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English orthography

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English orthography is the system of writing conventions used to represent spoken English in written form that allows readers to connect spelling to sound to meaning. [1]

178 relations: Académie française, Allophone, Ambiguity, American and British English spelling differences, American Braille, American manual alphabet, Apostrophe, Aspirated consonant, British English, Celtic languages, Chinese language, Classical compound, Classical Milanese orthography, Comber (fish), Communicative competence, Consonant, Constructed language, Council for German Orthography, Crème brûlée, Diaeresis (diacritic), Dialect, Dictionary, Digraph (orthography), Drama, Dutch orthography, English alphabet, English Braille, English language, English phonology, English plurals, English words of Greek origin, English-language spelling reform, Epenthesis, Esperanto orthography, Eth, False etymology, Flapping, Fortis and lenis, French orthography, Fricative consonant, Gemination, General American, Generative grammar, Geoffrey Chaucer, George Eliot, Gerard Nolst Trenité, German orthography, Germanic languages, Ghoti, Great Vowel Shift, ..., Greek language, H. L. Mencken, Henry V of England, Hiatus (linguistics), Hindu, Historical language, History of English, Homophone, I before E except after C, Icelandic orthography, Inflection, Initial-stress-derived noun, International Phonetic Alphabet, International Phonetic Alphabet chart for English dialects, Interspel, Irish orthography, Italian orthography, Italic type, John C. Wells, Latin, Latin alphabet, Latin spelling and pronunciation, Letter (alphabet), Lexical set, Lexicon, List of dialects of the English language, List of English homographs, Lists of English words, Loanword, Long s, Loughborough, Low Countries, Mark Aronoff, Middle English, Minim (palaeography), MIT Technology Review, Modern English, Morpheme, Morphological derivation, Morphophonology, Morris Halle, Near-close back rounded vowel, Near-close front unrounded vowel, Near-open front unrounded vowel, New York Point, Noah Webster, Noam Chomsky, Norman conquest of England, Norman language, Norwegian language, Old English, Old Norse orthography, Open back rounded vowel, Open-mid back unrounded vowel, Orthography, Otto Jespersen, Ough (orthography), Oxford English Dictionary, Past tense, Pedagogy, Phoneme, Phonetics, Phonology, Pièce de résistance, Plural, Poetry, Polish language, Portuguese orthography, Pronunciation of English ⟨th⟩, Proper noun, Received Pronunciation, Regional accents of English, Register (sociolinguistics), Rhoticity in English, Robert A. Heinlein, Rock ptarmigan, Romance languages, Romanization, Royal Spanish Academy, Satiric misspelling, Schwa, Scottish Gaelic orthography, Sensational spelling, Shavian alphabet, Silent e, Silent letter, Ski, Sound change, Spanish orthography, Spelling, Spelling bee, Spelling of disc, Standard written English, Stress (linguistics), Stress and vowel reduction in English, Stylistics, Suffix, Syllable, The American Language, The Chaos, The Door into Summer, The Mill on the Floss, The New Yorker, The Sound Pattern of English, Thorn (letter), Three letter rule, Traditional English pronunciation of Latin, Trigraph (orthography), Trisyllabic laxing, Two-handed manual alphabets, Typographic ligature, Underlying representation, Underspecification, Upsilon, Variety (linguistics), Vivian Cook (academic), Voice (phonetics), Voiced dental fricative, Voiceless alveolar fricative, Voiceless dental fricative, Voiceless labialized velar approximant, Voicelessness, Vowel, Vowel diagram, Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Welsh orthography, World language, Written language. Expand index (128 more) »

Académie française

The Académie française is the pre-eminent French council for matters pertaining to the French language.

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Allophone

In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.

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Ambiguity

Ambiguity is a type of meaning in which several interpretations are plausible.

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American and British English spelling differences

Many of the differences between American and British English date back to a time when spelling standards had not yet developed.

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American Braille

American Braille was a popular braille alphabet used in the United States before the adoption of standardized English braille in 1918.

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American manual alphabet

The American Manual Alphabet (AMA) is a manual alphabet that augments the vocabulary of American Sign Language.

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Apostrophe

The apostrophe ( ' or) character is a punctuation mark, and sometimes a diacritical mark, in languages that use the Latin alphabet and some other alphabets.

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Aspirated consonant

In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.

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British English

British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.

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Celtic languages

The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.

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Chinese language

Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.

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Classical compound

Classical compounds and neoclassical compounds are compound words composed from combining forms (which act as affixes or stems) derived from classical Latin or ancient Greek roots.

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Classical Milanese orthography

The classical Milanese orthography is the orthography used for the Western Lombard language, in particular for the Milanese dialect, by the major poets and writers of this literature, such as Carlo Porta, Carlo Maria Maggi, Delio Tessa etc.

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Comber (fish)

The comber (Serranus cabrilla) is a species of fish in the family Serranidae.

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Communicative competence

Communicative competence is a term in linguistics which refers to a language user's grammatical knowledge of syntax, morphology, phonology and the like, as well as social knowledge about how and when to use utterances appropriately.

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Consonant

In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.

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Constructed language

A constructed language (sometimes called a conlang) is a language whose phonology, grammar, and vocabulary have been consciously devised for human or human-like communication, instead of having developed naturally.

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Council for German Orthography

The Rat für deutsche Rechtschreibung ("Council for German Orthography" or "Council for German Spelling"), or RdR, is the main international body regulating German orthography.

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Crème brûlée

Crème brûlée, also known as burnt cream or Trinity cream, is a dessert consisting of a rich custard base topped with a contrasting layer of caramelized sugar.

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Diaeresis (diacritic)

The diaeresis (plural: diaereses), also spelled diæresis or dieresis and also known as the tréma (also: trema) or the umlaut, is a diacritical mark that consists of two dots placed over a letter, usually a vowel.

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Dialect

The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.

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Dictionary

A dictionary, sometimes known as a wordbook, is a collection of words in one or more specific languages, often arranged alphabetically (or by radical and stroke for ideographic languages), which may include information on definitions, usage, etymologies, pronunciations, translation, etc.

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Digraph (orthography)

A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.

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Drama

Drama is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance: a play performed in a theatre, or on radio or television.

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Dutch orthography

Dutch orthography uses the Latin alphabet and has evolved to suit the needs of the Dutch language.

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English alphabet

The modern English alphabet is a Latin alphabet consisting of 26 letters, each having an uppercase and a lowercase form: The same letters constitute the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

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English Braille

English Braille, also known as Grade 2 Braille, is the braille alphabet used for English.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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English phonology

Like many other languages, English has wide variation in pronunciation, both historically and from dialect to dialect.

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English plurals

English nouns are inflected for grammatical number, meaning that if they are of the countable type, they generally have different forms for singular and plural.

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English words of Greek origin

The Greek language has contributed to the English vocabulary in five main ways.

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English-language spelling reform

For centuries, there has been a movement to reform the spelling of English.

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Epenthesis

In phonology, epenthesis (Greek) means the addition of one or more sounds to a word, especially to the interior of a word (at the beginning prothesis and at the end paragoge are commonly used).

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Esperanto orthography

Esperanto is written in a Latin-script alphabet of twenty-eight letters, with upper and lower case.

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Eth

Eth (uppercase: Ð, lowercase: ð; also spelled edh or eð) is a letter used in Old English, Middle English, Icelandic, Faroese (in which it is called edd), and Elfdalian.

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False etymology

A false etymology (popular etymology, etymythology, pseudo-etymology, or par(a)etymology), sometimes called folk etymology – although the last term is also a technical term in linguistics - is a popularly held but false belief about the origin or derivation of a specific word.

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Flapping

Flapping or tapping, also known as alveolar flapping, intervocalic flapping, or t-voicing, is a phonological process found in many dialects of English, especially North American English, Australian English and New Zealand English, by which the consonants and sometimes also may be pronounced as a voiced flap in certain positions, particularly between vowels (intervocalic position).

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Fortis and lenis

In linguistics, fortis and lenis (Latin for "strong" and "weak"), sometimes identified with '''tense''' and '''lax''', are pronunciations of consonants with relatively greater and lesser energy.

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French orthography

French orthography encompasses the spelling and punctuation of the French language.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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Gemination

Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.

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General American

General American (abbreviated as GA or GenAm) is the umbrella variety of American English—the continuum of accents—spoken by a majority of Americans and popularly perceived, among Americans, as lacking any distinctly regional, ethnic, or socioeconomic characteristics.

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Generative grammar

Generative grammar is a linguistic theory that regards grammar as a system of rules that generates exactly those combinations of words that form grammatical sentences in a given language.

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Geoffrey Chaucer

Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1343 – 25 October 1400), known as the Father of English literature, is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages.

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George Eliot

Mary Anne Evans (22 November 1819 – 22 December 1880; alternatively "Mary Ann" or "Marian"), known by her pen name George Eliot, was an English novelist, poet, journalist, translator, and one of the leading writers of the Victorian era.

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Gerard Nolst Trenité

Gerard Nolst Trenité (20 July 1870, Utrecht – 9 October 1946, Haarlem), was a Dutch observer of English.

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German orthography

German orthography is the orthography used in writing the German language, which is largely phonemic.

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Germanic languages

The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.

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Ghoti

Ghoti is a creative respelling of the word fish, used to illustrate irregularities in English spelling and pronunciation.

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Great Vowel Shift

The Great Vowel Shift was a major series of changes in the pronunciation of the English language that took place, beginning in southern England, primarily between 1350 and the 1600s and 1700s, today influencing effectively all dialects of English.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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H. L. Mencken

Henry Louis Mencken (September 12, 1880 – January 29, 1956) was an American journalist, satirist, cultural critic and scholar of American English.

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Henry V of England

Henry V (9 August 1386 – 31 August 1422) was King of England from 1413 until his death at the age of 36 in 1422.

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Hiatus (linguistics)

In phonology, hiatus or diaeresis refers to two vowel sounds occurring in adjacent syllables, with no intervening consonant.

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Hindu

Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.

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Historical language

Historical languages (also known as historic languages) are languages that were spoken in a historical period, but that are distinct from their modern form; that is, they are forms of languages historically attested to from the past which have evolved into more modern forms.

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History of English

English is a West Germanic language that originated from Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Britain in the mid 5th to 7th centuries AD by Anglo-Saxon settlers from what is now northwest Germany, west Denmark and the Netherlands, displacing the Celtic languages that previously predominated.

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Homophone

A homophone is a word that is pronounced the same (to varying extent) as another word but differs in meaning.

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I before E except after C

"I before E, except after C" is a mnemonic rule of thumb for English spelling.

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Icelandic orthography

Icelandic orthography is the way in which Icelandic words are spelled and how their spelling corresponds with their pronunciation.

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Inflection

In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.

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Initial-stress-derived noun

Initial-stress derivation is a phonological process in English that moves stress to the first syllable of verbs when they are used as nouns or adjectives.

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International Phonetic Alphabet

The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.

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International Phonetic Alphabet chart for English dialects

This concise chart shows the most common applications of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) to represent English language pronunciations.

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Interspel

Interspel (from International English Spelling) is a set of principles introduced by Valerie YuleV.

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Irish orthography

Irish orthography has evolved over many centuries, since Old Irish was first written down in the Latin alphabet in about the 8th century AD.

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Italian orthography

Italian orthography uses a variant of the Latin alphabet consisting of 21 letters to write the Italian language.

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Italic type

In typography, italic type is a cursive font based on a stylized form of calligraphic handwriting.

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John C. Wells

John Christopher Wells (born 11 March 1939 in Bootle, Lancashire) is a British phonetician and Esperantist.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Latin alphabet

The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.

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Latin spelling and pronunciation

Latin spelling, or Latin orthography, is the spelling of Latin words written in the scripts of all historical phases of Latin from Old Latin to the present.

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Letter (alphabet)

A letter is a grapheme (written character) in an alphabetic system of writing.

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Lexical set

A lexical set is a group of words that share a similar phonological feature.

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Lexicon

A lexicon, word-hoard, wordbook, or word-stock is the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical).

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List of dialects of the English language

This is an overview list of dialects of the English language.

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List of English homographs

Homographs are words with the same spelling but having more than one meaning.

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Lists of English words

The following articles list English words that share certain features in common.

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Loanword

A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.

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Long s

The long, medial, or descending s (ſ) is an archaic form of the lower case letter s. It replaced a single s, or the first in a double s, at the beginning or in the middle of a word (e.g. "ſinfulneſs" for "sinfulness" and "ſucceſsful" for "successful").

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Loughborough

Loughborough is a town in the Charnwood borough of Leicestershire, England, seat of Charnwood Borough Council, and home to Loughborough University.

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Low Countries

The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.

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Mark Aronoff

Mark Aronoff, a native of Montreal, Quebec, is a morphologist and distinguished professor at Stony Brook University.

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Middle English

Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.

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Minim (palaeography)

In palaeography, a minim is a short, vertical stroke used in handwriting.

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MIT Technology Review

MIT Technology Review is a magazine published by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

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Modern English

Modern English (sometimes New English or NE as opposed to Middle English and Old English) is the form of the English language spoken since the Great Vowel Shift in England, which began in the late 14th century and was completed in roughly 1550.

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Morpheme

A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.

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Morphological derivation

Morphological derivation, in linguistics, is the process of forming a new word from an existing word, often by adding a prefix or suffix, such as For example, happiness and unhappy derive from the root word happy.

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Morphophonology

Morphophonology (also morphophonemics or morphonology) is the branch of linguistics that studies the interaction between morphological and phonological or phonetic processes.

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Morris Halle

Morris Halle (July 23, 1923 – April 2, 2018) was a Latvian-American linguist who was an Institute Professor, and later professor emeritus, of linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

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Near-close back rounded vowel

The near-close back rounded vowel, or near-high back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some vocal languages.

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Near-close front unrounded vowel

The near-close front unrounded vowel, or near-high front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Near-open front unrounded vowel

No description.

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New York Point

New York Point is a braille-like system of tactile writing for the blind invented by William Bell Wait (1839–1916), a teacher in the New York Institute for the Education of the Blind.

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Noah Webster

Noah Webster Jr. (October 16, 1758 – May 28, 1843) was an American lexicographer, textbook pioneer, English-language spelling reformer, political writer, editor, and prolific author.

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Noam Chomsky

Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.

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Norman conquest of England

The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.

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Norman language

No description.

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Norwegian language

Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.

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Old English

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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Old Norse orthography

The orthography of the Old Norse language was diverse, being written in both Runic and Latin alphabets, with many spelling conventions, variant letterforms, and unique letters and signs.

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Open back rounded vowel

The open back rounded vowel, or low back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Open-mid back unrounded vowel

The open-mid back unrounded vowel, or low-mid back unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Orthography

An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.

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Otto Jespersen

Jens Otto Harry Jespersen or Otto Jespersen (16 July 1860 – 30 April 1943) was a Danish linguist who specialized in the grammar of the English language.

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Ough (orthography)

Ough is a letter sequence often seen in words in the English language.

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Oxford English Dictionary

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.

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Past tense

The past tense (abbreviated) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to place an action or situation in past time.

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Pedagogy

Pedagogy is the discipline that deals with the theory and practice of teaching and how these influence student learning.

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Phoneme

A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.

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Phonetics

Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.

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Phonology

Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.

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Pièce de résistance

No description.

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Plural

The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.

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Poetry

Poetry (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.

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Polish language

Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.

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Portuguese orthography

Portuguese orthography is based on the Latin alphabet and makes use of the acute accent, the circumflex accent, the grave accent, the tilde, and the cedilla to denote stress, vowel height, nasalization, and other sound changes.

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Pronunciation of English ⟨th⟩

In English, the digraph th represents in most cases one of two different phonemes: the voiced dental fricative (as in this) and the voiceless dental fricative (thing).

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Proper noun

A proper noun is a noun that in its primary application refers to a unique entity, such as London, Jupiter, Sarah, or Microsoft, as distinguished from a common noun, which usually refers to a class of entities (city, planet, person, corporation), or non-unique instances of a specific class (a city, another planet, these persons, our corporation).

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Received Pronunciation

Received Pronunciation (RP) is an accent of Standard English in the United Kingdom and is defined in the Concise Oxford English Dictionary as "the standard accent of English as spoken in the south of England", although it can be heard from native speakers throughout England and Wales.

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Regional accents of English

Spoken English shows great variation across regions where it is the predominant language.

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Register (sociolinguistics)

In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.

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Rhoticity in English

Rhoticity in English refers to English speakers' pronunciation of the historical rhotic consonant, and is one of the most prominent distinctions by which varieties of English can be classified.

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Robert A. Heinlein

Robert Anson Heinlein (See also the biography at the end of For Us, the Living, 2004 edition, p. 261. July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was an American science-fiction writer.

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Rock ptarmigan

The rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) is a medium-sized gamebird in the grouse family.

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Romance languages

The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.

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Romanization

Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so.

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Royal Spanish Academy

The Royal Spanish Academy (Spanish: Real Academia Española, generally abbreviated as RAE) is Spain's official royal institution with a mission to ensure the stability of the Spanish language.

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Satiric misspelling

A satiric misspelling is an intentional misspelling of a word, phrase or name for a rhetorical purpose.

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Schwa

In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa (rarely or; sometimes spelled shwa) is the mid central vowel sound (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ə, or another vowel sound close to that position.

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Scottish Gaelic orthography

Scottish Gaelic orthography has evolved over many centuries.

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Sensational spelling

Sensational spelling is the deliberate spelling of a word in an incorrect or non-standard way for special effect.

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Shavian alphabet

The Shavian alphabet (also known as the Shaw alphabet) is an alphabet conceived as a way to provide simple, phonetic orthography for the English language to replace the difficulties of conventional spelling.

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Silent e

In English orthography, many words feature a silent, most commonly at the end of a word or morpheme.

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Silent letter

In an alphabetic writing system, a silent letter is a letter that, in a particular word, does not correspond to any sound in the word's pronunciation.

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Ski

A ski is a narrow strip of semi-rigid material worn underfoot to glide over snow.

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Sound change

Sound change includes any processes of language change that affect pronunciation (phonetic change) or sound system structures (phonological change).

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Spanish orthography

Spanish orthography is the orthography used in the Spanish language.

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Spelling

Spelling is the combination of alphabetic letters to form a written word.

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Spelling bee

A spelling bee is a competition in which contestants are asked to spell a broad selection of words, usually with a varying degree of difficulty.

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Spelling of disc

Disc and disk are two variants of the English word for objects of a generally thin and cylindrical geometry.

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Standard written English

Standard written English refers to the preferred form of English as it is written according to prescriptive authorities associated with publishing houses and schools; the standard varieties of English around the world largely align to either British or American English spelling standards.

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Stress (linguistics)

In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.

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Stress and vowel reduction in English

Stress is a prominent feature of the English language, both at the level of the word (lexical stress) and at the level of the phrase or sentence (prosodic stress).

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Stylistics

Stylistics, a branch of applied linguistics, is the study and interpretation of texts in regard to their linguistic and tonal style.

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Suffix

In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.

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Syllable

A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.

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The American Language

The American Language; An Inquiry into the Development of English in the United States, first published in 1919, is H. L. Mencken's book about the English language as spoken in the United States.

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The Chaos

"The Chaos" is a poem demonstrating the irregularity of English spelling and pronunciation.

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The Door into Summer

The Door into Summer is a science fiction novel by American writer Robert A. Heinlein, originally serialized in The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction (October, November, December 1956, with covers and interior illustrations by Frank Kelly Freas).

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The Mill on the Floss

The Mill on the Floss is a novel by George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans), first published in three volumes in 1860 by William Blackwood.

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The New Yorker

The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.

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The Sound Pattern of English

The Sound Pattern of English (frequently referred to as SPE) is a 1968 work on phonology (a branch of linguistics) by Noam Chomsky and Morris Halle.

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Thorn (letter)

Thorn or þorn (Þ, þ) is a letter in the Old English, Gothic, Old Norse and modern Icelandic alphabets, as well as some dialects of Middle English.

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Three letter rule

In English spelling, the three letter rule (or short word rule) is the observation that one- and two-letter words tend to be function words such as I, at, he, if, of, or, etc.

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Traditional English pronunciation of Latin

The traditional English pronunciation of Latin, and Classical Greek words borrowed through Latin, is the way the Latin language was traditionally pronounced by speakers of English until the early 20th century.

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Trigraph (orthography)

A trigraph (from the τρεῖς, treîs, "three" and γράφω, gráphō, "write") is a group of three characters used to represent a single sound or a combination of sounds that does not correspond to the written letters combined.

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Trisyllabic laxing

Trisyllabic laxing, or trisyllabic shortening, is any of three processes in English in which tense vowels (long vowels or diphthongs) become lax (short monophthongs) if they are followed by two syllables, the first of which syllable is unstressed.

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Two-handed manual alphabets

Several manual alphabets in use around the world employ two hands to represent some or all of the letters of an alphabet, usually as a part of a deaf sign language.

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Typographic ligature

In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph.

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Underlying representation

In some models of phonology as well as morphophonology in the field of linguistics, the underlying representation (UR) or underlying form (UF) of a word or morpheme is the abstract form that a word or morpheme is postulated to have before any phonological rules have applied to it.

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Underspecification

In theoretical linguistics, underspecification is a phenomenon in which certain features are omitted in underlying representations.

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Upsilon

Upsilon (or; uppercase Υ, lowercase υ; ύψιλον ýpsilon) or ypsilon is the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet.

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Variety (linguistics)

In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster.

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Vivian Cook (academic)

Vivian James Cook (born 13 June 1940) is Emeritus Professor of Applied Linguistics at Newcastle University in the United Kingdom.

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Voice (phonetics)

Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).

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Voiced dental fricative

The voiced dental fricative is a consonant sound used in some spoken languages.

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Voiceless alveolar fricative

A voiceless alveolar fricative is a type of fricative consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth.

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Voiceless dental fricative

The voiceless dental non-sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.

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Voiceless labialized velar approximant

The voiceless labialized velar (labiovelar) approximant (traditionally called a voiceless labiovelar fricative) is a type of consonantal sound, used in spoken languages.

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Voicelessness

In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.

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Vowel

A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.

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Vowel diagram

A vowel diagram or vowel chart is a schematic arrangement of the vowels.

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Webster's Third New International Dictionary

Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (commonly known as Webster's Third, or W3) was published in September 1961.

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Welsh orthography

Welsh orthography uses 29 letters (including eight digraphs) of the Latin script to write native Welsh words as well as established loanwords.

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World language

A world language is a language that is spoken internationally and is learned and spoken by a large number of people as a second language.

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Written language

A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language by means of a writing system.

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English Orthography, English spelling, English writing system, English's orthography, Letter-sound pairs, Letter-sound pairs in English.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_orthography

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