intent of evoking a "single effect" or mood, however there are many exceptions to this.
In March 1698, Jeremy Collier published his anti-theatre pamphlet, A Short View of the Immorality and Profaneness of the English Stage; in the pamphlet, Collier attacks a number of playwrights: William Wycherley, John Dryden, William Congreve, John Vanbrugh, and Thomas D’Urfey.
Siegfried Loraine Sassoon, (8 September 1886 – 1 September 1967) was an English poet, writer, and soldier.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
Harry Sinclair Lewis (February 7, 1885 – January 10, 1951) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and playwright.
Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (Middle English: Sir Gawayn and þe Grene Knyȝt) is a late 14th-century Middle English chivalric romance.
Social realism is the term used for work produced by painters, printmakers, photographers, writers and filmmakers that aims to draw attention to the everyday conditions of the working class and to voice the authors' critique of the social structures behind these conditions.
Sodom is an obscene Restoration closet drama, published in 1684.
Songs of Innocence and of Experience is an illustrated collection of poems by William Blake.
A sonnet is a poem in a specific form which originated in Italy; Giacomo da Lentini is credited with its invention.
Sound poetry is an artistic form bridging literary and musical composition, in which the phonetic aspects of human speech are foregrounded instead of more conventional semantic and syntactic values; "verse without words".
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South African literature is the literature of South Africa, which has 11 national languages: Afrikaans, English, Zulu, Xhosa, Sotho, Pedi, Tswana, Venda, SiSwati, Tsonga, and Ndebele.
South Wales (De Cymru) is the region of Wales bordered by England and the Bristol Channel to the east and south, and Mid Wales and West Wales to the north and west.
The Colony of Southern Rhodesia was a self-governing British Crown colony in southern Africa from 1923 to 1980, the predecessor state of modern Zimbabwe.
Southwark is a district of Central London and part of the London Borough of Southwark.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spy fiction, a genre of literature involving espionage as an important context or plot device, emerged in the early twentieth century, inspired by rivalries and intrigues between the major powers, and the establishment of modern intelligence agencies.
Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde is a gothic novella by the Scottish author Robert Louis Stevenson first published in 1886.
In literary criticism, stream of consciousness is a narrative mode or method that attempts to depict the multitudinous thoughts and feelings which pass through the mind.
In aesthetics, the sublime (from the Latin sublīmis) is the quality of greatness, whether physical, moral, intellectual, metaphysical, aesthetic, spiritual, or artistic.
Sweeney Agonistes by T.S. Eliot was his first attempt at writing a verse drama although he was unable to complete the piece.
Sybil, or The Two Nations is an 1845 novel by Benjamin Disraeli.
Symbolism was a late nineteenth-century art movement of French, Russian and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts.
Thomas Stearns Eliot, (26 September 1888 – 4 January 1965), was an essayist, publisher, playwright, literary and social critic, and "one of the twentieth century's major poets".
A tableau vivant (often shortened to tableau, plural: tableaux vivants), French for 'living picture', is a static scene containing one or more actors or models.
Edward James Hughes (17 August 1930 – 28 October 1998) was an English poet and children's writer.
From the 1950s until the early 1980s, the television play was a television programming genre in the United Kingdom.
Sir Terence Mervyn Rattigan, CBE (10 June 191130 November 1977) was a British dramatist.
Tess of the d'Urbervilles: A Pure Woman Faithfully Presented is a novel by Thomas Hardy.
The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle is a picaresque novel by the Scottish author Tobias Smollett (1721–1771), first published in 1751 and revised and published again in 1758.
The Adventures of Roderick Random is a picaresque novel by Tobias Smollett, first published in 1748.
The Adventures of Tom Sawyer by Mark Twain is an 1876 novel about a young boy growing up along the Mississippi River.
"The Battle of Maldon" is the name given to an Old English poem of uncertain date celebrating the real Battle of Maldon of 991, at which the Anglo-Saxons failed to prevent a Viking invasion.
The Beggar's Opera is a ballad opera in three acts written in 1728 by John Gay with music arranged by Johann Christoph Pepusch.
The BFG (short for "Big Friendly Giant") is a 1982 children's book written by British novelist Roald Dahl and illustrated by Quentin Blake.
The Birthday Party (1957) is the second full-length play by Harold Pinter.
The Bostonians is a novel by Henry James, first published as a serial in The Century Magazine in 1885–1886 and then as a book in 1886.
The Canterbury Tales (Tales of Caunterbury) is a collection of 24 stories that runs to over 17,000 lines written in Middle English by Geoffrey Chaucer between 1387 and 1400.
The Castle of Otranto is a 1764 novel by Horace Walpole.
The Changeling is a Jacobean tragedy written by Thomas Middleton and William Rowley.
The Chronicles of Narnia is a series of seven fantasy novels by C. S. Lewis.
The Chronicles of Prydain is a pentalogy of children's high fantasy Bildungsroman novels written by American author Lloyd Alexander.
The Consolation of Philosophy (De consolatione philosophiae) is a philosophical work by Boethius, written around the year 524.
The Countess of Pembroke's Arcadia, also known simply as the Arcadia, is a long prose work by Sir Philip Sidney written towards the end of the 16th century.
The Country Wife is a Restoration comedy written in 1675 by William Wycherley.
The Deserted Village is a poem by Oliver Goldsmith published in 1770.
The Duchess of Malfi (originally published as The Tragedy of the Dutchesse of Malfy) is a macabre, tragic play written by the English dramatist John Webster in 1612–13.
The Dunciad is a landmark mock-heroic narrative poem by Alexander Pope published in three different versions at different times from 1728 to 1743.
The Faerie Queene is an English epic poem by Edmund Spenser.
The Forsyte Saga, first published under that title in 1922, is a series of three novels and two interludes published between 1906 and 1921 by Nobel Prize–winning English author John Galsworthy.
The Golden Bowl is a 1904 novel by Henry James.
The Hawk in the Rain is a collection of poems by the British poet Ted Hughes.
The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling, often known simply as Tom Jones, is a comic novel by English playwright and novelist Henry Fielding.
The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy (sometimes referred to as HG2G, HHGTTG or H2G2) is a comedy science fiction series created by Douglas Adams.
The Hobbit, or There and Back Again is a children's fantasy novel by English author J. R. R. Tolkien.
The Importance of Being Earnest, A Trivial Comedy for Serious People is a play by Oscar Wilde.
The King of the Golden River or The Black Brothers: A Legend of Stiria by John Ruskin was originally written in 1841 for the twelve-year-old Effie (Euphemia) Gray, whom Ruskin later married.
The Knight of the Burning Pestle is a play in five acts by Francis Beaumont, first performed at Blackfriars Theatre in 1607 and first published in a quarto in 1613.
"The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" is a horror story by American author Washington Irving, contained in his collection of 34 essays and short stories entitled The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent..
The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman (or Tristram Shandy) is a novel by Laurence Sterne.
La Vie Seinte Audree (The Life of Saint Audrey) is a 4625-line hagiography detailing the life, death, and miracles of Saint Audrey, an Anglo-Saxon saint from Ely in Britain.
The Lord of the Rings is an epic high fantasy novel written by English author and scholar J. R. R. Tolkien.
"The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock", commonly known as "Prufrock", is the first professionally published poem by American-born, British poet T. S. Eliot (1888–1965).
The Man of Feeling is a sentimental novel published in 1771, written by Scottish author Henry Mackenzie.
The Mayor of Casterbridge: The Life and Death of a Man of Character is an 1886 novel by British author Thomas Hardy.
The Midlands is a cultural and geographic area roughly spanning central England that broadly corresponds to the early medieval Kingdom of Mercia.
The Moonstone (1868) by Wilkie Collins is a 19th-century British epistolary novel.
The Mysteries of Udolpho, by Ann Radcliffe, was published in four volumes on 8 May 1794 by G. G. and J. Robinson of London.
The Ordeal of Richard Feverel: A History of Father and Son (1859) is the earliest full-length novel by George Meredith; its subject is the inability of systems of education to control human passions.
The Pilgrim's Progress from This World, to That Which Is to Come is a 1678 Christian allegory written by John Bunyan.
The Pirates of Penzance; or, The Slave of Duty is a comic opera in two acts, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert.
The Playboy of the Western World is a three-act play written by Irish playwright John Millington Synge and first performed at the Abbey Theatre, Dublin, on 26 January 1907.
The Portrait of a Lady is a novel by Henry James, first published as a serial in The Atlantic Monthly and Macmillan's Magazine in 1880–81 and then as a book in 1881.
The Prelude or, Growth of a Poet's Mind; An Autobiographical Poem is an autobiographical poem in blank verse by the English poet William Wordsworth.
The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie is a novel by Muriel Spark, the best known of her works.
The Princess and the Goblin is a children's fantasy novel by George MacDonald.
The Princess Casamassima is a novel by Henry James, first published as a serial in The Atlantic Monthly in 1885-1886 and then as a book in 1886.
The Prisoner of Zenda (1894), by Anthony Hope, is an adventure novel in which the King of Ruritania is drugged on the eve of his coronation and thus is unable to attend the ceremony.
The Provoked Wife (1697) is the second original comedy written by John Vanbrugh.
The Rainbow is a 1915 novel by British author D. H. Lawrence.
The Raj Quartet is a four-volume novel sequence, written by Paul Scott, about the concluding years of the British Raj in India.
The Rape of the Lock is a mock-heroic narrative poem written by Alexander Pope.
The Relapse, or, Virtue in Danger is a Restoration comedy from 1696 written by John Vanbrugh.
The Riddle of the Sands: A Record of Secret Service is a 1903 novel by Erskine Childers.
The Rime of the Ancient Mariner (originally The Rime of the Ancyent Marinere) is the longest major poem by the English poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge, written in 1797–98 and published in 1798 in the first edition of Lyrical Ballads.
The Rivals is a comedy of manners by Richard Brinsley Sheridan in five acts which was first performed at Covent Garden Theatre on 17 January 1775.
The Satanic Verses is Salman Rushdie's fourth novel, first published in 1988 and inspired in part by the life of Muhammad, the prophet of Islam.
The Scarlet Letter: A Romance, an 1850 novel, is a work of historical fiction written by American author Nathaniel Hawthorne.
The Scarlet Pimpernel is the first novel in a series of historical fiction by Baroness Orczy, published in 1905.
The School for Scandal is a play written by Richard Brinsley Sheridan.
The Seafarer is an Old English poem giving a first-person account of a man alone on the sea.
The Seasons is a series of four poems written by the Scottish author James Thomson.
The Spanish Tragedy, or Hieronimo is Mad Again is an Elizabethan tragedy written by Thomas Kyd between 1582 and 1592.
The Spectator was a daily publication founded by Joseph Addison and Richard Steele in England, lasting from 1711 to 1712.
The Story of an African Farm (published in 1883 under the pseudonym Ralph Iron) was South African author Olive Schreiner's first published novel.
The Tale of Peter Rabbit is a British children's book written and illustrated by Beatrix Potter that follows mischievous and disobedient young Peter Rabbit as he is chased about the garden of Mr. McGregor.
The Tempest is a play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in 1610–1611, and thought by many critics to be the last play that Shakespeare wrote alone.
The Tenant of Wildfell Hall is the second and final novel by the English author Anne Brontë.
The Time Machine is a science fiction novella by H. G. Wells, published in 1895 and written as a frame narrative.
The Vicar of Wakefield – subtitled A Tale, Supposed to be written by Himself – is a novel by Irish writer Oliver Goldsmith (1728–1774).
The Wanderer is an Old English poem preserved only in an anthology known as the Exeter Book, a manuscript dating from the late 10th century.
The War of the Worlds is a science fiction novel by English author H. G. Wells first serialised in 1897 by Pearson's Magazine in the UK and by Cosmopolitan magazine in the US.
The Waste Land is a long poem by T. S. Eliot, widely regarded as one of the most important poems of the 20th century and a central work of modernist poetry.
The Way of the World is a play written by the English playwright William Congreve.
The White Devil is a revenge tragedy by English playwright John Webster (c.1580–c.1634).
The Whitsun Weddings is a collection of 32 poems by Philip Larkin.
The Witches is a children's dark fantasy novel by the British writer Roald Dahl.
The Yellow Book was a British quarterly literary periodical that was published in London from 1894 to 1897.
Theatre in Scotland refers to the history of the performing arts in Scotland, or those written, acted and produced by Scots.
The Theatre of the Absurd (théâtre de l'absurde) is a post–World War II designation for particular plays of absurdist fiction written by a number of primarily European playwrights in the late 1950s, as well as one for the style of theatre which has evolved from their work.
Theatre of United Kingdom plays an important part in British culture, and the countries that constitute the UK have had a vibrant tradition of theatre since the Renaissance with roots doing back to the Roman occupation.
Theatre in Wales includes dramatic works in both the Welsh language and English language.
Thomas Becket (also known as Saint Thomas of Canterbury, Thomas of London, and later Thomas à Becket; (21 December c. 1119 (or 1120) – 29 December 1170) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 until his murder in 1170. He is venerated as a saint and martyr by both the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion. He engaged in conflict with Henry II, King of England, over the rights and privileges of the Church and was murdered by followers of the king in Canterbury Cathedral. Soon after his death, he was canonised by Pope Alexander III.
Thomas Campion (sometimes Campian; 12 February 1567 – 1 March 1620) was an English composer, poet, and physician.
Thomas Carew (pronounced as "Carey") (1595 – 22 March 1640) was an English poet, among the 'Cavalier' group of Caroline poets.
Thomas Penson De Quincey (15 August 17858 December 1859) was an English essayist, best known for his Confessions of an English Opium-Eater (1821).
Thomas Dekker (c. 1572 – 25 August 1632) was an English Elizabethan dramatist and pamphleteer, a versatile and prolific writer, whose career spanned several decades and brought him into contact with many of the period's most famous dramatists.
Thomas Gray (26 December 1716 – 30 July 1771) was an English poet, letter-writer, classical scholar, and professor at Pembroke College, Cambridge.
Thomas Hardy (2 June 1840 – 11 January 1928) was an English novelist and poet.
Thomas Kyd (baptised 6 November 1558; buried 15 August 1594) was an English playwright, the author of The Spanish Tragedy, and one of the most important figures in the development of Elizabethan drama.
Sir Thomas Malory (c. 1415 – 14 March 1471) was an English writer, the author or compiler of Le Morte d'Arthur (originally titled, The Whole Book of King Arthur and His Noble Knights of the Round table).
Thomas Middleton (baptised 18 April 1580 – July 1627; also spelled Midleton) was an English Jacobean playwright and poet.
Thomas Norton (1532 – 10 March 1584) was an English lawyer, politician, writer of verse.
Thomas Ruggles Pynchon Jr. (born May 8, 1937) is an American novelist.
Thomas Sackville, 1st Earl of Dorset (1536 – 19 April 1608) was an English statesman, poet, and dramatist.
Thomas Traherne (1636 or 1637) was an English poet, clergyman, theologian, and religious writer.
Thomas William Robertson (9 January 1829 – 3 February 1871), usually known professionally as T. W. Robertson, was an English dramatist and innovative stage director best known for a series of realistic or naturalistic plays produced in London in the 1860s that broke new ground and inspired playwrights such as W.S. Gilbert and George Bernard Shaw.
Sir Thomas Wyatt (1503 – 11 October 1542) was a 16th-century English politician, ambassador, and lyric poet credited with introducing the sonnet to English literature.
Thriller is a broad genre of literature, film and television, having numerous, often overlapping subgenres.
Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There (1871) is a novel by Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson), the sequel to Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865).
"To a Skylark" is a poem completed by Percy Bysshe Shelley in late June 1820 and published accompanying his lyrical drama Prometheus Unbound by Charles and James Collier in London.
"To Autumn" is a poem by English Romantic poet John Keats (31 October 1795 – 23 February 1821).
To the Lighthouse is a 1927 novel by Virginia Woolf.
Tobias George Smollett (19 March 1721 – 17 September 1771) was a Scottish poet and author.
Sir Tom Stoppard (born Tomáš Straussler; 3 July 1937) is a Czech-born British playwright and screenwriter.
Toni Morrison (born Chloe Ardelia Wofford; February 18, 1931) is an American novelist, essayist, editor, teacher, and professor emeritus at Princeton University.
Tragedy (from the τραγῳδία, tragōidia) is a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in audiences.
Tragicomedy is a literary genre that blends aspects of both tragic and comic forms.
Transcendentalism is a philosophical movement that developed in the late 1820s and 1830s in the eastern United States.
Treasure Island is an adventure novel by Scottish author Robert Louis Stevenson, narrating a tale of "buccaneers and buried gold".
Trinidad is the larger and more populous of the two major islands of Trinidad and Tobago.
Truman Garcia Capotehttp://www.biography.com/people/truman-capote-9237547#early-life (born Truman Streckfus Persons, September 30, 1924 – August 25, 1984) was an American novelist, short story writer, screenwriter, playwright, and actor.
The Tudor period is the period between 1485 and 1603 in England and Wales and includes the Elizabethan period during the reign of Elizabeth I until 1603.
Two Treatises of Government (or Two Treatises of Government: In the Former, The False Principles, and Foundation of Sir Robert Filmer, and His Followers, Are Detected and Overthrown. The Latter Is an Essay Concerning The True Original, Extent, and End of Civil Government) is a work of political philosophy published anonymously in 1689 by John Locke.
Ulysses is a modernist novel by Irish writer James Joyce.
Uncle Silas, subtitled "A Tale of Bartram-Haugh", is a Victorian Gothic mystery-thriller novel by the Irish writer J. Sheridan Le Fanu.
Under Milk Wood is a 1954 radio drama by Welsh poet Dylan Thomas, commissioned by the BBC and later adapted for the stage.
Under the Volcano is a novel by English writer Malcolm Lowry (1909–1957) published in 1947.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The utopia and its opposite, the dystopia, are genres of speculative fiction that explore social and political structures.
Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad "Vidia" Naipaul, TC (born 17 August 1932), is an Indo-Caribbean writer and Nobel Laureate who was born in Trinidad with British citizenship.
Vampire literature covers the spectrum of literary work concerned principally with the subject of vampires.
Vanity Fair is an English novel by William Makepeace Thackeray which follows the lives of Becky Sharp and Emmy Sedley amid their friends and families during and after the Napoleonic Wars.
A vernacular, or vernacular language, is the language or variety of a language used in everyday life by the common people of a specific population.
Vernacular literature is literature written in the vernacular—the speech of the "common people".
In the countable sense, a verse is formally a single metrical line in a poetic composition.
Verse drama is any drama written as verse to be spoken; another possible general term is poetic drama.
Victorian burlesque, sometimes known as travesty or extravaganza, is a genre of theatrical entertainment that was popular in Victorian England and in the New York theatre of the mid 19th century.
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.
Victorian literature is literature, mainly written in English, during the reign of Queen Victoria (1837–1901) (the Victorian era).
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
A villain (also known as, "baddie", "bad guy", "evil guy", "heavy" or "black hat") is an "evil" character in a story, whether a historical narrative or, especially, a work of fiction.
Adeline Virginia Woolf (née Stephen; 25 January 188228 March 1941) was an English writer, who is considered one of the most important modernist 20th-century authors and a pioneer in the use of stream of consciousness as a narrative device.
Volpone (Italian for "sly fox") is a comedy play by English playwright Ben Jonson first produced in 1605–06, drawing on elements of city comedy and beast fable.
Vox Clamantis ("the voice of one crying out") is a Latin poem of around 10,000 lines in elegiac verse by John Gower that recounts the events and tragedy of the 1381 Peasants' Rising.
William Butler Yeats (13 June 186528 January 1939) was an Irish poet and one of the foremost figures of 20th-century literature.
Wystan Hugh Auden (21 February 1907 – 29 September 1973) was an English-American poet.
Sir William Schwenck Gilbert (18 November 1836 – 29 May 1911) was an English dramatist, librettist, poet and illustrator best known for his collaboration with composer Arthur Sullivan, which produced fourteen comic operas.
Wace (1110 – after 1174), sometimes referred to as Robert Wace, was a Norman poet, who was born in Jersey and brought up in mainland Normandy (he tells us in the Roman de Rou that he was taken as a child to Caen), ending his career as Canon of Bayeux.
Waiting for Godot is a play by Samuel Beckett, in which two characters, Vladimir (Didi) and Estragon (Gogo), wait for the arrival of someone named Godot who never arrives, and while waiting they engage in a variety of discussions and encounter three other characters.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
Walter "Walt" Whitman (May 31, 1819 – March 26, 1892) was an American poet, essayist, and journalist.
Walter John de la Mare (25 April 1873 – 22 June 1956) was a British poet, short story writer and novelist.
Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet (15 August 1771 – 21 September 1832) was a Scottish historical novelist, playwright, poet and historian.
Washington Irving (April 3, 1783 – November 28, 1859) was an American short story writer, essayist, biographer, historian, and diplomat of the early 19th century.
Waverley is a historical novel by Sir Walter Scott (1771–1832).
Anglo-Welsh literature and Welsh writing in English are terms used to describe works written in the English language by Welsh writers.
West End theatre is a common term for mainstream professional theatre staged in the large theatres of "Theatreland" in and near the West End of London.
Wide Sargasso Sea is a 1966 novel by Dominica-born British author Jean Rhys.
"Widsith" ("Ƿidsið") is an Old English poem of 143 lines.
Wilfred Edward Salter Owen, MC (18 March 1893 – 4 November 1918) was an English poet and soldier.
William Wilkie Collins (8 January 1824 – 23 September 1889) was an English novelist, playwright, and short story writer.
William Blake (28 November 1757 – 12 August 1827) was an English poet, painter, and printmaker.
William Caxton (c. 1422 – c. 1491) was an English merchant, diplomat, writer and printer.
William Congreve (24 January 1670 – 19 January 1729) was an English playwright and poet of the Restoration period.
William Dean Howells (March 1, 1837 – May 11, 1920) was an American realist novelist, literary critic, and playwright, nicknamed "The Dean of American Letters".
William Cuthbert Faulkner (September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American writer and Nobel Prize laureate from Oxford, Mississippi.
Sir William Gerald Golding CBE (19 September 1911 – 19 June 1993) was a British novelist, playwright, and poet.
William Hazlitt (10 April 1778 – 18 September 1830) was an English writer, drama and literary critic, painter, social commentator, and philosopher.
William Holman Hunt (2 April 1827 – 7 September 1910) was an English painter and one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.
William Langland (Willielmus de Langland; 1332 – c. 1386) is the presumed author of a work of Middle English alliterative verse generally known as Piers Plowman, an allegory with a complex variety of religious themes.
William Makepeace Thackeray (18 July 1811 – 24 December 1863) was a British novelist and author.
William Rowley (c.1585 – February 1626) was an English Jacobean dramatist, best known for works written in collaboration with more successful writers.
William Seward Burroughs II (February 5, 1914 – August 2, 1997) was an American writer and visual artist.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
William Tyndale (sometimes spelled Tynsdale, Tindall, Tindill, Tyndall; &ndash) was an English scholar who became a leading figure in the Protestant Reformation in the years leading up to his execution.
William Wordsworth (7 April 1770 – 23 April 1850) was a major English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their joint publication Lyrical Ballads (1798).
William Wycherley (baptised 8 April 1641 – 1 January 1716) was an English dramatist of the Restoration period, best known for the plays The Country Wife and The Plain Dealer.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
Wit is a form of intelligent humour, the ability to say or write things that are clever and usually funny.
Akinwande Oluwole Babatunde Soyinka (Yoruba: Akinwándé Oluwo̩lé Babátúndé S̩óyinká,; born 13 July 1934), known as Wole Soyinka, is a Nigerian playwright, poet and essayist.
Women in Love (1920) is a novel by British author D. H. Lawrence.
The Women's Prize for Fiction (previously with sponsor names Orange Prize for Fiction (1996–2006 and 2009–12), Orange Broadband Prize for Fiction (2007–08) and Baileys Women's Prize for Fiction (2014-2017)) is one of the United Kingdom's most prestigious literary prizes.
The academic discipline of Women's Writing as a discrete area of literary studies is based on the notion that the experience of women, historically, has been shaped by their gender, and so women writers by definition are a group worthy of separate study: "Their texts emerge from and intervene in conditions usually very different from those which produced most writing by men." It is not a question of the subject matter or political stance of a particular author, but of her gender, i.e. her position as a woman within the literary world.
In England and Wales a workhouse, colloquially known as a spike, was a place where those unable to support themselves were offered accommodation and employment.
A world war, is a large-scale war involving many of the countries of the world or many of the most powerful and populous ones.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Wuthering Heights, Emily Brontë's only novel, was published in 1847 under the pseudonym "Ellis Bell".
Wycliffe's Bible is the name now given to a group of Bible translations into Middle English that were made under the direction of John Wycliffe.
York is a historic walled city at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England.
The York Mystery Plays, more properly the York Corpus Christi Plays, are a Middle English cycle of 48 mystery plays or pageants covering sacred history from the creation to the Last Judgment.
Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.
2001: A Space Odyssey is a 1968 science fiction novel by British writer Arthur C. Clarke.
Early Modern English literature, Eighteenth-Century Literature, Eng Lit, Eng lit, Eng lit., Eng. lit, Eng. lit., Eng.Lit., English Literature, English lit, English-language literature, Jacobean Literature, Jacobean drama, Jacobean literature, Literature in English, Literature, English, Twentieth-century literature in English.