83 relations: Age of Enlightenment, Alara Kalama, Anatta, Arhat, Śūnyatā, Bhagavad Gita, Bodhi, Bodhi Day, Bodhisattva, Buddha-nature, Buddhahood, Buddhism and psychology, Buddhist paths to liberation, Buddhist philosophy, Buddhology, Calvinism, Christian revival, D. T. Suzuki, Dhyāna in Buddhism, Dukkha, Enlightenment (spiritual), Fetter (Buddhism), Four Noble Truths, Four stages of enlightenment, Friedrich Schleiermacher, Full moon, Gautama Buddha, German idealism, Great Awakening, Heinrich Dumoulin, Hongaku, Illuminationism, Impermanence, Johannes Bronkhorst, John Locke, Karma, Ken Wilber, Kenshō, Kleshas (Buddhism), Mahayana, Max Müller, Moksha, Natural religion, Nichiren Buddhism, Nirvana, Nirvana (Buddhism), Nondualism, Perennial philosophy, Poya, Prajñā (Buddhism), ..., Pratītyasamutpāda, Reincarnation, Religion in the United States, Rinzai school, Romanticism, Saṃsāra, Saṅkhāra, Sacca, Sambuddhatva jayanthi, Satori, Self-realization, Sensualism, Subitism, Sutta Pitaka, Tathāgata, Tathātā, The Varieties of Religious Experience, Theravada, Transcendentalism, True self and false self, Two truths doctrine, Uddaka Ramaputta, Upanishads, Vedas, Vidyā, Vipassanā, Wayne Proudfoot, William Blake, William James, Wisdom, Yogachara, Zazen, Zen. Expand index (33 more) » « Shrink index
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Alara Kalama (IAST Ārāḷa Kālāma) was a hermit Brahmin saint and a teacher of yogic meditation.
In Buddhism, the term anattā (Pali) or anātman (Sanskrit) refers to the doctrine of "non-self", that there is no unchanging, permanent self, soul or essence in living beings.
Theravada Buddhism defines arhat (Sanskrit) or arahant (Pali) as "one who is worthy" or as a "perfected person" having attained nirvana.
Śūnyatā (Sanskrit; Pali: suññatā), pronounced ‘shoonyataa’, translated into English most often as emptiness and sometimes voidness, is a Buddhist concept which has multiple meanings depending on its doctrinal context.
The Bhagavad Gita (भगवद्गीता, in IAST,, lit. "The Song of God"), often referred to as the Gita, is a 700 verse Hindu scripture in Sanskrit that is part of the Hindu epic Mahabharata (chapters 23–40 of the 6th book of Mahabharata).
Bodhi (Sanskrit: बोधि; Pali: bodhi) in Buddhism traditionally is translated into English with the term enlightenment, although its literal meaning is closer to "awakening".
Bodhi Day is the Buddhist holiday that commemorates the day that the historical Buddha, Siddhartha Gautama (Shakyamuni), experienced enlightenment, also known as bodhi in Sanskrit and Pali.
In Buddhism, Bodhisattva is the Sanskrit term for anyone who has generated Bodhicitta, a spontaneous wish and compassionate mind to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings. Bodhisattvas are a popular subject in Buddhist art.
Buddha-nature or Buddha Principle refers to several related terms, most notably tathāgatagarbha and buddhadhātu.
In Buddhism, buddhahood (buddhatva; buddhatta or italic) is the condition or rank of a buddha "awakened one".
Buddhism includes an analysis of human psychology, emotion, cognition, behavior and motivation along with therapeutic practices.
The Buddhist tradition gives a wide variety of descriptions of the Buddhist path (magga) to liberation.
Buddhist philosophy refers to the philosophical investigations and systems of inquiry that developed among various Buddhist schools in India following the death of the Buddha and later spread throughout Asia.
Buddhology is the study of the Buddha or Buddhahood.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
Revivalism is increased spiritual interest or renewal in the life of a church congregation or society, with a local, national or global effect.
Daisetsu Teitaro Suzuki (鈴木 大拙 貞太郎 Suzuki Daisetsu Teitarō; he rendered his name "Daisetz" in 1894; 18 October 1870 – 12 July 1966) was a Japanese author of books and essays on Buddhism, Zen (Chan) and Shin that were instrumental in spreading interest in both Zen and Shin (and Far Eastern philosophy in general) to the West.
In Buddhism, Dhyāna (Sanskrit) or Jhāna (Pali) is a series of cultivated states of mind, which lead to a "state of perfect equanimity and awareness (upekkhii-sati-piirisuddhl)." It is commonly translated as meditation, and is also used in Hinduism and Jainism.
Dukkha (Pāli; Sanskrit: duḥkha; Tibetan: སྡུག་བསྔལ་ sdug bsngal, pr. "duk-ngel") is an important Buddhist concept, commonly translated as "suffering", "pain", "unsatisfactoriness" or "stress".
Enlightenment is the "full comprehension of a situation".
In Buddhism, a mental fetter, chain or bond (Pāli: samyojana, saŋyojana, saññojana) shackles a sentient being to ṃsāra, the cycle of lives with dukkha.
The Four Noble Truths refer to and express the basic orientation of Buddhism in a short expression: we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, which are dukkha, "incapable of satisfying" and painful.
The four stages of enlightenment in Theravada Buddhism are the four progressive stages culminating in full enlightenment as an Arahant.
Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher (November 21, 1768 – February 12, 1834) was a German theologian, philosopher, and biblical scholar known for his attempt to reconcile the criticisms of the Enlightenment with traditional Protestant Christianity.
The full moon is the lunar phase when the Moon appears fully illuminated from Earth's perspective.
Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
German idealism (also known as post-Kantian idealism, post-Kantian philosophy, or simply post-Kantianism) was a philosophical movement that emerged in Germany in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
The Great Awakening refers to a number of periods of religious revival in American Christian history.
Heinrich Dumoulin, S.J. (31 May 1905 – 21 July 1995) was a Jesuit theologian, a widely published author on Zen, and a professor of philosophy and history at Sophia University in Tokyo (where he was Professor Emeritus).
Hongaku is an East Asian Buddhist doctrine often translated as "inherent", "innate", "intrinsic" or "original" enlightenment and is the view that all sentient beings already are enlightened or awakened in some way.
Illuminationist or ishraqi philosophy is a type of Islamic philosophy introduced by Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi in the twelfth century CE.
Impermanence, also called Anicca or Anitya, is one of the essential doctrines and a part of three marks of existence in Buddhism.
Johannes Bronkhorst (born 17 July 1946, Schiedam) is an Indologist and specialist on early Buddhism.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
Karma (karma,; italic) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect).
Kenneth Earl Wilber II (born January 31, 1949) is an American writer on transpersonal psychology and his own integral theory, a four-quadrant grid which suggests the synthesis of all human knowledge and experience.
Kenshō (見性) is a Japanese term from the Zen tradition.
Kleshas (kleśa; किलेस kilesa; ཉོན་མོངས། nyon mongs), in Buddhism, are mental states that cloud the mind and manifest in unwholesome actions.
Mahāyāna (Sanskrit for "Great Vehicle") is one of two (or three, if Vajrayana is counted separately) main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice.
Friedrich Max Müller (6 December 1823 – 28 October 1900), generally known as Max Müller, was a German-born philologist and Orientalist, who lived and studied in Britain for most of his life.
Moksha (मोक्ष), also called vimoksha, vimukti and mukti, is a term in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism which refers to various forms of emancipation, liberation, and release. In its soteriological and eschatological senses, it refers to freedom from saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth. In its epistemological and psychological senses, moksha refers to freedom from ignorance: self-realization and self-knowledge. In Hindu traditions, moksha is a central concept and the utmost aim to be attained through three paths during human life; these three paths are dharma (virtuous, proper, moral life), artha (material prosperity, income security, means of life), and kama (pleasure, sensuality, emotional fulfillment). Together, these four concepts are called Puruṣārtha in Hinduism. In some schools of Indian religions, moksha is considered equivalent to and used interchangeably with other terms such as vimoksha, vimukti, kaivalya, apavarga, mukti, nihsreyasa and nirvana. However, terms such as moksha and nirvana differ and mean different states between various schools of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.See.
Natural religion most frequently means the "religion of nature", in which God, the soul, spirits, and all objects of the supernatural are considered as part of nature and not separate from it.
Nichiren Buddhism is a branch of Mahayana Buddhism based on the teachings of the 13th century Japanese Buddhist priest Nichiren (1222–1282) and is one of the "Kamakura Buddhism" schools.
(निर्वाण nirvāṇa; निब्बान nibbāna; णिव्वाण ṇivvāṇa) literally means "blown out", as in an oil lamp.
Nirvana (Sanskrit:; Pali) is the earliest and most common term used to describe the goal of the Buddhist path.
In spirituality, nondualism, also called non-duality, means "not two" or "one undivided without a second".
Perennial philosophy (philosophia perennis), also referred to as Perennialism and perennial wisdom, is a perspective in modern spirituality that views each of the world's religious traditions as sharing a single, metaphysical truth or origin from which all esoteric and exoteric knowledge and doctrine has grown.
Poya is the name given to the Lunar monthly Buddhist holiday of Uposatha in Sri Lanka, where it is a civil and bank holiday.
Prajñā (Sanskrit) or paññā (Pāli) "wisdom" is insight in the true nature of reality, namely primarily anicca (impermanence), dukkha (dissatisfaction or suffering), anattā (non-self) and śūnyatā (emptiness).
Pratītyasamutpāda (प्रतीत्यसमुत्पाद pratītyasamutpāda; पटिच्चसमुप्पाद paṭiccasamuppāda), commonly translated as dependent origination, or dependent arising, is the principle that all dharmas ("phenomena") arise in dependence upon other dharmas: "if this exists, that exists; if this ceases to exist, that also ceases to exist".
Reincarnation is the philosophical or religious concept that an aspect of a living being starts a new life in a different physical body or form after each biological death.
Religion in the United States is characterized by a diversity of religious beliefs and practices.
The Rinzai school (Japanese: Rinzai-shū, Chinese: 临济宗 línjì zōng) is one of three sects of Zen in Japanese Buddhism (with Sōtō and Ōbaku).
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Saṃsāra is a Sanskrit word that means "wandering" or "world", with the connotation of cyclic, circuitous change.
(Pali; Sanskrit) is a term figuring prominently in Buddhism.
Sacca (Pāli; Sanskrit Satya) word meaning "real" or "true".
Sambuddhatva jayanthi, also known as Sambuddha jayanthi, is a religious festival in relation with the Vesak.
(오 o; ngộ) is a Japanese Buddhist term for awakening, "comprehension; understanding".
Self-realization is an expression used in Western psychology, philosophy, and spirituality; and in Indian religions.
Sensualism is the persistent or excessive pursuit of sensual pleasures and interests.
The term subitism points to sudden enlightenment, the idea that insight is attained all at once.
The Sutta Pitaka (or Suttanta Pitaka; Basket of Discourse; cf Sanskrit सूत्र पिटक) is the second of the three divisions of the Tripitaka or Pali Canon, the Pali collection of Buddhist writings of Theravada Buddhism.
Tathāgata is a Pali and Sanskrit word; Gotama Buddha uses it when referring to himself in the Pāli Canon.
Tathātā (tathātā; tathatā) is variously translated as "thusness" or "suchness".
The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature is a book by Harvard University psychologist and philosopher William James.
Theravāda (Pali, literally "school of the elder monks") is a branch of Buddhism that uses the Buddha's teaching preserved in the Pāli Canon as its doctrinal core.
Transcendentalism is a philosophical movement that developed in the late 1820s and 1830s in the eastern United States.
True self (also known as real self, authentic self, original self and vulnerable self) and false self (also known as fake self, idealized self, superficial self and pseudo self) are psychological concepts often used in connection with narcissism.
The Buddhist doctrine of the two truths differentiates between two levels of satya (Sanskrit), meaning truth or "really existing" in the discourse of the Buddha: the "conventional" or "provisional" truth, and the "ultimate" truth.
Uddaka Rāmaputta was a meditator, probably of Brahmanical background and a teacher of meditation.
The Upanishads (उपनिषद्), a part of the Vedas, are ancient Sanskrit texts that contain some of the central philosophical concepts and ideas of Hinduism, some of which are shared with religious traditions like Buddhism and Jainism.
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.
Vidyā or Vidhya means "correct knowledge" or "clarity" in several South Asian languages such as Sanskrit, Pali & Sinhala.
Vipassanā (Pāli) or vipaśyanā (विपश्यन) in the Buddhist tradition means insight into the true nature of reality.
Wayne Lee Proudfoot (born November 17, 1939) is an American scholar of religion and has written several works in that field, specializing in the philosophy of religion.
William Blake (28 November 1757 – 12 August 1827) was an English poet, painter, and printmaker.
William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States.
Wisdom or sapience is the ability to think and act using knowledge, experience, understanding, common sense, and insight, especially in a mature or utilitarian manner.
Yogachara (IAST:; literally "yoga practice"; "one whose practice is yoga") is an influential school of Buddhist philosophy and psychology emphasizing phenomenology and ontology through the interior lens of meditative and yogic practices.
Zazen (literally "seated meditation"; 座禅;, pronounced) is a meditative discipline that is typically the primary practice of the Zen Buddhist tradition.
Zen (p; translit) is a school of Mahayana Buddhism that originated in China during the Tang dynasty as Chan Buddhism.