164 relations: Abstraction, Affricate consonant, Allophone, Alveolar and postalveolar approximants, Alveolar consonant, Amlwch, Apical consonant, Approximant consonant, Aspirated consonant, Australia, Australian English, Australian English phonology, Back vowel, Baltimore, Boston, Canadian English, Canadian raising, Central vowel, Checked and free vowels, Clipping (phonetics), Close vowel, Close-mid vowel, Cockney, Consonant, Consonant cluster, Cot–caught merger, Dental and alveolar flaps, Dental consonant, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar trills, Diacritic, Diaphoneme, Diphthong, Distinctive feature, Eastern New England English, England, English language, English orthography, Flapping, Fortis and lenis, Free variation, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Function word, General American, Ginseng, Glottal consonant, Glottalization, Great Vowel Shift, Greek alphabet, Hiberno-English, ..., History of English, Homorganic consonant, Initial-stress-derived noun, Interjection, International Phonetic Alphabet, International Phonetic Alphabet chart for English dialects, Isochrony, John C. Wells, L-vocalization, Labial consonant, Labialization, Labiodental approximant, Laminal consonant, Lexical set, Liquid consonant, List of dialects of the English language, List of English words of Yiddish origin, List of the longest English words with one syllable, Loanword, Mid vowel, Middle English phonology, Monophthongization, Morpheme, Nasal consonant, Nasalization, Near-open central vowel, New York City, Non-native pronunciations of English, Norfolk dialect, Northumbrian burr, Old English phonology, Open vowel, Open-mid vowel, Orthography, Oxford English Dictionary, Pacific Northwest English, Palatal consonant, Perception of English /r/ and /l/ by Japanese speakers, Peter Ladefoged, Philadelphia, Phone (phonetics), Phoneme, Phonemic orthography, Phonological development, Phonological history of English consonant clusters, Phonological history of English consonants, Phonological history of English diphthongs, Phonological history of English high back vowels, Phonological history of English high front vowels, Phonological history of English low back vowels, Phonological history of English vowels, Phonology, Phonotactics, Pittsburgh, Portland, Oregon, Postalveolar consonant, Pragmatics, Prestige (sociolinguistics), Pronunciation, Pronunciation of English /r/, Pronunciation of English ⟨a⟩, Pronunciation of English ⟨th⟩, Pronunciation of English ⟨wh⟩, Prosodic unit, Prosody (linguistics), Question, R-colored vowel, Received Pronunciation, Regional accents of English, Retroflex approximant, Rhoticity in English, Schnapps, Schwa, Scottish English, Seattle, Secondary stress, Semivowel, Shetland, Silent e, Song dynasty, South African English, Southern American English, Standard language, Stop consonant, Stress (linguistics), Stress and vowel reduction in English, Syllabic consonant, Syllable, T-glottalization, Tag question, Taung, Tenseness, Tenuis consonant, ToBI, Tone (linguistics), Triphthong, United States, Unreleased stop, Velar consonant, Velarization, Voice (phonetics), Voiced uvular fricative, Voiceless labialized velar approximant, Voiceless palatal fricative, Voiceless velar fricative, Voicelessness, Vowel, Vowel breaking, Vowel reduction, Welsh English, Western Pennsylvania English, William Shakespeare, Xhosa language, Yes–no question. Expand index (114 more) » « Shrink index
Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concepts are derived from the usage and classification of specific examples, literal ("real" or "concrete") signifiers, first principles, or other methods.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
The alveolar approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
Amlwch is the most northerly town in Wales and is a community.
An apical consonant is a phone (speech sound) produced by obstructing the air passage with the tip of the tongue.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Australian English (AuE, en-AU) is a major variety of the English language, used throughout Australia.
Australian English (AuE) is a non-rhotic variety of English spoken by most native-born Australians.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
Baltimore is the largest city in the U.S. state of Maryland, and the 30th-most populous city in the United States.
Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
Canadian English (CanE, CE, en-CA) is the set of varieties of the English language native to Canada.
Canadian raising is an allophonic rule of phonology in many dialects of North American English that changes the pronunciation of diphthongs with open-vowel starting points.
A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
In phonetics and phonology, checked vowels are those that commonly stand in a stressed closed syllable; and free vowels are those that commonly stand in a stressed open syllable.
In phonetics, clipping is the process of shortening the articulation of a phonetic segment, usually a vowel.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
A close-mid vowel (also mid-close vowel, high-mid vowel, mid-high vowel or half-close vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
The term cockney has had several distinct geographical, social, and linguistic associations.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
In linguistics, a consonant cluster, consonant sequence or consonant compound is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel.
The cot–caught merger (also known as the low back merger or the merger) is a phonemic merger that has taken place in some varieties of English, between the phonemes which are conventionally represented in the IPA as (which is usually written with au, aw, al or ough as in caught and thought) and (which is usually written with o as in cot and lot).
The alveolar tap or flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
A diaphoneme is an abstract phonological unit that identifies a correspondence between related sounds of two or more varieties of a language or language cluster.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
In linguistics, a distinctive feature is the most basic unit of phonological structure that may be analyzed in phonological theory.
Eastern New England English, historically known as the Yankee dialect since at least the nineteenth century, is the traditional regional dialect of Maine, New Hampshire, and the eastern half of Massachusetts.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
English orthography is the system of writing conventions used to represent spoken English in written form that allows readers to connect spelling to sound to meaning.
Flapping or tapping, also known as alveolar flapping, intervocalic flapping, or t-voicing, is a phonological process found in many dialects of English, especially North American English, Australian English and New Zealand English, by which the consonants and sometimes also may be pronounced as a voiced flap in certain positions, particularly between vowels (intervocalic position).
In linguistics, fortis and lenis (Latin for "strong" and "weak"), sometimes identified with '''tense''' and '''lax''', are pronunciations of consonants with relatively greater and lesser energy.
Free variation in linguistics is the phenomenon of two (or more) sounds or forms appearing in the same environment without a change in meaning and without being considered incorrect by native speakers.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
In linguistics, function words (also called functors) are words that have little lexical meaning or have ambiguous meaning and express grammatical relationships among other words within a sentence, or specify the attitude or mood of the speaker.
General American (abbreviated as GA or GenAm) is the umbrella variety of American English—the continuum of accents—spoken by a majority of Americans and popularly perceived, among Americans, as lacking any distinctly regional, ethnic, or socioeconomic characteristics.
Ginseng is the root of plants in the genus Panax, such as Korean ginseng (P. ginseng), South China ginseng (P. notoginseng), and American ginseng (P. quinquefolius), typically characterized by the presence of ginsenosides and gintonin.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
Glottalization is the complete or partial closure of the glottis during the articulation of another sound.
The Great Vowel Shift was a major series of changes in the pronunciation of the English language that took place, beginning in southern England, primarily between 1350 and the 1600s and 1700s, today influencing effectively all dialects of English.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
Hiberno‐English (from Latin Hibernia: "Ireland") or Irish English is the set of English dialects natively written and spoken within the island of Ireland (including both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland).
English is a West Germanic language that originated from Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Britain in the mid 5th to 7th centuries AD by Anglo-Saxon settlers from what is now northwest Germany, west Denmark and the Netherlands, displacing the Celtic languages that previously predominated.
In phonetics, a homorganic consonant (from homo- "same" and organ "(speech) organ") is a consonant sound articulated in the same place of articulation as another.
Initial-stress derivation is a phonological process in English that moves stress to the first syllable of verbs when they are used as nouns or adjectives.
In linguistics, an interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling or reaction.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
This concise chart shows the most common applications of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) to represent English language pronunciations.
Isochrony is the postulated rhythmic division of time into equal portions by a language.
John Christopher Wells (born 11 March 1939 in Bootle, Lancashire) is a British phonetician and Esperantist.
L-vocalization, in linguistics, is a process by which a lateral approximant sound such as, or, more often, velarized, is replaced by a vowel or a semivowel.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages.
The labiodental approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
A laminal consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the blade of the tongue, the flat top front surface just behind the tip of the tongue on the top.
A lexical set is a group of words that share a similar phonological feature.
In phonetics, liquids or liquid consonants are a class of consonants consisting of lateral consonants like 'l' together with rhotics like 'r'.
This is an overview list of dialects of the English language.
This is a list of words that have entered the English language from the Yiddish language, many of them by way of American English.
This is a list of candidates for the longest English word of one syllable, i.e. monosyllables with the most letters.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.
Middle English phonology is necessarily somewhat speculative, since it is preserved only as a written language.
Monophthongization is a sound change by which a diphthong becomes a monophthong, a type of vowel shift.
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
In phonetics, nasalization (or nasalisation) is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered, so that some air escapes through the nose during the production of the sound by the mouth.
The near-open central vowel, or near-low central vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Non-native pronunciations of English result from the common linguistic phenomenon in which non-native users of any language tend to carry the intonation, phonological processes and pronunciation rules from their first language or first languages into their English speech.
The Norfolk dialect, also known as Broad Norfolk, is a dialect spoken by those living in the county of Norfolk in England.
The Northumbrian burr is the distinctive uvular pronunciation of R in the traditional dialects of Northumberland, Tyneside ('Geordie'), and northern County Durham, but it is now prevalent only in the older residents of rural Northumberland.
Old English phonology is necessarily somewhat speculative since Old English is preserved only as a written language.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
An open-mid vowel (also mid-open vowel, low-mid vowel, mid-low vowel or half-open vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Pacific Northwest English (also known, in the United States, as Northwest English) is a variety of North American English that is geographically defined as being spoken in the U.S. states of Washington and Oregon, sometimes also including Idaho and the Canadian province of British Columbia.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
Japanese has one liquid phoneme, realized usually as an apico-alveolar tap and sometimes as an alveolar lateral approximant.
Peter Nielsen Ladefoged (17 September 1925 – 24 January 2006) was a British linguist and phonetician who travelled the world to document the distinct sounds of endangered languages and pioneered ways to collect and study data.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
In phonetics and linguistics, a phone is any distinct speech sound or gesture, regardless of whether the exact sound is critical to the meanings of words.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
In linguistics, a phonemic orthography is an orthography (system for writing a language) in which the graphemes (written symbols) correspond to the phonemes (significant spoken sounds) of the language.
Sound is at the beginning of language learning.
The phonological history of the English language includes various changes in the phonology of consonant clusters.
This article describes those aspects of the phonological history of the English language which concern consonants.
English diphthongs have undergone many changes since the Old and Middle English periods.
Most dialects of modern English have two high back vowels: the near-close near-back rounded vowel found in words like foot, and the close back rounded vowel (realized as central in many dialects) found in words like goose.
The high and mid-height front vowels of English (vowels of i and e type) have undergone a variety of changes over time, often varying from dialect to dialect.
The phonology of the low back vowels of the English language has undergone changes both overall and with regional variations, through Old and Middle English to the present.
In the history of English phonology, there were many diachronic sound changes affecting vowels, especially involving phonemic splits and mergers.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Phonotactics (from Ancient Greek phōnḗ "voice, sound" and tacticós "having to do with arranging") is a branch of phonology that deals with restrictions in a language on the permissible combinations of phonemes.
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, and is the county seat of Allegheny County.
Portland is the largest city in the U.S. state of Oregon and the seat of Multnomah County.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics and semiotics that studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning.
Prestige is the level of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community, relative to other languages or dialects.
Pronunciation is the way in which a word or a language is spoken.
Pronunciation of the phoneme /r/ in the English language has many variations in different dialects.
There are a variety of pronunciations in modern English and in historical forms of the language for words spelt with the a.
In English, the digraph th represents in most cases one of two different phonemes: the voiced dental fricative (as in this) and the voiceless dental fricative (thing).
The pronunciation of the wh in English has changed over time, and still varies today between different regions and accents.
In linguistics, a prosodic unit, often called an intonation unit or intonational phrase, is a segment of speech that occurs with a single prosodic contour (pitch and rhythm contour).
In linguistics, prosody is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual phonetic segments (vowels and consonants) but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech.
A question is a linguistic expression used to make a request for information, or the request made using such an expression.
In phonetics, an r-colored or rhotic vowel (also called a retroflex vowel, vocalic r, or a rhotacized vowel) is a vowel that is modified in a way that results in a lowering in frequency of the third formant.
Received Pronunciation (RP) is an accent of Standard English in the United Kingdom and is defined in the Concise Oxford English Dictionary as "the standard accent of English as spoken in the south of England", although it can be heard from native speakers throughout England and Wales.
Spoken English shows great variation across regions where it is the predominant language.
The retroflex approximant is a type of consonant used in some languages.
Rhoticity in English refers to English speakers' pronunciation of the historical rhotic consonant, and is one of the most prominent distinctions by which varieties of English can be classified.
Schnapps or schnaps is a type of alcoholic beverage that may take several forms, including distilled fruit brandies, herbal liqueurs, infusions, and "flavored liqueurs" made by adding fruit syrups, spices, or artificial flavorings to neutral grain spirits.
In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa (rarely or; sometimes spelled shwa) is the mid central vowel sound (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ə, or another vowel sound close to that position.
Scottish English refers to the varieties of English spoken in Scotland.
Seattle is a seaport city on the west coast of the United States.
Secondary stress (or obsolete: secondary accent) is the weaker of two degrees of stress in the pronunciation of a word; the stronger degree of stress being called primary.
In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide, also known as a non-syllabic vocoid, is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary, rather than as the nucleus of a syllable.
Shetland (Old Norse: Hjaltland), also called the Shetland Islands, is a subarctic archipelago of Scotland that lies northeast of Great Britain.
In English orthography, many words feature a silent, most commonly at the end of a word or morpheme.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
South African English (SAfrE, SAfrEng, SAE, en-ZA) is the set of English dialects native to South Africans.
Southern American English or Southern U.S. English is a large collection of related American English dialects spoken throughout the Southern United States, though increasingly in more rural areas and primarily by white Americans.
A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.
Stress is a prominent feature of the English language, both at the level of the word (lexical stress) and at the level of the phrase or sentence (prosodic stress).
A syllabic consonant or vocalic consonant is a consonant that forms a syllable on its own, like the m, n and l in the English words rhythm, button and bottle, or is the nucleus of a syllable, like the r sound in the American pronunciation of work.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
In English phonology, t-glottalization or t-glottaling is a sound change in certain English dialects and accents that causes the phoneme to be pronounced as the glottal stop in certain positions.
A tag question (also known as tail question) is a grammatical structure in which a declarative or an imperative statement is turned into interrogative fragment (the "tag").
Taung is a small town situated in the North West Province of South Africa.
In phonology, tenseness or tensing is, most broadly, the pronunciation of a sound with greater muscular effort or constriction than is typical.
In linguistics, a tenuis consonant is an obstruent that is unvoiced, unaspirated, unpalatalized, and unglottalized.
ToBI (an abbreviation of tones and break indices) is a set of conventions for transcribing and annotating the prosody of speech.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
In phonetics, a triphthong (from Greek τρίφθογγος, "triphthongos", literally "with three sounds," or "with three tones") is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement of the articulator from one vowel quality to another that passes over a third.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
A stop with no audible release, also known as an unreleased stop or an applosive, is a stop consonant with no release burst: no audible indication of the end of its occlusion (hold).
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
The voiced uvular fricative or approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless labialized velar (labiovelar) approximant (traditionally called a voiceless labiovelar fricative) is a type of consonantal sound, used in spoken languages.
The voiceless palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
In historical linguistics, vowel breaking, vowel fracture, or diphthongization is the change of a monophthong into a diphthong or triphthong.
In phonetics, vowel reduction is any of various changes in the acoustic quality of vowels, which are related to changes in stress, sonority, duration, loudness, articulation, or position in the word (e.g. for the Creek language), and which are perceived as "weakening".
Welsh English refers to the dialects of English spoken by Welsh people.
Western Pennsylvania English, known more narrowly as Pittsburgh English or popularly by outsiders as Pittsburghese, is a dialect of American English native primarily to the western half of Pennsylvania, centered on the city of Pittsburgh, but potentially appearing as far north as Erie County, as far east as Sunbury, Pennsylvania, as far west as metropolitan Youngstown (Ohio), and as far south as micropolitan Clarksburg (West Virginia).
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
Xhosa (Xhosa: isiXhosa) is a Nguni Bantu language with click consonants ("Xhosa" begins with a click) and one of the official languages of South Africa.
In linguistics, a yes–no question, formally known as a polar question or a general question, is a question whose expected answer is either "yes" or "no".
English Phonology, English consonants, English phoneme, English phonemes, English phonetics, English phonotactics, English pronunciation, English sounds, English vowels, Feel centering, Gold centering, Mail centering, Maximal onset principle, Maximal onsets principle, Phonemes of English, Phonology of English, Pronunciation of English, Tool centering.