170 relations: Accession of Kosovo to the European Union, Accession of Montenegro to the European Union, Aftonbladet, Andorra, Andorra and the euro, Andrej Babiš, Andrej Plenković, Aruban florin, Banking union, BBC, Black Wednesday, Bloomberg News, Bohuslav Sobotka, Boris Vujčić, Boyko Borisov, Brexit, Bulgaria and the euro, Bulgarian lev, Bulgarian National Bank, Bulgarian parliamentary election, 2017, Cameron–Clegg coalition, Caribbean guilder, Caribbean Netherlands, CFP franc, Congress of New Caledonia, Corvinus University of Budapest, Council of the European Union, Croatia, Croatia and the euro, Croatian kuna, Croatian National Bank, Curaçao, Currency board, Cyprus dispute, Czech koruna, Czech National Bank, Czech Republic and the euro, Danish euro referendum, 2000, Danish krone, Danish Maastricht Treaty referendum, 1992, Danish Maastricht Treaty referendum, 1993, Danish opt-outs from the European Union, Danmarks Nationalbank, Debt-to-GDP ratio, Denmark and the euro, Der Spiegel, Deutsche Mark, Deutsche Welle, Donald Tusk, Economy of Hungary, ..., Election Authority (Sweden), Enlargement of the European Union, Euro, Euro convergence criteria, Eurogroup, Europa (Web portal), European Central Bank, European Commission, European Currency Unit, European debt crisis, European Exchange Rate Mechanism, European Monetary System, European System of Central Banks, European Union, Euroscepticism, Eurozone, Evenimentul Zilei, Exchange-rate regime, Faroe Islands, Faroese language, Ferenc Gyurcsány, Fidesz, Financial crisis of 2007–2008, Financial Times, Five economic tests, Fredrik Reinfeldt, French Polynesia, Government of Hungary, Greenland, Hansard, Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices, History of the euro, History of the European Union, HM Treasury, House of Lords, Hungarian forint, Hungarian parliamentary election, 2014, Hungary and the euro, Iceland, Iceland–European Union relations, Icelandic European Union membership referendum, Icelandic króna, Icelandic parliamentary election, 2013, International Monetary Fund, Jarosław Kaczyński, Jürgen Stark, Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović, Kosovo, Kosovo and the euro, Labour Party (UK), Law and Justice, Løgting, Lender of last resort, Maastricht Treaty, Member state of the European Union, Microstates and the European Union, Mihály Varga, Miloš Zeman, Ministry of Finance (Poland), Monaco, Monégasque euro coins, Montenegro and the euro, Mugur Isărescu, National Bank of Poland, Netherlands Antillean guilder, New Caledonia, Northern Cyprus, Nouméa Accord, Official Journal of the European Union, Opt-outs in the European Union, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Petr Nečas, Poland and the euro, Polish parliamentary election, 2015, Polskie Radio, Pound sterling, Presidency of the Council of the European Union, President of Croatia, Prime Minister of Bulgaria, Prime Minister of Croatia, Purchasing power parity, Results of the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, 2016, Reuters, Romania and the euro, Romanian leu, Sammarinese euro coins, San Marino, Sándor Csányi (banker), Schengen Area, Sejm, Serbia and Montenegro, Serbian dinar, Sint Maarten, Sovereign state, Special member state territories and the European Union, Speculation, Stability and Growth Pact, Sweden and the euro, Swedish euro referendum, 2003, Swedish krona, Teodor Meleșcanu, The Daily Telegraph, Tony Blair, Treaty of Rome, Turkish lira, United Kingdom and the euro, United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, 2016, United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo, Vatican City, Vatican euro coins, Vending machine, Victor Ponta, Viktor Orbán, Vladislav Goranov, Wallis and Futuna, Yugoslav dinar, Zoran Milanović, 2004 enlargement of the European Union, 2008–2011 Icelandic financial crisis, 2013 enlargement of the European Union. Expand index (120 more) » « Shrink index
Accession of Kosovo to the European Union (EU) is on the current agenda for future enlargement of the EU and Kosovo is recognized by the EU as a potential candidate for accession.
Accession of Montenegro to the European Union (EU) is on the current agenda for future enlargement of the EU.
Aftonbladet is a Swedish evening newspaper published in Stockholm, Sweden.
Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra (Principat d'Andorra), also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra (Principat de les Valls d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate on the Iberian Peninsula, in the eastern Pyrenees, bordered by France in the north and Spain in the south.
Andorra has a monetary agreement with the EU allowing it to make the euro its official currency, and permitting it to issue euro coins from 1 July 2013.
Andrej Babiš (born 2 September 1954) is a Czech politician who has been the Prime Minister of the Czech Republic since December 2017, and previously served as Minister of Finance and Deputy Prime Minister for the Economy from January 2013 to May 2017.
Andrej Plenković (born 8 April 1970) is a Croatian politician and diplomat serving as Prime Minister of Croatia since 19 October 2016.
The florin (sign: Afl.; code: AWG) is the currency of Aruba.
The banking union in the European Union is the transfer of responsibility for banking policy from the national to the EU level in several countries of the European Union, initiated in 2012 as a response to the Eurozone crisis.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Black Wednesday occurred in the United Kingdom on 16 September 1992, when John Major's Conservative government was forced to withdraw the pound sterling from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) after it was unable to keep the pound above its agreed lower limit in the ERM.
Bloomberg News is an international news agency headquartered in New York, United States and a division of Bloomberg L.P. Content produced by Bloomberg News is disseminated through Bloomberg Terminals, Bloomberg Television, Bloomberg Radio, Bloomberg Businessweek, Bloomberg Markets, Bloomberg.com and Bloomberg's mobile platforms.
Bohuslav Sobotka (born 23 October 1971) is a Czech politician who served as the Prime Minister of the Czech Republic from January 2014 to December 2017 and Leader of the Czech Social Democratic Party (ČSSD) from 2010 until his resignation in June 2017.
Boris Vujčić (born 2 June 1964 in Zagreb) is the Governor of the Croatian National Bank.
Boyko Metodiev Borisov (Бойко Методиев Борисов,; born 13 June 1959) is a Bulgarian politician who has been serving as the 50th Prime Minister of Bulgaria since 4 May 2017.
Brexit is the impending withdrawal of the United Kingdom (UK) from the European Union (EU).
Bulgaria committed to switching its currency, the lev, to the euro upon its joining the European Union in 2007, as stated in its EU accession treaty.
The lev (лев, plural: лева, левове / leva, levove) is the currency of Bulgaria.
The Bulgarian National Bank (Българска народна банка, Balgarska narodna banka) is the central bank of the Republic of Bulgaria with its headquarters in Sofia.
Parliamentary elections were held in Bulgaria on 26 March 2017.
David Cameron and Nick Clegg formed the Cameron–Clegg coalition after the former was invited by Queen Elizabeth II to begin a new government, following the resignation of Prime Minister Gordon Brown on 11 May 2010.
The Caribbean guilder (Caribische gulden) is the proposed currency of the Caribbean islands, and constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Curaçao and Sint Maarten, which formed after the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles on October 10, 2010.
The Caribbean Netherlands (Caribisch Nederland) are the three special municipalities of the Netherlands that are located in the Caribbean Sea.
The CFP franc (called the franc in everyday use) is the currency used in the French overseas collectivities (collectivités d’outre-mer, or COM) of French Polynesia, New Caledonia and Wallis and Futuna.
The Congress of New Caledonia (Congrès de la Nouvelle-Calédonie), a "territorial congress" (congrès territorial or congrès du territoire), is the legislature of New Caledonia.
Corvinus University of Budapest (Budapesti Corvinus Egyetem) is a university in Budapest, Hungary.
The Council of the European Union, referred to in the treaties and other official documents simply as the Council is the third of the seven Institutions of the European Union (EU) as listed in the Treaty on European Union.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
Croatia's currency, the kuna, has used the euro (and prior to that one of the euro's major predecessors, the German mark or Deutschmark) as its main reference since its creation in 1994, and a long-held policy of the Croatian National Bank has been to keep the kuna's exchange rate with the euro within a relatively stable range.
The kuna is the currency of Croatia, in use since 1994 (ISO 4217 code: HRK).
The Croatian National Bank (Hrvatska narodna banka or HNB) is the central bank of the Republic of Croatia.
Curaçao (Curaçao,; Kòrsou) is a Lesser Antilles island in the southern Caribbean Sea and the Dutch Caribbean region, about north of the Venezuelan coast.
A currency board is a monetary authority which is required to maintain a fixed exchange rate with a foreign currency.
The Cyprus dispute, also known as the Cyprus conflict, Cyprus issue or Cyprus problem, is the ongoing issue of Turkish military invasion and occupation of the northern third of the island since 1974.
The koruna (sign: Kč; code: CZK) is the currency of the Czech Republic since 1993, and in English it is sometimes referred to as Czech crown.
The Czech National Bank, (Česká národní banka, ČNB) is the central bank and financial market supervisor in the Czech Republic with its headquarters in Prague, and a member of the European System of Central Banks.
The Czech Republic is bound to adopt the euro in the future and to join the eurozone once it has satisfied the euro convergence criteria by the Treaty of Accession since it joined the European Union (EU) in 2004.
A referendum on joining the euro was held in Denmark on 28 September 2000.
The krone (plural: kroner; sign: kr.; code: DKK) is the official currency of Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands, introduced on 1 January 1875.
A referendum on the Maastricht Treaty was held in Denmark on 2 June 1992.
A second referendum on the Maastricht Treaty was held in Denmark on 18 May 1993.
Denmark holds opt-outs from European Union policies in relation to security and defence, citizenship, police and justice, and the adoption of the euro.
Danmarks Nationalbank (National Bank of Denmark; in Danish often simply Nationalbanken) is the central bank of the Kingdom of Denmark.
In economics, the debt-to-GDP ratio is the ratio between a country's government debt (a cumulative amount) and its gross domestic product (GDP) (measured in years).
Denmark uses the krone as its currency and does not use the euro, having negotiated the right to opt-out from participation under the Maastricht Treaty of 1992.
Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.
The Deutsche Mark ("German mark"), abbreviated "DM" or, was the official currency of West Germany from 1948 until 1990 and later the unified Germany from 1990 until 2002.
Deutsche Welle ("German wave" in German) or DW is Germany's public international broadcaster.
Donald Franciszek Tusk (Polish:; born 22 April 1957) is a Polish politician who has been the President of the European Council since 2014.
Hungary is an OECD high-income mixed economy with a very high human development index and a skilled labour force, with the 13th lowest income inequality in the world; furthermore it is the 14th most complex economy according to the Economic Complexity Index.
The Swedish Election Authority (Valmyndigheten), is a Government agency responsible for organizing national elections and referendums in Sweden.
The European Union (EU) has expanded a number of times throughout its history by way of the accession of new member states to the Union.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
The euro convergence criteria (also known as the Maastricht criteria) are the criteria which European Union member states are required to meet to enter the third stage of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and adopt the euro as their currency.
The Eurogroup is the recognised collective term for informal meetings of the finance ministers of the eurozone—those member states of the European Union (EU) which have adopted the euro as their official currency.
Europa is the official web portal of the European Union (EU), providing information on how the EU works, related news, events, publications and links to websites of institutions, agencies and other bodies.
The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank for the euro and administers monetary policy of the euro area, which consists of 19 EU member states and is one of the largest currency areas in the world.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European Currency Unit (₠ or ECU) was a basket of the currencies of the European Community member states, used as the unit of account of the European Community before being replaced by the euro on 1 January 1999, at parity.
The European debt crisis (often also referred to as the Eurozone crisis or the European sovereign debt crisis) is a multi-year debt crisis that has been taking place in the European Union since the end of 2009.
The European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) was a system introduced by the European Economic Community on 13 March 1979, as part of the European Monetary System (EMS), to reduce exchange rate variability and achieve monetary stability in Europe, in preparation for Economic and Monetary Union and the introduction of a single currency, the euro, which took place on 1 January 1999.
European Monetary System (EMS) was an arrangement established in 1979 under the Jenkins European Commission where most nations of the European Economic Community (EEC) linked their currencies to prevent large fluctuations relative to one another.
The European System of Central Banks (ESCB) consists of the European Central Bank (ECB) and the national central banks (NCBs) of all 28 member states of the European Union (EU).
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Euroscepticism (also known as EU-scepticism) means criticism of the European Union (EU) and European integration.
Evenimentul zilei is one of the leading newspapers in Romania.
An exchange-rate regime is the way an authority manages its currency in relation to other currencies and the foreign exchange market.
The Faroe Islands (Føroyar; Færøerne), sometimes called the Faeroe Islands, is an archipelago between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic, about halfway between Norway and Iceland, north-northwest of Scotland.
Faroese (føroyskt mál,; færøsk) is a North Germanic language spoken as a first language by about 66,000 people, 45,000 of whom reside on the Faroe Islands and 21,000 in other areas, mainly Denmark.
Ferenc Gyurcsány (born 4 June 1961) is a Hungarian entrepreneur and politician.
Fidesz – Hungarian Civic Alliance (in full, Fidesz – Magyar Polgári Szövetség) is a national-conservative and right-wing populist political party in Hungary.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
The five economic tests were the criteria defined by the UK treasury under Gordon Brown that were to be used to assess the UK's readiness to join the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union (EMU), and so adopt the euro as its official currency.
John Fredrik Reinfeldt (pronounced; born 4 August 1965) is a Swedish economist, lecturer and former politician who was Prime Minister of Sweden from 2006 to 2014 and chairman of the liberal conservative Moderate Party from 2003 to 2015.
French Polynesia (Polynésie française; Pōrīnetia Farāni) is an overseas collectivity of the French Republic; collectivité d'outre-mer de la République française (COM), sometimes unofficially referred to as an overseas country; pays d'outre-mer (POM).
The Government of Hungary (Magyarország Kormánya) exercises executive power in Hungary.
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
Hansard is the traditional name of the transcripts of Parliamentary Debates in Britain and many Commonwealth countries.
The Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices (HICP) is an indicator of inflation and price stability for the European Central Bank (ECB).
The euro came into existence on 1 January 1999, although it had been a goal of the European Union (EU) and its predecessors since the 1960s.
The European Union is a geo-political entity covering a large portion of the European continent.
Her Majesty's Treasury (HM Treasury), sometimes referred to as the Exchequer, or more informally the Treasury, is the British government department responsible for developing and executing the government's public finance policy and economic policy.
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The forint (sign: Ft; code: HUF) is the currency of Hungary.
The 2014 Hungarian parliamentary election took place on 6 April 2014.
While the Hungarian government has been planning since 2003 to replace the Hungarian forint with the euro, as of 2014, there is no target date and the forint is not part of the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM II).
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
Iceland is heavily integrated into the European Union via the European Economic Area and the Schengen Agreement, but it is not a member state.
A referendum on the resumption of European Union membership negotiations has been proposed to be held in Iceland.
The króna (plural krónur) (sign: kr; code: ISK) is the currency of Iceland.
An Icelandic parliamentary election was held on 27 April 2013.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
Jarosław Aleksander Kaczyński (born 18 June 1949) is a Polish politician and lawyer, and the current leader of the Law and Justice party (PiS by its Polish acronym), which he co-founded in 2001 with his identical twin brother, late Polish President Lech Kaczyński Running for PiS, he served as Prime Minister of Poland from July 2006 to November 2007.
Jürgen Stark (born 31 May 1948 in Gau-Odernheim, Germany) is a German economist who has been a member of the Executive Board of the European Central Bank (ECB) from June 2006, but announced in September 2011 he would resign later that year.
Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović ((born 29 April 1968) is a Croatian politician and diplomat who has been the President of Croatia since 2015. She is the first woman to be elected president after the first multi-party elections in 1990. At 46 years of age, she became the youngest person to enter the office. Before her election as president, Grabar-Kitarović held a number of governmental and diplomatic positions. She was Minister of European Affairs from 2003 to 2005, the first female Minister of Foreign Affairs and European Integration from 2005 to 2008 in both the first and second cabinets of Ivo Sanader, Croatian Ambassador to the United States from 2008 to 2011 and Assistant Secretary General for Public Diplomacy at NATO under Secretaries-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen and Jens Stoltenberg from 2011 to 2014. Grabar-Kitarović contested the presidential election held in December 2014 and January 2015 as the only female candidate (out of four in total), finishing as the runner-up in the first round and thereafter proceeding to narrowly defeat incumbent President Ivo Josipović in the second round. Her strong performance in the first round was widely viewed as unexpected, as most opinion polls had given incumbent president Josipović a strong lead and some even showed it was possible that he would win outright by acquiring more than 50% of the vote. In the second round, Grabar-Kitarović defeated Josipović by the closest percentage margin of any presidential election to date (1.48%) and received the smallest number of votes of any elected president in Croatia (1.114 million votes). Furthermore, as Croatia had previously also had a female Prime Minister, Jadranka Kosor, from 2009 until 2011, Grabar-Kitarović's election as president also included the country into a small group of parliamentary republics which have had both a female head of state and head of government. Grabar-Kitarović was a member of the conservative Croatian Democratic Union party from 1993 to 2015 and was also one of three Croatian members of the Trilateral Commission, but she was required to resign both positions upon taking office as president in 2015, as Croatian Presidents are not permitted to hold other political positions or party membership while in office. In 2017, Forbes magazine listed Grabar-Kitarović as the world's 39th most powerful woman.
Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).
Before Kosovo declared its independence in 2008, Kosovo unilaterally adopted the euro as its currency in 2002 when it was a United Nations mandate; although, it is not an official eurozone member.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
Law and Justice (Polish), abbreviated to PiS, is a national-conservative, and Christian democratic political party in Poland.
Løgting (pronounced (Faroese: Føroya Løgting or just Løgtingið, Danish: Færøernes Lagting/Lagtinget, both meaning The løgting of the Faroes) is the unicameral parliament of the Faroe Islands, an autonomous country within the Danish Realm. The name literally means "Law Thing"—that is, a law assembly—and derives from Old Norse lǫgþing, which was a name given to ancient assemblies. A ting or þing has existed on the Faroe Islands for over a millennium and the Løgting was the highest authority on the islands in the Viking era. From 1274 to 1816 it functioned primarily as a judicial body, whereas the modern Løgting established in 1852 is a parliamentary assembly, which gained legislative power when home rule was introduced in 1948. The Manx Tynwald and the Icelandic Alþing are the two other modern parliaments with ties back to the old Norse assemblies of Europe. Today, the Faroe Islands compromise one constituency, and the number of MPs is fixed at 33. The first election with this new system was held on 19 January 2008, after the Election law was changed in late 2007, prior to which the membership of the Løgting varied from 27 to 32. The 7 constituencies had 27 seats and up to 5 supplementary seats. That Election Act came into force in 1978, and the eight general elections between 1978 and 2004 all resulted in 32 members. The Løgting is elected for a period of four years. Election of the Løgting can take place before the end of an election period if the Løgting agrees on dissolving itself. The Løgmaður (Prime Minister) issues a proclamation of the forthcoming election and appoints the day of election, which must take place, at the earliest, six weeks after the proclamation.
A lender of last resort (LOLR) is the institution in a financial system that acts as the provider of liquidity to a financial institution which finds itself unable to obtain sufficient liquidity in the interbank lending market and other facilities or sources have been exhausted.
The Treaty on European Union (TEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Maastricht is one of two treaties forming the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU), the other being the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Rome). The TEU was originally signed on 7 February 1992 by the members of the European Community in Maastricht, Netherlands to further European integration. On 9–10 December 1991, the same city hosted the European Council which drafted the treaty. Upon its entry into force on 1 November 1993 during the Delors Commission, it created the three pillars structure of the European Union and led to the creation of the single European currency, the euro. TEU comprised two novel titles respectively on Common Foreign and Security Policy and Cooperation in the Fields of Justice and Home Affairs, which replaced the former informal intergovernmental cooperation bodies named TREVI and European Political Cooperation on EU Foreign policy coordination. In addition TEU also comprised three titles which amended the three pre-existing community treaties: Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community, Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community, and the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community which had its abbreviation renamed from TEEC to TEC (being known as TFEU since 2007). The Maastricht Treaty (TEU) and all pre-existing treaties, has subsequently been further amended by the treaties of Amsterdam (1997), Nice (2001) and Lisbon (2009).
The European Union (EU) consists of 28 member states.
There are a number of microstates in Europe.
Mihály Varga (born 26 January 1965) is a Hungarian politician, current Minister of Finance (previously Minister of National Economy) since 2013.
Miloš Zeman (born 28 September 1944) is a Czech politician serving as the third and current President of the Czech Republic since 8 March 2013.
Poland's Ministry of Finance (Ministerstwo Finansów), headed by the Minister of Finance (Minister Finansów), is part of the government of Poland.
Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco (Principauté de Monaco), is a sovereign city-state, country and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe.
Monégasque euro coins feature two separate designs for the first two series of coins, and also two separate designs for the €1 and €2 coins for the first series.
Montenegro has no currency of its own.
Constantin Mugur Isărescu (born 1 August 1949) is the Governor of the National Bank of Romania, a position he held since September 1990, with the exception of an eleven months period (22 December 1999 to 28 November 2000), during which he served as Prime Minister of Romania.
Narodowy Bank Polski (National Bank of Poland, NBP) is the central bank of Poland.
The Netherlands Antillean guilder (gulden) is the currency of Curaçao and Sint Maarten, which until 2010 formed the Netherlands Antilles along with Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius.
New Caledonia (Nouvelle-Calédonie)Previously known officially as the "Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies" (Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et dépendances), then simply as the "Territory of New Caledonia" (French: Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie), the official French name is now only Nouvelle-Calédonie (Organic Law of 19 March 1999, article 222 IV — see). The French courts often continue to use the appellation Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie.
Northern Cyprus (Kuzey Kıbrıs), officially the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC; Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti), is a partially recognised state that comprises the northeastern portion of the island of Cyprus.
The Nouméa Accord of 1998 is a promise by the French Republic to grant political power to New Caledonia and its original population, the Kanaks, until the territory decides whether to remain a special collectivity of France or become an independent state in a referendum to be held in 2018.
The Official Journal of the European Union (the OJ) is the official gazette of record for the European Union (EU).
In general, the law of the European Union is valid in all of the twenty-eight European Union member states.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
Petr Nečas (born 19 November 1964) is a Czech former politician who served as 9th Prime Minister of the Czech Republic and Leader of the Civic Democratic Party from 2010 to 2013, and as Member of the Chamber of Deputies (MP) from 1993 to 2013.
Poland does not use the euro as its currency.
Parliamentary elections to both the Sejm and Senate were held in Poland on 25 October 2015.
Polskie Radio Spółka Akcyjna (PR S.A.; English: Polish Radio) is Poland's state-owned national publicly funded radio broadcasting organization.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
The presidency of the Council of the European Union is responsible for the functioning of the Council of the European Union, the upper house of the EU legislature.
The President of Croatia (Predsjednik Hrvatske), officially styled the President of the Republic (Predsjednik Republike), is the head of state, commander in-chief of the military and chief representative of the Republic of Croatia both within the country and abroad.
The Prime Minister of Bulgaria (Министър-председател, Ministar-predsedatel) is the head of government of Bulgaria.
The Prime Minister of Croatia (Premijer/ Premijerka Hrvatske), officially the President of the Government of the Republic of Croatia (Predsjednik/ Predsjednica Vlade Republike Hrvatske), is Croatia's head of government, and is the de facto the most powerful and influential state officeholder in the Croatian system of government.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
The United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, also known as the EU referendum, took place in the United Kingdom and Gibraltar on 23 June 2016.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Romania is required by its EU accession agreement to replace the current national currency, the Romanian leu, with the euro, as soon as Romania fulfills all of the six nominal euro convergence criteria.
The Romanian leu (plural lei; ISO 4217 code RON; numeric code 946) is the currency of Romania.
Sammarinese euro coins feature separate designs for every coin.
San Marino, officially the Republic of San Marino (Repubblica di San Marino), also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino), is an enclaved microstate surrounded by Italy, situated on the Italian Peninsula on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains.
Sándor Csányi (born 20 March 1953) is a Hungarian billionaire businessman, banker, investor, philanthropist, specializing in finance.
The Schengen Area is an area comprising 26 European states that have officially abolished passport and all other types of border control at their mutual borders.
The Sejm of the Republic of Poland (Sejm Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is the lower house of the Polish parliament.
Serbia and Montenegro (Srbija i Crna Gora, Србија и Црна Гора; SCG, СЦГ), officially the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro (Državna Zajednica Srbija i Crna Gora, Државна Заједница Србија и Црна Гора), was a country in Southeast Europe, created from the two remaining federal republics of Yugoslavia after its breakup in 1992.
The dinar (динар,; paucal: dinara / динара) is the currency of Serbia.
Sint Maarten is an island country in the Caribbean.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
The special territories of the European Union are 31 territories of EU member states which, for historical, geographical, or political reasons, enjoy special status within or outside the European Union.
Speculation is the purchase of an asset (a commodity, goods, or real estate) with the hope that it will become more valuable at a future date.
The Stability and Growth Pact (SGP) is an agreement, among the 28 member states of the European Union, to facilitate and maintain the stability of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU).
Sweden does not currently use the euro as its currency and has no plans to replace the krona in the near future.
A non-binding referendum on introduction of the euro was held in Sweden on 14 September 2003.
The krona (plural: kronor; sign: kr; code: SEK) has been the currency of Sweden since 1873.
Teodor Viorel Meleșcanu (born 10 March 1941) is a Romanian politician, diplomat and jurist.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007.
The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Rome) is one of two treaties forming the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU), the other being the Treaty on European Union (TEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Maastricht).
The Turkish lira (Türk lirası; sign: ₺; code: TRY; usually abbreviated as TL) is the currency of Turkey and the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.
The United Kingdom has never sought to adopt the euro as its official currency for the duration of its membership of the EU, and secured an opt-out at the euro's creation via the Maastricht Treaty in 1992.
The United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, also known as the EU referendum and the Brexit referendum, took place on 23 June 2016 in the United Kingdom (UK) and Gibraltar to gauge support for the country either remaining a member of, or leaving, the European Union (EU) under the provisions of the European Union Referendum Act 2015 and also the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000.
The United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) is the officially mandated mission of the United Nations in Kosovo.
Vatican City (Città del Vaticano; Civitas Vaticana), officially the Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano; Status Civitatis Vaticanae), is an independent state located within the city of Rome.
Vatican euro coins are issued by the Philatelic and Numismatic Office of the Vatican City State and minted by Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato (IPZS), in Rome, Italy.
A vending machine is an automated machine that provides items such as snacks, beverages, cigarettes and lottery tickets to consumers after money, a credit card, or specially designed card is inserted into the machine.
Victor Viorel Ponta (born 20 September 1972) is a Romanian jurist and politician, who served as Prime Minister of Romania between his appointment by President Traian Băsescu in May 2012 and his resignation in November 2015.
Viktor Mihály Orbán (born 31 May 1963) is a Hungarian politician.
Vladislav Ivanov Goranov (Bulgarian: Владислав Иванов Горанов), born 30 April 1977, is a Bulgarian politician, who is the Minister of Finance of Bulgaria as part of the Third Borisov Government from May 4, 2017.
Wallis and Futuna, officially the Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands (Wallis-et-Futuna or Territoire des îles Wallis-et-Futuna, Fakauvea and Fakafutuna: Uvea mo Futuna), is a French island collectivity in the South Pacific between Tuvalu to the northwest, Fiji to the southwest, Tonga to the southeast, Samoa to the east, and Tokelau to the northeast.
The dinar (Cyrillic script: динар) was the currency of the three Yugoslav states: the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (formerly the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes), the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia between 1918 and 2003.
Zoran Milanović (born 30 October 1966) is a Croatian politician who served as the Prime Minister of Croatia from December 2011 to January 2016.
The 2004 enlargement of the European Union was the largest single expansion of the European Union (EU), in terms of territory, number of states, and population to date; however, it was not the largest in terms of gross domestic product.
The Icelandic financial crisis was a major economic and political event in Iceland that involved the default of all three of the country's major privately owned commercial banks in late 2008, following their difficulties in refinancing their short-term debt and a run on deposits in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom.
The 2013 enlargement of the European Union saw Croatia join the European Union as its 28th member state on 1 July 2013.