177 relations: Achintya Bheda Abheda, Adi Shankara, Advaita Vedanta, Age of Enlightenment, Ahimsa in Jainism, Ama Samy, Anatta, Ancient Greek philosophy, Andrew Cohen (spiritual teacher), Augustine of Hippo, Ayahuasca, Ayyappan, Étienne Bonnot de Condillac, Āstika and nāstika, Ātman (Hinduism), Śūnyatā, Śramaṇa, Bhagavad Gita, Bhakti, Bodhi, Brahma, Brahma Sutras, Brahman, Buddha-nature, Buddhahood, Buddhism, Buddhist modernism, Christian revival, D. T. Suzuki, Dhyana in Hinduism, Digambara monk, Discourse, Dispensationalism, Divine light, Doctrine, Douglas Hofstadter, Dvaita Vedanta, Dvaitadvaita, Eastern religions, Eckhart Tolle, Ego death, Emergence, Entheogenic drugs and the archaeological record, Epistemology, Fana (Sufism), Four Noble Truths, Fourth Way, Francis Crick, Friedrich Schleiermacher, Gangaji, ..., Gaudapada, Gautama Buddha, German idealism, Govinda Bhagavatpada, Great Awakening, Guru, H. W. L. Poonja, Habitus (sociology), Hatha yoga, Heinrich Dumoulin, Henosis, Hermann Hesse, Hindu philosophy, Hindu reform movements, Hinduism, History of India, Homunculus, Horace Barlow, Hugo Enomiya-Lassalle, Human body, Illuminationism, Indian religions, International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration, Islam, Islamic philosophy, Jainism, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Jiva, Jnana yoga, John Locke, Judaism, Kabbalah, Ken Wilber, Kenosis, Kenshō, Kevala Jnana, Krishna, Lewis Sperry Chafer, Light of Christ, List of philosophical concepts, Madhukar (author), Madhyamaka, Mahavira, Mahayana, Medieval philosophy, Merit (Buddhism), Metanoia (theology), Mind, Moksha, Moksha (Jainism), Monotheism, Mysticism, Naturalism (philosophy), Neoplatonism, New Age, New religious movement, Nirvana, Nirvikalpa, Noble Eightfold Path, Nondualism, Nous, Numinous, Pali, Perennial philosophy, Prajñā (Buddhism), Prasthanatrayi, Puja (Hinduism), Rajneesh, Rajneesh movement, Ramakrishna Mission, Ramana Maharshi, Rebirth (Buddhism), Reincarnation, Religion in the United States, Religious conversion, Revelation, Romanticism, Saṃsāra, Salvation, Samadhi, Samavasarana, Sanskrit, Satchidanandendra Saraswati, Satori, Self-realization, Sensualism, Shiva, Shuddhadvaita, Siddha, Siddhartha (novel), Sikhism, Soul, Squatting position, Sri Aurobindo, Suffering, Sufism, Swami Vivekananda, Tāpatraya, The Astonishing Hypothesis, The Varieties of Religious Experience, Theory of mind, Theosophy (Blavatskian), Theravada, Thubten Yeshe, Tirthankara, Transcendentalism, Tree of the knowledge of good and evil, Trimurti, True self and false self, Universalism, Upanishads, Uparati, Vedanta, Vedas, Vipassana movement, Vipassanā, Vishishtadvaita, Vishnu, Vivekachudamani, Wayne Proudfoot, Western esotericism, William Blake, William James, Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, Zazen, Zen, Zoroastrianism. Expand index (127 more) » « Shrink index
Achintya-Bheda-Abheda (अचिन्त्यभेदाभेद, in IAST) is a school of Vedanta representing the philosophy of inconceivable one-ness and difference.
Adi Shankara (pronounced) or Shankara, was an early 8th century Indian philosopher and theologian who consolidated the doctrine of Advaita Vedanta.
Advaita Vedanta (अद्वैत वेदान्त, IAST:, literally, "not-two"), originally known as Puruṣavāda, is a school of Hindu philosophy and religious practice, and one of the classic Indian paths to spiritual realization.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Ahimsā in Jainism is a fundamental principle forming the cornerstone of its ethics and doctrine.
AMA Samy (Arul Maria Arokiasamy), S.J., born in 1936, is an Indian Zen master and Jesuit priest.
In Buddhism, the term anattā (Pali) or anātman (Sanskrit) refers to the doctrine of "non-self", that there is no unchanging, permanent self, soul or essence in living beings.
Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.
Andrew Cohen (born 1955 or 1956) is an American spiritual teacher, regarded by some as a cult leader.
Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.
Ayahuasca, iowaska, or yagé, is an entheogenic brew made out of Banisteriopsis caapi vine and other ingredients.
Ayyappan is the Hindu god of growth, particularly popular in Kerala.
Étienne Bonnot de Condillac (30 September 1714 – 3 August 1780) was a French philosopher and epistemologist, who studied in such areas as psychology and the philosophy of the mind.
Āstika derives from the Sanskrit asti, "there is, there exists", and means “one who believes in the existence (of God, of another world, etc.)” and nāstika means "an atheist or unbeliever".
Ātma is a Sanskrit word that means inner self or soul.
Śūnyatā (Sanskrit; Pali: suññatā), pronounced ‘shoonyataa’, translated into English most often as emptiness and sometimes voidness, is a Buddhist concept which has multiple meanings depending on its doctrinal context.
Śramaṇa (Sanskrit: श्रमण; Pali: samaṇa) means "seeker, one who performs acts of austerity, ascetic".
The Bhagavad Gita (भगवद्गीता, in IAST,, lit. "The Song of God"), often referred to as the Gita, is a 700 verse Hindu scripture in Sanskrit that is part of the Hindu epic Mahabharata (chapters 23–40 of the 6th book of Mahabharata).
Bhakti (भक्ति) literally means "attachment, participation, fondness for, homage, faith, love, devotion, worship, purity".
Bodhi (Sanskrit: बोधि; Pali: bodhi) in Buddhism traditionally is translated into English with the term enlightenment, although its literal meaning is closer to "awakening".
Brahma (Sanskrit: ब्रह्मा, IAST: Brahmā) is a creator god in Hinduism.
The Brahma sūtras (ब्रह्म सूत्र) is a Sanskrit text, attributed to Badarayana, estimated to have been completed in its surviving form some time between 450 BCE and 200 CE.
In Hinduism, Brahman connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe.P. T. Raju (2006), Idealistic Thought of India, Routledge,, page 426 and Conclusion chapter part XII In major schools of Hindu philosophy, it is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists.For dualism school of Hinduism, see: Francis X. Clooney (2010), Hindu God, Christian God: How Reason Helps Break Down the Boundaries between Religions, Oxford University Press,, pages 51–58, 111–115;For monist school of Hinduism, see: B. Martinez-Bedard (2006), Types of Causes in Aristotle and Sankara, Thesis – Department of Religious Studies (Advisors: Kathryn McClymond and Sandra Dwyer), Georgia State University, pages 18–35 It is the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. Brahman as a metaphysical concept is the single binding unity behind diversity in all that exists in the universe. Brahman is a Vedic Sanskrit word, and it is conceptualized in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen, as the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world". Brahman is a key concept found in the Vedas, and it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads.Stephen Philips (1998), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Brahman to Derrida (Editor; Edward Craig), Routledge,, pages 1–4 The Vedas conceptualize Brahman as the Cosmic Principle. In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as Sat-cit-ānanda (truth-consciousness-bliss) and as the unchanging, permanent, highest reality. Brahman is discussed in Hindu texts with the concept of Atman (Soul, Self), personal, impersonal or Para Brahman, or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school. In dualistic schools of Hinduism such as the theistic Dvaita Vedanta, Brahman is different from Atman (soul) in each being.Michael Myers (2000), Brahman: A Comparative Theology, Routledge,, pages 124–127 In non-dual schools such as the Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is identical to the Atman, is everywhere and inside each living being, and there is connected spiritual oneness in all existence.Arvind Sharma (2007), Advaita Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass,, pages 19–40, 53–58, 79–86.
Buddha-nature or Buddha Principle refers to several related terms, most notably tathāgatagarbha and buddhadhātu.
In Buddhism, buddhahood (buddhatva; buddhatta or italic) is the condition or rank of a buddha "awakened one".
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Buddhist modernism (also referred to as Modern Buddhism, modernist Buddhism and Neo-Buddhism) are new movements based on modern era reinterpretations of Buddhism.
Revivalism is increased spiritual interest or renewal in the life of a church congregation or society, with a local, national or global effect.
Daisetsu Teitaro Suzuki (鈴木 大拙 貞太郎 Suzuki Daisetsu Teitarō; he rendered his name "Daisetz" in 1894; 18 October 1870 – 12 July 1966) was a Japanese author of books and essays on Buddhism, Zen (Chan) and Shin that were instrumental in spreading interest in both Zen and Shin (and Far Eastern philosophy in general) to the West.
Dhyana (IAST: Dhyāna) in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism means contemplation and meditation, though their technical context is different.
Digambara monk (also muni, sādhu) is a monk in the Digambara tradition of Jainism, and as such an occupant of the highest limb of the four-fold sangha.
Discourse (from Latin discursus, "running to and from") denotes written and spoken communications.
Dispensationalism is a religious interpretive system for the Bible.
In theology, divine light (also called divine radiance or divine refulgence) is an aspect of divine presence, specifically an unknown and mysterious ability of God, angels, or human beings to express themselves communicatively through spiritual means, rather than through physical capacities.
Doctrine (from doctrina, meaning "teaching", "instruction" or "doctrine") is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the essence of teachings in a given branch of knowledge or in a belief system.
Douglas Richard Hofstadter (born February 15, 1945) is an American professor of cognitive science whose research focuses on the sense of self in relation to the external world, consciousness, analogy-making, artistic creation, literary translation, and discovery in mathematics and physics.
Dvaita Vedanta (द्वैत वेदान्त) is a sub-school in the Vedanta tradition of Hindu philosophy.
Dvaitadvaita was proposed by Nimbarka, a Vaishnava Philosopher who hailed from Andhra Region.
The Eastern religions are the religions originating in East, South and Southeast Asia and thus having dissimilarities with Western religions.
Eckhart Tolle (born Ulrich Leonard Tölle, February 16, 1948) is a spiritual teacher.
Ego death is a "complete loss of subjective self-identity".
In philosophy, systems theory, science, and art, emergence occurs when "the whole is greater than the sum of the parts," meaning the whole has properties its parts do not have.
Entheogenic drugs have been used by various groups for thousands of years.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
Fanaa (فناء) is the Sufi term for "passing away" or "annihilation" (of the self).
The Four Noble Truths refer to and express the basic orientation of Buddhism in a short expression: we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, which are dukkha, "incapable of satisfying" and painful.
The Fourth Way is an approach to self-development described by George Gurdjieff which he developed over years of travel in the East (c. 1890 - 1912).
Francis Harry Compton Crick (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004) was a British molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist, most noted for being a co-discoverer of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953 with James Watson, work which was based partly on fundamental studies done by Rosalind Franklin, Raymond Gosling and Maurice Wilkins.
Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher (November 21, 1768 – February 12, 1834) was a German theologian, philosopher, and biblical scholar known for his attempt to reconcile the criticisms of the Enlightenment with traditional Protestant Christianity.
Gangaji (born Texas, 1942) is an American born spiritual teacher and author.
Gauḍapāda (c.6th century CE), also referred as, was an early medieval era scholar of the Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy.
Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
German idealism (also known as post-Kantian idealism, post-Kantian philosophy, or simply post-Kantianism) was a philosophical movement that emerged in Germany in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
Govinda Bhagavatpada (IAST) was the Guru of the Advaita philosopher, Adi Shankara.
The Great Awakening refers to a number of periods of religious revival in American Christian history.
Guru (गुरु, IAST: guru) is a Sanskrit term that connotes someone who is a "teacher, guide, expert, or master" of certain knowledge or field.
Sri H. W. L. Poonja (born Hariwansh Lal Poonja; 13 October 1910 (or later) in Punjab, British India – 6 September 1997 in Lucknow, India), known as "Poonjaji" or "Papaji", was a teacher of Self-enquiry as advocated by Ramana Maharshi.
Habitus is a system of embodied dispositions, tendencies that organize the ways in which individuals perceive the social world around them and react to it.
Hatha yoga is a branch of yoga.
Heinrich Dumoulin, S.J. (31 May 1905 – 21 July 1995) was a Jesuit theologian, a widely published author on Zen, and a professor of philosophy and history at Sophia University in Tokyo (where he was Professor Emeritus).
Henosis (ἕνωσις) is the classical Greek word for mystical "oneness", "union" or "unity." In Platonism, and especially Neoplatonism, the goal of henosis is union with what is fundamental in reality: the One (Τὸ Ἕν), the Source, or Monad.
Hermann Karl Hesse (2 July 1877 – 9 August 1962) was a German-born poet, novelist, and painter.
Hindu philosophy refers to a group of darśanas (philosophies, world views, teachings) that emerged in ancient India.
Several contemporary groups, collectively termed Hindu reform movements or Hindu revivalism, strive to introduce regeneration and reform to Hinduism, both in a religious or spiritual and in a societal sense.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.
A homunculus (Latin for "little person") is a representation of a small human being.
Horace Basil Barlow FRS (born 8 December 1921) is a British visual neuroscientist.
Hugo Makibi Enomiya-Lassalle (11 November 1898 in Gut Externbrock near Nieheim, Westphalia – 7 July 1990 in Münster, Westphalia) was a German Jesuit priest and one of the foremost teachers to embrace both Roman Catholic Christianity and Zen Buddhism.
The human body is the entire structure of a human being.
Illuminationist or ishraqi philosophy is a type of Islamic philosophy introduced by Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi in the twelfth century CE.
Indian religions, sometimes also termed as Dharmic faiths or religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism.
The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (I.A.S.T.) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanization of Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic languages.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
In the religion of Islam, two words are sometimes translated as philosophy—falsafa (literally "philosophy"), which refers to philosophy as well as logic, mathematics, and physics; and Kalam (literally "speech"), which refers to a rationalist form of Islamic philosophy and theology based on the interpretations of Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism as developed by medieval Muslim philosophers.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
In Hinduism and Jainism, a jiva (जीव,, alternative spelling jiwa; जीव,, alternative spelling jeev) is a living being, or any entity imbued with a life force.
Jñāna yoga, also known as Jnanamarga, is one of the several spiritual paths in Hinduism that emphasizes the "path of knowledge", also known as the "path of self-realization".
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Kabbalah (קַבָּלָה, literally "parallel/corresponding," or "received tradition") is an esoteric method, discipline, and school of thought that originated in Judaism.
Kenneth Earl Wilber II (born January 31, 1949) is an American writer on transpersonal psychology and his own integral theory, a four-quadrant grid which suggests the synthesis of all human knowledge and experience.
In Christian theology, kenosis (Greek:, kénōsis, lit.) is the 'self-emptying' of Jesus' own will and becoming entirely receptive to God's divine will.
Kenshō (見性) is a Japanese term from the Zen tradition.
Kevala jñāna means omniscience in Jainism and is roughly translated as absolute knowledge or supreme knowledge.
Krishna (Kṛṣṇa) is a major deity in Hinduism.
Lewis Sperry Chafer (February 27, 1871 – August 22, 1952) was an American theologian.
The light of Christ is a concept in Christianity deriving from several passages in the New Testament.
Madhukar (Sanskrit, literally: "Beloved, sweet like honey"; born 4 November 1957 in Stuttgart) is a German author, teacher in the Advaita tradition and guru.
Madhyamaka (Madhyamaka,; also known as Śūnyavāda) refers primarily to the later schools of Buddhist philosophy founded by Nagarjuna (150 CE to 250 CE).
Mahavira (IAST), also known as Vardhamāna, was the twenty-fourth Tirthankara (ford-maker) of Jainism which was revived and re-established by him.
Mahāyāna (Sanskrit for "Great Vehicle") is one of two (or three, if Vajrayana is counted separately) main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice.
Medieval philosophy is the philosophy in the era now known as medieval or the Middle Ages, the period roughly extending from the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century A.D. to the Renaissance in the 16th century.
Merit (puṇya, puñña) is a concept considered fundamental to Buddhist ethics.
Metanoia, a transliteration of the Greek μετάνοια, can be defined as "a transformative change of heart; especially: a spiritual conversion." The term suggests repudiation, change of mind, repentance, and atonement; but "conversion" and "reformation" may best approximate its connotation.
The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory.
Moksha (मोक्ष), also called vimoksha, vimukti and mukti, is a term in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism which refers to various forms of emancipation, liberation, and release. In its soteriological and eschatological senses, it refers to freedom from saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth. In its epistemological and psychological senses, moksha refers to freedom from ignorance: self-realization and self-knowledge. In Hindu traditions, moksha is a central concept and the utmost aim to be attained through three paths during human life; these three paths are dharma (virtuous, proper, moral life), artha (material prosperity, income security, means of life), and kama (pleasure, sensuality, emotional fulfillment). Together, these four concepts are called Puruṣārtha in Hinduism. In some schools of Indian religions, moksha is considered equivalent to and used interchangeably with other terms such as vimoksha, vimukti, kaivalya, apavarga, mukti, nihsreyasa and nirvana. However, terms such as moksha and nirvana differ and mean different states between various schools of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.See.
Sanskrit or Prakrit mokkha refers to the liberation or salvation of a soul from saṃsāra, the cycle of birth and death.
Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.
Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies (religious experiences during alternate states of consciousness), together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths, legends, and magic may be related to them.
In philosophy, naturalism is the "idea or belief that only natural (as opposed to supernatural or spiritual) laws and forces operate in the world." Adherents of naturalism (i.e., naturalists) assert that natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural universe, that the changing universe at every stage is a product of these laws.
Neoplatonism is a term used to designate a strand of Platonic philosophy that began with Plotinus in the third century AD against the background of Hellenistic philosophy and religion.
New Age is a term applied to a range of spiritual or religious beliefs and practices that developed in Western nations during the 1970s.
A new religious movement (NRM), also known as a new religion or an alternative spirituality, is a religious or spiritual group that has modern origins and which occupies a peripheral place within its society's dominant religious culture.
(निर्वाण nirvāṇa; निब्बान nibbāna; णिव्वाण ṇivvāṇa) literally means "blown out", as in an oil lamp.
Nirvikalpa (Sanskrit: निर्विकल्प) is a Sanskrit adjective with the general sense of "not admitting an alternative", formed by applying the contra-existential prepositional prefix ni ("away, without, not") to the term vikalpa ("alternative, variant thought or conception").
The Noble Eightfold Path (ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo, āryāṣṭāṅgamārga) is an early summary of the path of Buddhist practices leading to liberation from samsara, the painful cycle of rebirth.
In spirituality, nondualism, also called non-duality, means "not two" or "one undivided without a second".
Nous, sometimes equated to intellect or intelligence, is a philosophical term for the faculty of the human mind which is described in classical philosophy as necessary for understanding what is true or real.
Numinous is an English adjective, derived from the Latin numen, meaning "arousing spiritual or religious emotion; mysterious or awe-inspiring".
Pali, or Magadhan, is a Middle Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian subcontinent.
Perennial philosophy (philosophia perennis), also referred to as Perennialism and perennial wisdom, is a perspective in modern spirituality that views each of the world's religious traditions as sharing a single, metaphysical truth or origin from which all esoteric and exoteric knowledge and doctrine has grown.
Prajñā (Sanskrit) or paññā (Pāli) "wisdom" is insight in the true nature of reality, namely primarily anicca (impermanence), dukkha (dissatisfaction or suffering), anattā (non-self) and śūnyatā (emptiness).
Prasthanatrayi (प्रस्थानत्रयी, IAST), literally, three sources (or axioms), refers to the three canonical texts of Hindu philosophy, especially of the Vedanta schools.
Pūjā or Poojan or Poosei (Thamizh) (Devanagari: पूजा) is a prayer ritual performed by Hindus of devotional worship to one or more deities, or to host and honor a guest, or one to spiritually celebrate an event.
Rajneesh (born Chandra Mohan Jain, 11 December 1931 – 19 January 1990), also known as Acharya Rajneesh, Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh, and latterly as Osho, was an Indian godman and leader of the Rajneesh movement.
The Rajneesh movement comprises persons inspired by the Indian mystic Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh (1931–1990), also known as Osho, particularly initiated disciples who are referred to as "neo-sannyasins" or simply "sannyasins".
Ramakrishna Mission named after Ramakrishna Paramhamsa is an Indian socio-religious organisation which forms the core of a worldwide spiritual movement known as the Ramakrishna Movement or the Vedanta Movement.
Ramana Maharshi (30 December 1879 – 14 April 1950) was a Hindu sage and jivanmukta.
Rebirth in Buddhism refers to its teaching that the actions of a person lead to a new existence after death, in endless cycles called saṃsāra.
Reincarnation is the philosophical or religious concept that an aspect of a living being starts a new life in a different physical body or form after each biological death.
Religion in the United States is characterized by a diversity of religious beliefs and practices.
Religious conversion is the adoption of a set of beliefs identified with one particular religious denomination to the exclusion of others.
In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Saṃsāra is a Sanskrit word that means "wandering" or "world", with the connotation of cyclic, circuitous change.
Salvation (salvatio; sōtēría; yāšaʕ; al-ḵalaṣ) is being saved or protected from harm or being saved or delivered from a dire situation.
Samadhi (Sanskrit: समाधि), also called samāpatti, in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism and yogic schools refers to a state of meditative consciousness.
In Jainism, Samavasarana or Samosharana "Refuge to All" is a term for the divine preaching hall of the Tirthankara.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sri Satchidanandendra Saraswati Swamiji (5 January 1880 – 5 August 1975) was the founder of the Adhyatma Prakasha Karyalaya in Holenarasipura, Hassan district, Karnataka, India.
(오 o; ngộ) is a Japanese Buddhist term for awakening, "comprehension; understanding".
Self-realization is an expression used in Western psychology, philosophy, and spirituality; and in Indian religions.
Sensualism is the persistent or excessive pursuit of sensual pleasures and interests.
Shiva (Sanskrit: शिव, IAST: Śiva, lit. the auspicious one) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism.
Shuddadvaita (Sanskrit: "pure non-dualism") is the "purely non-dual" philosophy propounded by Vallabhacharya (1479-1531 CE), the founding philosopher and guru of the ("tradition of Vallabha") or ("The path of grace"), a Hindu Vaishnava tradition focused on the worship of Krishna.
Siddha (Tamil "great thinker/wise man"; Sanskrit, "perfected one") is a term that is used widely in Indian religions and culture.
Siddhartha is a novel by Hermann Hesse that deals with the spiritual journey of self-discovery of a man named Siddhartha during the time of the Gautama Buddha.
Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.
In many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul. Soul or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc.
Squatting is a posture where the weight of the body is on the feet (as with standing) but the knees and hips are bent.
Sri Aurobindo (born Aurobindo Ghose; 15 August 1872 – 5 December 1950) was an Indian philosopher, yogi, guru, poet, and nationalist.
Suffering, or pain in a broad sense, may be an experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with the perception of harm or threat of harm in an individual.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Swami Vivekananda (12 January 1863 – 4 July 1902), born Narendranath Datta, was an Indian Hindu monk, a chief disciple of the 19th-century Indian mystic Ramakrishna.
Tāpatraya refers to the three sources of Tāpa (literally, heat, or suffering) recognised in Hindu philosophy.
The Astonishing Hypothesis is a 1994 book by scientist Francis Crick about consciousness.
The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature is a book by Harvard University psychologist and philosopher William James.
Theory of mind is the ability to attribute mental states—beliefs, intents, desires, emotions, knowledge, etc.—to oneself, and to others, and to understand that others have beliefs, desires, intentions, and perspectives that are different from one's own.
Theosophy is an esoteric religious movement established in the United States during the late nineteenth century.
Theravāda (Pali, literally "school of the elder monks") is a branch of Buddhism that uses the Buddha's teaching preserved in the Pāli Canon as its doctrinal core.
Thubten Yeshe (1935–1984) was a Tibetan lama who, while exiled in Nepal, co-founded Kopan Monastery (1969) and the Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition (1975).
In Jainism, a tirthankara (Sanskrit:; English: literally a 'ford-maker') is a saviour and spiritual teacher of the dharma (righteous path).
Transcendentalism is a philosophical movement that developed in the late 1820s and 1830s in the eastern United States.
The tree of the knowledge of good and evil is one of two specific trees in the story of the Garden of Eden in Genesis 2–3, along with the tree of life.
The Trimūrti (Sanskrit: त्रिमूर्ति, "three forms") is the trinity of supreme divinity in Hinduism in which the cosmic functions of creation, maintenance, and destruction are personified as a triad of deities, typically Brahma the creator, Vishnu the preserver, and Shiva the destroyer, though individual denominations may vary from that particular line-up.
True self (also known as real self, authentic self, original self and vulnerable self) and false self (also known as fake self, idealized self, superficial self and pseudo self) are psychological concepts often used in connection with narcissism.
Universalism is a theological and philosophical concept that some ideas have universal application or applicability.
The Upanishads (उपनिषद्), a part of the Vedas, are ancient Sanskrit texts that contain some of the central philosophical concepts and ideas of Hinduism, some of which are shared with religious traditions like Buddhism and Jainism.
Uparati, is a Sanskrit word and it literally means "cessation, quietism, stopping worldly action".
Vedanta (Sanskrit: वेदान्त, IAST) or Uttara Mīmāṃsā is one of the six orthodox (''āstika'') schools of Hindu philosophy.
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.
The Vipassanā movement, also called the Insight Meditation Movement, refers to a number of branches of modern Theravāda Buddhism which stress insight into the three marks of existence as the main means to attain awakening and become a stream-enterer.
Vipassanā (Pāli) or vipaśyanā (विपश्यन) in the Buddhist tradition means insight into the true nature of reality.
Vishishtadvaita (IAST; विशिष्टाद्वैत) is one of the most popular schools of the Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy.
Vishnu (Sanskrit: विष्णु, IAST) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism, and the Supreme Being in its Vaishnavism tradition.
The Vivekachudamani (Sanskrit: विवेकचूडामणि) is an introductory treatise to Advaita Vedanta tradition of Hinduism.
Wayne Lee Proudfoot (born November 17, 1939) is an American scholar of religion and has written several works in that field, specializing in the philosophy of religion.
Western esotericism (also called esotericism and esoterism), also known as the Western mystery tradition, is a term under which scholars have categorised a wide range of loosely related ideas and movements which have developed within Western society.
William Blake (28 November 1757 – 12 August 1827) was an English poet, painter, and printmaker.
William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States.
The Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali are a collection of 196 Indian sutras (aphorisms) on the theory and practice of yoga.
Zazen (literally "seated meditation"; 座禅;, pronounced) is a meditative discipline that is typically the primary practice of the Zen Buddhist tradition.
Zen (p; translit) is a school of Mahayana Buddhism that originated in China during the Tang dynasty as Chan Buddhism.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
Enlightenment (religious), Enlightenment (spirituality), God realization, God realized, God-Realization, God-realization, God-realized, Spiritual Illumination, Spiritual awakening, Spiritual enlightenment, Spiritual journey.