319 relations: Abscess, Acoustics, Agnosticism, Albert Einstein, Aldo Pontremoli, Alessandro Volta, Alpha particle, Aluminium, American Journal of Physics, Aqueous homogeneous reactor, Argentina, Argonne National Laboratory, Arthur Compton, Arthur H. Rosenfeld, Association of Los Alamos Scientists, Astronomy, Atomic Age, Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Atomic nucleus, Atomic number, Atomic physics, August Kopff, Ausonium, B Reactor, Barium, Barnard Medal for Meritorious Service to Science, Batavia, Illinois, Benito Mussolini, Berlin Charter Township, Michigan, Beryllium, Beta decay, Binding energy, Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, Bohr model, Bose–Einstein statistics, Boson, Bruno Pontecorvo, C. P. Snow, Calcium fluoride, Campo de' Fiori, Carnegie Institution for Science, Catholic Church, Chen-Ning Yang, Chicago, Chicago Pile-1, Classical electromagnetism, Classical mechanics, Columbia University, Conservation of energy, Control rod, ..., Corriere della Sera, Cosmic ray, Curie, Diffusion equation, DuPont, Edoardo Amaldi, Edward Teller, Egon Bretscher, Einstein–Szilárd letter, Eldorado Mining and Refining, Electric motor, Electron, Emilio Segrè, Enriched uranium, Enrico Fermi Award, Enrico Fermi Institute, Enrico Fermi Nuclear Generating Station, Enrico Fermi Nuclear Power Plant (Italy), Enrico Persico, Equivalence principle, Ernest Lawrence, Ernest Rutherford, Ettore Majorana, Euclidean space, Eugene T. Booth, Eugene Wigner, Experimental physics, Fellow of the Royal Society, Fermi coordinates, Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, Fermi paradox, Fermi problem, Fermi's golden rule, Fermi's interaction, Fermi–Dirac statistics, Fermilab, Fermion, Fermium, Florence, Fluorine, Fourier analysis, Francis G. Slack, Franco Rasetti, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Franklin Medal, Frédéric Joliot-Curie, Freemasonry, Fritz Strassmann, Fundamental interaction, G. N. Glasoe, Gamma ray, General relativity, Geoffrey Chew, George Washington University, Gian Carlo Wick, Giovanni Giorgi, Grand Orient of Italy, Graphite, Gravity, Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro, Gyroscope, Half-life, Hanford Site, Hans Bethe, Hans von Halban, Harold Agnew, Harvard University, Hendrik Lorentz, Herbert L. Anderson, Hesperium, History of the Teller–Ulam design, Hughes Medal, Ida Noddack, Ideal gas, Identical particles, Induced radioactivity, Interim Committee, Irène Joliot-Curie, Isidor Isaac Rabi, Italian Racial Laws, Ivy Mike, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Jack Steinberger, James Bryant Conant, James Chadwick, Jan Tinbergen, Jerome Isaac Friedman, John R. Dunning, John von Neumann, Laura Fermi, Lead, Leiden, Leiden University, Leo Szilard, Leona Woods, Lepton, Lew Kowarski, Lise Meitner, List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1950, List of people whose names are used in chemical element names, List of things named after Enrico Fermi, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, Luigi Puccianti, Magnesium, Manhattan Project, Maria Goeppert-Mayer, Marvin Leonard Goldberger, Masonic lodge, Mass, Mass–energy equivalence, Mathematical physics, Mathematics, Matteucci Medal, Max Born, Max Planck Medal, Mechanics, Medal for Merit, Metallurgical Laboratory, Mildred Dresselhaus, Muon, NASA, National Academy of Sciences, National Atomic Energy Commission, National Defense Research Committee, National Fascist Party, Nature (journal), Nazi Germany, Nazism, Nello Carrara, Neutrino, Neutron, Neutron capture, Neutron moderator, Neutron poison, Neutron scattering, Neutron source, Neutron temperature, Nicholas Metropolis, Niels Bohr, Nitrogen, Nobel Prize in Physics, Nuclear chain reaction, Nuclear fission, Nuclear fission product, Nuclear fusion, Nuclear physics, Nuclear power, Nuclear reaction, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear reactor physics, Nuclear weapon, Nucleon, Nuclide, Nuovo Cimento, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Oak Woods Cemetery, Office of Scientific Research and Development, Oppenheimer security hearing, Optics, Orso Mario Corbino, Otto Hahn, Otto Robert Frisch, Owen Chamberlain, Oxygen, Paraffin wax, Partial differential equation, Particle accelerator, Particle physics, Pascual Jordan, Paul Dirac, Paul Ehrenfest, Pauli exclusion principle, Physical Review, Physical system, Physics, Physikalische Zeitschrift, Pion, Pisa, Platinum, Plutonium, Polonium, Potential energy, Princeton University, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Project Y, Public address system, Pupin Hall, Quantum mechanics, Quark, Quark model, RA-1 Enrico Fermi, Radioactive decay, Radium, Radon, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Rayleigh–Taylor instability, Research reactor, Richard Garwin, Richard Rhodes, Rockefeller Foundation, Roman College, Rome, Royal Academy of Italy, Rumford Prize, S-1 Executive Committee, Sam Treiman, Samuel Goudsmit, Santa Croce, Florence, Sapienza University of Rome, Sardinia, Scalar (physics), Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, Shoichi Sakata, Silver, Society of Jesus, Sodium, Solid-state physics, Speed of light, Spin–orbit interaction, Spiral galaxy, Squash (sport), Stagg Field, Stanislaw Ulam, Statistical mechanics, Statistics, Stockholm, Stomach cancer, Stone & Webster, Technetium, Tensor, Tensor calculus, The New York Times, The Science of Nature, Theoretical physics, Thermonuclear fusion, Thorium, Time (magazine), Transuranium element, Trinity (nuclear test), Trino, Tritium, Tsung-Dao Lee, Tullio Levi-Civita, United States Atomic Energy Commission, United States Department of Energy, United States Department of Energy national laboratories, United States Department of the Navy, University of Cagliari, University of Chicago, University of Florence, University of Göttingen, Uranium, Uranium oxide, Via Panisperna boys, Victor Weisskopf, Vito Volterra, Weak interaction, Werner Heisenberg, Wet nurse, Willis Lamb, Wolfgang Pauli, World government, World line, World War II, X-10 Graphite Reactor, X-ray crystallography, Xenon-135. 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An abscess is a collection of pus that has built up within the tissue of the body.
Acoustics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound.
Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Aldo Pontremoli (19 January 1896 – 25 May 1928) was an Italian physicist who held a chair of theoretical physics at the University of Milan from 1926 and who founded and directed the Institute of Advanced Physics at the University of Milan from 1924 until his disappearance and presumed death in May 1928.
Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (18 February 1745 – 5 March 1827) was an Italian physicist, chemist, and a pioneer of electricity and power,Giuliano Pancaldi, "Volta: Science and culture in the age of enlightenment", Princeton University Press, 2003.
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
The American Journal of Physics is a monthly, peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Association of Physics Teachers and the American Institute of Physics.
Aqueous homogeneous reactors (AHR) are a type of nuclear reactor in which soluble nuclear salts (usually uranium sulfate or uranium nitrate) are dissolved in water.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Argonne National Laboratory is a science and engineering research national laboratory operated by the University of Chicago Argonne LLC for the United States Department of Energy located near Lemont, Illinois, outside Chicago.
Arthur Holly Compton (September 10, 1892 – March 15, 1962) was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1927 for his 1923 discovery of the Compton effect, which demonstrated the particle nature of electromagnetic radiation.
Arthur Hinton "Art" Rosenfeld (June 22, 1926 – January 27, 2017) was a UC Berkeley physicist and California energy commissioner, dubbed the "godfather of energy efficiency", for developing new standards which helped improve energy efficiency in California and subsequently worldwide.
The Association of Los Alamos Scientists (ALAS) was founded on 30 August 1945, by a group of scientists, who had worked on the development of the atomic bomb at the Los Alamos Laboratory, a division of the Manhattan Project.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
The Atomic Age, also known as the Atomic Era, is the period of history following the detonation of the first nuclear ("atomic") bomb, Trinity, on July 16, 1945, during World War II.
During the final stage of World War II, the United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
Atomic physics is the field of physics that studies atoms as an isolated system of electrons and an atomic nucleus.
August Kopff (February 5, 1882 – April 25, 1960) was a German astronomer and discoverer of several comets and asteroids.
Ausonium (atomic symbol Ao) was the name assigned to the element with atomic number 93, now known as neptunium.
The B Reactor at the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington, was the first large-scale nuclear reactor ever built.
Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56.
The Barnard Medal for Meritorious Service to Science was established in 1889 by the will of Columbia University president Frederick A. P. Barnard, and has been awarded by Columbia University, based on recommendations by the National Academy of Science, every 5 years since 1895.
Batavia is a city in DuPage and Kane counties in the U.S. state of Illinois.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
Berlin Charter Township is a charter township of Monroe County in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
Binding energy (also called separation energy) is the minimum energy required to disassemble a system of particles into separate parts.
The Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society is an academic journal on the history of science published annually by the Royal Society.
In atomic physics, the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model or Bohr diagram, introduced by Niels Bohr and Ernest Rutherford in 1913, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus—similar to the structure of the Solar System, but with attraction provided by electrostatic forces rather than gravity.
In quantum statistics, Bose–Einstein statistics (or more colloquially B–E statistics) is one of two possible ways in which a collection of non-interacting indistinguishable particles may occupy a set of available discrete energy states, at thermodynamic equilibrium.
In quantum mechanics, a boson is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics.
Bruno Pontecorvo (Бру́но Макси́мович Понтеко́рво, Bruno Maksimovich Pontecorvo; 22 August 1913 – 24 September 1993) was an Italian nuclear physicist, an early assistant of Enrico Fermi and the author of numerous studies in high energy physics, especially on neutrinos.
Charles Percy Snow, Baron Snow, CBE (15 October 1905 – 1 July 1980) was a novelist and English physical chemist who also served in several important positions in the British Civil Service and briefly in the UK government.
Calcium fluoride is the inorganic compound of the elements calcium and fluorine with the formula CaF2.
Campo de' Fiori (literally "field of flowers") is a rectangular square south of Piazza Navona in Rome, Italy, at the border between rione Parione and rione Regola.
The Carnegie Institution of Washington (the organization's legal name), known also for public purposes as the Carnegie Institution for Science (CIS), is an organization in the United States established to fund and perform scientific research.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Chen-Ning Yang or Yang Zhenning (born October 1, 1922) is a Chinese physicist who works on statistical mechanics and particle physics.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
Chicago Pile-1 (CP-1) was the world's first nuclear reactor.
Classical electromagnetism or classical electrodynamics is a branch of theoretical physics that studies the interactions between electric charges and currents using an extension of the classical Newtonian model.
Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
In physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant, it is said to be ''conserved'' over time.
Control rods are used in nuclear reactors to control the fission rate of uranium and plutonium.
The Corriere della Sera (English: Evening Courier) is an Italian daily newspaper published in Milan with an average daily circulation of 410,242 copies in December 2015.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
The curie (symbol Ci) is a non-SI unit of radioactivity originally defined in 1910.
The diffusion equation is a partial differential equation.
Edoardo Amaldi (5 September 1908 – 5 December 1989) was an Italian physicist.
Edward Teller (Teller Ede; January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-American theoretical physicist who is known colloquially as "the father of the hydrogen bomb", although he claimed he did not care for the title.
Egon Bretscher (1901–1973) was a Swiss-born British chemist and nuclear physicist and Head of the Nuclear Physics Division from 1948 to 1966 at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, also known as Harwell Laboratory, in Harwell, United Kingdom.
The Einstein–Szilárd letter was a letter written by Leó Szilárd and signed by Albert Einstein that was sent to the United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt on August 2, 1939.
The Eldorado Mining and Refining Limited company was originally organized in 1927 as Eldorado Gold Mines Limited to develop a gold mine in Manitoba.
An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
Emilio Gino Segrè (1 February 1905 – 22 April 1989) was an Italian-American physicist and Nobel laureate, who discovered the elements technetium and astatine, and the antiproton, a subatomic antiparticle, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1959.
Enriched uranium is a type of uranium in which the percent composition of uranium-235 has been increased through the process of isotope separation.
The Enrico Fermi Award is an award honoring scientists of international stature for their lifetime achievement in the development, use, or production of energy.
The Institute for Nuclear Studies was founded September 1945 as part of the University of Chicago with Samuel King Allison as director.
The Enrico Fermi Nuclear Generating Station is a nuclear power plant on the shore of Lake Erie near Monroe, in Frenchtown Charter Township, Michigan on approximately 1,000 acres.
Enrico Fermi Nuclear Power Plant was a nuclear power plant at Trino (often referred to as ‘Trino Vercellese’, meaning ‘Trino in the Province of Vercelli’), in north-west Italy.
Enrico Persico (August 9, 1900 – June 17, 1969) was an Italian physicist notable for propagating the field of quantum mechanics in Italy.
In the theory of general relativity, the equivalence principle is any of several related concepts dealing with the equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass, and to Albert Einstein's observation that the gravitational "force" as experienced locally while standing on a massive body (such as the Earth) is the same as the pseudo-force experienced by an observer in a non-inertial (accelerated) frame of reference.
Ernest Orlando Lawrence (August 8, 1901 – August 27, 1958) was a pioneering American nuclear scientist and winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1939 for his invention of the cyclotron.
Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, HFRSE LLD (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937) was a New Zealand-born British physicist who came to be known as the father of nuclear physics.
Ettore Majorana (born on 5 August 1906 – probably died after 1959) was an Italian theoretical physicist who worked on neutrino masses.
In geometry, Euclidean space encompasses the two-dimensional Euclidean plane, the three-dimensional space of Euclidean geometry, and certain other spaces.
Eugene Theodore Booth, Jr. (28 September 1912 – 6 March 2004) was an American nuclear physicist.
Eugene Paul "E.
Experimental physics is the category of disciplines and sub-disciplines in the field of physics that are concerned with the observation of physical phenomena and experiments.
Fellowship of the Royal Society (FRS, ForMemRS and HonFRS) is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society judges to have made a "substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science".
In the mathematical theory of Riemannian geometry, Fermi coordinates are local coordinates that are adapted to a geodesic.
The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (FGST), formerly called the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), is a space observatory being used to perform gamma-ray astronomy observations from low Earth orbit.
The Fermi paradox, or Fermi's paradox, named after physicist Enrico Fermi, is the apparent contradiction between the lack of evidence and high probability estimates for the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations.
In physics or engineering education, a Fermi problem, Fermi quiz, Fermi question, Fermi estimate, or order estimation is an estimation problem designed to teach dimensional analysis or approximation, and such a problem is usually a back-of-the-envelope calculation.
In quantum physics, Fermi's golden rule is a formula that describes the transition rate (probability of transition per unit time) from one energy eigenstate of a quantum system into other energy eigenstates in a continuum, effected by a weak perturbation.
In particle physics, Fermi's interaction (also the Fermi theory of beta decay) is an explanation of the beta decay, proposed by Enrico Fermi in 1933.
In quantum statistics, a branch of physics, Fermi–Dirac statistics describe a distribution of particles over energy states in systems consisting of many identical particles that obey the Pauli exclusion principle.
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics.
In particle physics, a fermion is a particle that follows Fermi–Dirac statistics.
Fermium is a synthetic element with symbol Fm and atomic number 100.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
In mathematics, Fourier analysis is the study of the way general functions may be represented or approximated by sums of simpler trigonometric functions.
Francis Goddard Slack (November 1, 1897 in – February 2, 1985) was an American physicist.
Franco Dino Rasetti (August 10, 1901 – December 5, 2001) was an Italian scientist who, together with Enrico Fermi, discovered key processes leading to nuclear fission.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
The Franklin Medal was a science award presented from 1915 through 1997 by the Franklin Institute located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S. It was founded in 1914 by Samuel Insull.
Jean Frédéric Joliot-Curie (19 March 1900 – 14 August 1958), born Jean Frédéric Joliot, was a French physicist, husband of Irène Joliot-Curie with whom he was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients.
Friedrich Wilhelm "Fritz" Strassmann (Straßmann; 22 February 1902 – 22 April 1980) was a German chemist who, with Otto Hahn in early 1939, identified barium in the residue after bombarding uranium with neutrons, results which, when confirmed, demonstrated the previously unknown phenomenon of nuclear fission.
In physics, the fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces, are the interactions that do not appear to be reducible to more basic interactions.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.
Geoffrey Foucar Chew (born June 5, 1924) is an American theoretical physicist.
Gian Carlo Wick (October 15, 1909 – April 20, 1992) was an Italian theoretical physicist who made important contributions to quantum field theory.
Giovanni Giorgi (27 November 1871 – 19 August 1950) was an Italian physicist and electrical engineer who proposed the Giorgi system of measurement, the precursor to the International System of Units (SI).
The Grand Orient of Italy (GOI) (Grande Oriente d'Italia) is an Italian masonic grand lodge founded in 1805; the viceroy Eugene of Beauharnais was instrumental in its establishment.
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro (12January 1925) was an Italian mathematician born in Lugo di Romagna.
A gyroscope (from Ancient Greek γῦρος gûros, "circle" and σκοπέω skopéō, "to look") is a device used for measuring or maintaining orientation and angular velocity.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
The Hanford Site is a decommissioned nuclear production complex operated by the United States federal government on the Columbia River in the U.S. state of Washington.
Hans Albrecht Bethe (July 2, 1906 – March 6, 2005) was a German-American nuclear physicist who made important contributions to astrophysics, quantum electrodynamics and solid-state physics, and won the 1967 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis.
Hans Heinrich von Halban (24 January 1908 – 28 November 1964) was a French physicist, of Austrian-Jewish descent.
Harold Melvin Agnew (March 28, 1921 – September 29, 2013) was an American physicist, best known for having flown as a scientific observer on the Hiroshima bombing mission and, later, as the third director of the Los Alamos National Laboratory.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (18 July 1853 – 4 February 1928) was a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Pieter Zeeman for the discovery and theoretical explanation of the Zeeman effect.
Herbert Lawrence Anderson (May 24, 1914 – July 16, 1988) was a Jewish American nuclear physicist who contributed to the Manhattan Project.
Hesperium (also known as esperium; atomic symbol Es) was the name assigned to the element with atomic number 94, now known as plutonium.
This article chronicles the history and origins of the Teller–Ulam design, the technical concept behind modern thermonuclear weapons, also known as hydrogen bombs.
The Hughes Medal is awarded by the Royal Society of London "in recognition of an original discovery in the physical sciences, particularly electricity and magnetism or their applications".
Ida Noddack (25 February 1896 – 24 September 1978), née Ida Tacke, was a German chemist and physicist.
An ideal gas is a theoretical gas composed of many randomly moving point particles whose only interactions are perfectly elastic collisions.
Identical particles, also called indistinguishable or indiscernible particles, are particles that cannot be distinguished from one another, even in principle.
Induced radioactivity occurs when a previously stable material has been made radioactive by exposure to specific radiation.
The Interim Committee was a secret high-level group created in May 1945 by United States Secretary of War, Henry L. Stimson at the urging of leaders of the Manhattan Project and with the approval of President Harry S. Truman to advise on matters pertaining to nuclear energy.
Irène Joliot-Curie (12 September 1897 – 17 March 1956) was a French scientist, the daughter of Marie Curie and Pierre Curie and the wife of Frédéric Joliot-Curie.
Isidor Isaac Rabi (born Israel Isaac Rabi, 29 July 1898 – 11 January 1988) was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1944 for his discovery of nuclear magnetic resonance, which is used in magnetic resonance imaging.
The Italian Racial Laws (Leggi razziali) were a set of laws promulgated by Fascist Italy from 1938 to 1943 to enforce racial discrimination in Italy, directed mainly against the Italian Jews and the native inhabitants of the colonies.
Ivy Mike was the codename given to the first test of a full-scale thermonuclear device, in which part of the explosive yield comes from nuclear fusion.
Julius Robert Oppenheimer (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley.
Hans Jakob "Jack" Steinberger (born May 25, 1921) is an American physicist who, along with Leon Lederman and Melvin Schwartz, received the 1988 Nobel Prize in Physics for the discovery of the muon neutrino.
James Bryant Conant (March 26, 1893 – February 11, 1978) was an American chemist, a transformative President of Harvard University, and the first U.S. Ambassador to West Germany.
Sir James Chadwick, (20 October 1891 – 24 July 1974) was an English physicist who was awarded the 1935 Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of the neutron in 1932.
Jan Tinbergen (April 12, 1903June 9, 1994) was an important Dutch economist.
Jerome Isaac Friedman (born March 28, 1930) is an American physicist.
John Ray Dunning (September 24, 1907 – August 25, 1975) was an American physicist who played key roles in the Manhattan Project that developed the first atomic bombs.
John von Neumann (Neumann János Lajos,; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, and polymath.
Laura Capon Fermi (16 June 1907 – 26 December 1977) was an Italian-born American writer and political activist and the wife of Nobel Prize physicist Enrico Fermi.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Leiden (in English and archaic Dutch also Leyden) is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands.
Leiden University (abbreviated as LEI; Universiteit Leiden), founded in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands.
Leo Szilard (Szilárd Leó; Leo Spitz until age 2; February 11, 1898 – May 30, 1964) was a Hungarian-German-American physicist and inventor.
Leona Harriet Woods (August 9, 1919 – November 10, 1986), later known as Leona Woods Marshall and Leona Woods Marshall Libby, was an American physicist who helped build the first nuclear reactor and the first atomic bomb.
In particle physics, a lepton is an elementary particle of half-integer spin (spin) that does not undergo strong interactions.
Lew Kowarski (10 February 1907, Saint Petersburg – 30 July 1979, Geneva) was a naturalized French physicist.
Lise Meitner (7 November 1878 – 27 October 1968) was an Austrian-Swedish physicist who worked on radioactivity and nuclear physics.
This page lists Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1950.
Below is the list of people whose names are used in chemical element names.
Enrico Fermi (1901–1954), an Italian-born, naturalized American physicist, is the eponym of the topics listed below.
Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos or LANL for short) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory initially organized during World War II for the design of nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project.
Los Alamos (Los Álamos, meaning "The Cottonwoods" or "The Poplars") is a town in Los Alamos County, New Mexico, United States that is recognized as the birthplace of the atomic bomb––the primary objective of the Manhattan Project by Los Alamos National Laboratory during World War II.
Luigi Puccianti (11 June 1875 – 9 June 1952) was an Italian physicist.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.
Maria Goeppert Mayer (June 28, 1906 – February 20, 1972) was a German-born American theoretical physicist, and Nobel laureate in Physics for proposing the nuclear shell model of the atomic nucleus.
Marvin Leonard "Murph" Goldberger (October 22, 1922 – November 26, 2014) was a theoretical physicist and former president of the California Institute of Technology.
A Masonic lodge, often termed a private lodge or constituent lodge, is the basic organisational unit of Freemasonry.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
In physics, mass–energy equivalence states that anything having mass has an equivalent amount of energy and vice versa, with these fundamental quantities directly relating to one another by Albert Einstein's famous formula: E.
Mathematical physics refers to the development of mathematical methods for application to problems in physics.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
The Matteucci Medal is an Italian award for physicists, named after Carlo Matteucci.
Max Born (11 December 1882 – 5 January 1970) was a German physicist and mathematician who was instrumental in the development of quantum mechanics.
The Max Planck medal is the highest award of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft, the world's largest organization of physicists, for extraordinary achievements in theoretical physics.
Mechanics (Greek μηχανική) is that area of science concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment.
The Medal for Merit was, during the period it was awarded, the highest civilian decoration of the United States, awarded by the President of the United States to civilians for "exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services...
The Metallurgical Laboratory (or Met Lab) was a scientific laboratory at the University of Chicago that was established in February 1942 to study and use the newly discovered chemical element plutonium.
Mildred Dresselhaus as a member of National Academy of Engineering in Electronics, Communication & Information Systems Engineering and Materials Engineering for contributions to the experimental studies of metals and semimetals, and to education.
The muon (from the Greek letter mu (μ) used to represent it) is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with an electric charge of −1 e and a spin of 1/2, but with a much greater mass.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
The National Atomic Energy Commission (Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, CNEA) is the Argentine government agency in charge of nuclear energy research and development.
The National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) was an organization created "to coordinate, supervise, and conduct scientific research on the problems underlying the development, production, and use of mechanisms and devices of warfare" in the United States from June 27, 1940, until June 28, 1941.
The National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF) was an Italian political party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of fascism (previously represented by groups known as Fasci).
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
Nello Carrara (19 February 1900 – 5 June 1993) was an Italian physicist and founder of the Electromagnetic Wave Research Institute.
A neutrino (denoted by the Greek letter ν) is a fermion (an elementary particle with half-integer spin) that interacts only via the weak subatomic force and gravity.
Neutron capture is a nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus and one or more neutrons collide and merge to form a heavier nucleus.
In nuclear engineering, a neutron moderator is a medium that reduces the speed of fast neutrons, thereby turning them into thermal neutrons capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction involving uranium-235 or a similar fissile nuclide.
In applications such as nuclear reactors, a neutron poison (also called a neutron absorber or a nuclear poison) is a substance with a large neutron absorption cross-section.
Neutron scattering, the irregular dispersal of free neutrons by matter, can refer to either the naturally occurring physical process itself or to the man-made experimental techniques that use the natural process for investigating materials.
A neutron source is any device that emits neutrons, irrespective of the mechanism used to produce the neutrons.
The neutron detection temperature, also called the neutron energy, indicates a free neutron's kinetic energy, usually given in electron volts.
Nicholas Constantine Metropolis (Greek: Νικόλαος Μητρόπουλος, June 11, 1915 – October 17, 1999) was a Greek-American physicist.
Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.
A nuclear chain reaction occurs when one single nuclear reaction causes an average of one or more subsequent nuclear reactions, thus leading to the possibility of a self-propagating series of these reactions.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
Nuclear fission products are the atomic fragments left after a large atomic nucleus undergoes nuclear fission.
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
Nuclear reactor physics is the branch of science that deals with the study and application of chain reaction to induce a controlled rate of fission in a nuclear reactor for the production of energy.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
In chemistry and physics, a nucleon is either a proton or a neutron, considered in its role as a component of an atomic nucleus.
A nuclide (from nucleus, also known as nuclear species) is an atomic species characterized by the specific constitution of its nucleus, i.e., by its number of protons Z, its number of neutrons N, and its nuclear energy state.
Nuovo Cimento is a series of peer-reviewed scientific journals of physics.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is an American multiprogram science and technology national laboratory sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and administered, managed, and operated by UT-Battelle as a federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) under a contract with the DOE.
Oak Ridge is a city in Anderson and Roane counties in the eastern part of the U.S. state of Tennessee, about west of Knoxville.
Oak Woods Cemetery is a large Victorian era cemetery in Chicago, Illinois.
The Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) was an agency of the United States federal government created to coordinate scientific research for military purposes during World War II.
The Oppenheimer security hearing was a 1954 proceeding by the United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) that explored the background, actions, and associations of J. Robert Oppenheimer, the American scientist who had headed the Los Alamos Laboratory during World War II, where he played a key part in the Manhattan Project that developed the atomic bomb.
Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
Orso Mario Corbino (30 April 1876, Augusta – 23 January 1937, Rome) was an Italian physicist and politician.
Otto Hahn, (8 March 1879 – 28 July 1968) was a German chemist and pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry.
Otto Robert Frisch FRS (1 October 1904 – 22 September 1979) was an Austrian-British physicist.
Owen Chamberlain (July 10, 1920 – February 28, 2006) was an American physicist, and Nobel laureate in physics for his discovery, with collaborator Emilio Segrè, of the antiproton, a sub-atomic antiparticle.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Paraffin wax is a white or colourless soft solid, derived from petroleum, coal or oil shale, that consists of a mixture of hydrocarbon molecules containing between twenty and forty carbon atoms.
In mathematics, a partial differential equation (PDE) is a differential equation that contains unknown multivariable functions and their partial derivatives.
A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.
Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.
Ernst Pascual Jordan (18 October 1902 – 31 July 1980) was a theoretical and mathematical physicist who made significant contributions to quantum mechanics and quantum field theory.
Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (8 August 1902 – 20 October 1984) was an English theoretical physicist who is regarded as one of the most significant physicists of the 20th century.
Paul Ehrenfest (18 January 1880 – 25 September 1933) was an Austrian and Dutch theoretical physicist, who made major contributions to the field of statistical mechanics and its relations with quantum mechanics, including the theory of phase transition and the Ehrenfest theorem.
The Pauli exclusion principle is the quantum mechanical principle which states that two or more identical fermions (particles with half-integer spin) cannot occupy the same quantum state within a quantum system simultaneously.
Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.
In physics, a physical system is a portion of the physical universe chosen for analysis.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Physikalische Zeitschrift (English: Physical Journal) was a German scientific journal of physics published from 1899 to 1945 by S. Hirzel Verlag.
In particle physics, a pion (or a pi meson, denoted with the Greek letter pi) is any of three subatomic particles:,, and.
Pisa is a city in the Tuscany region of Central Italy straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
Polonium is a chemical element with symbol Po and atomic number 84.
In physics, potential energy is the energy possessed by an object because of its position relative to other objects, stresses within itself, its electric charge, or other factors.
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.
Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society is a quarterly philosophy peer-reviewed journal published by the American Philosophical Society since 1838.
The Los Alamos Laboratory, also known as Project Y, was a secret laboratory established by the Manhattan Project and operated by the University of California during World War II.
A public address system (PA system) is an electronic system comprising microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers, and related equipment.
Pupin Physics Laboratories, also known as Pupin Hall is home to the physics and astronomy departments of Columbia University in New York City and a National Historic Landmark.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.
In particle physics, the quark model is a classification scheme for hadrons in terms of their valence quarks—the quarks and antiquarks which give rise to the quantum numbers of the hadrons.
RA-1 Enrico Fermi is a research reactor in Argentina and the first nuclear reactor to be built in that country.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88.
Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.
The Rayleigh–Taylor instability, or RT instability (after Lord Rayleigh and G. I. Taylor), is an instability of an interface between two fluids of different densities which occurs when the lighter fluid is pushing the heavier fluid.
Research reactors are nuclear reactors that serve primarily as a neutron source.
Richard Lawrence Garwin (born April 19, 1928) is an American physicist, widely known to be the author of the first hydrogen bomb design.
Richard Lee Rhodes (born July 4, 1937) is an American historian, journalist and author of both fiction and non-fiction (which he prefers to call "verity"), including the Pulitzer Prize-winning The Making of the Atomic Bomb (1986), and most recently, Energy: A Human History (2018).
The Rockefeller Foundation is a private foundation based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City.
The Roman College (Collegio Romano) was a school established by St.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
The Royal Academy of Italy (italic) was a short-lived Italian academy of the Fascist period.
Founded in 1796, the Rumford Prize, awarded by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, is one of the oldest scientific prizes in the United States.
The Uranium Committee was a committee of the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) that succeeded the Advisory Committee on Uranium and later evolved into the S-1 Section of the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), when that organization absorbed the NDRC in June 1941, and the S-1 Executive Committee in June 1942.
Sam Bard Treiman (May 27, 1925 – November 30, 1999) was an American theoretical physicist who produced research in the fields of cosmic rays, quantum physics, plasma physics and gravity physics.
Samuel Abraham Goudsmit (July 11, 1902 – December 4, 1978) was a Dutch-American physicist famous for jointly proposing the concept of electron spin with George Eugene Uhlenbeck in 1925.
The Basilica di Santa Croce (Basilica of the Holy Cross) is the principal Franciscan church in Florence, Italy, and a minor basilica of the Roman Catholic Church.
The Sapienza University of Rome (Italian: Sapienza – Università di Roma), also called simply Sapienza or the University of Rome, is a collegiate research university located in Rome, Italy.
A scalar or scalar quantity in physics is a physical quantity that can be described by a single element of a number field such as a real number, often accompanied by units of measurement.
The Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa (SNS) is a public higher learning institution in Pisa, Italy.
was a Japanese physicist who was internationally known for theoretical work on the subatomic particles.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Solid-state physics is the study of rigid matter, or solids, through methods such as quantum mechanics, crystallography, electromagnetism, and metallurgy.
The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.
In quantum physics, the spin–orbit interaction (also called spin–orbit effect or spin–orbit coupling) is a relativistic interaction of a particle's spin with its motion inside a potential.
Spiral galaxies form a class of galaxy originally described by Edwin Hubble in his 1936 work The Realm of the Nebulae(pp. 124–151) and, as such, form part of the Hubble sequence.
Squash is a ball sport played by two (singles) or four players (doubles squash) in a four-walled court with a small, hollow rubber ball.
Amos Alonzo Stagg Field is the name of two different football fields for the University of Chicago.
Stanisław Marcin Ulam (13 April 1909 – 13 May 1984) was a Polish-American scientist in the fields of mathematics and nuclear physics.
Statistical mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics.
Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
Stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, is cancer developing from the lining of the stomach.
Stone & Webster was an American engineering services company based in Stoughton, Massachusetts.
Technetium is a chemical element with symbol Tc and atomic number 43.
In mathematics, tensors are geometric objects that describe linear relations between geometric vectors, scalars, and other tensors.
In mathematics, tensor calculus or tensor analysis is an extension of vector calculus to tensor fields (tensors that may vary over a manifold, e.g. in spacetime).
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Science of Nature, formerly Naturwissenschaften, is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Springer Science+Business Media covering all aspects of the natural sciences relating to questions of biological significance.
Theoretical physics is a branch of physics that employs mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena.
Thermonuclear fusion is a way to achieve nuclear fusion by using extremely high temperatures.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
The transuranium elements (also known as transuranic elements) are the chemical elements with atomic numbers greater than 92 (the atomic number of uranium).
Trinity was the code name of the first detonation of a nuclear weapon.
Trino is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Vercelli in the Italian region Piedmont, located about northeast of Turin and about southwest of Vercelli, at the foot of the Montferrat hills.
Tritium (or; symbol or, also known as hydrogen-3) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen.
Tsung-Dao Lee (T. D. Lee;; born November 24, 1926) is a Chinese-American physicist, known for his work on parity violation, the Lee Model, particle physics, relativistic heavy ion (RHIC) physics, nontopological solitons and soliton stars.
Tullio Levi-Civita, FRS (29 March 1873 – 29 December 1941) was an Italian mathematician, most famous for his work on absolute differential calculus (tensor calculus) and its applications to the theory of relativity, but who also made significant contributions in other areas.
The United States Atomic Energy Commission, commonly known as the AEC, was an agency of the United States government established after World War II by U.S. Congress to foster and control the peacetime development of atomic science and technology.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.
The United States Department of Energy National Laboratories and Technology Centers are a system of facilities and laboratories overseen by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the purpose of advancing science and technology to fulfill the DOE mission.
The United States Department of the Navy (DoN) was established by an Act of Congress on April 30, 1798 (initiated by the recommendation of James McHenry),Bernard C. Steiner and James McHenry, (Cleveland: Burrows Brothers Co., 1907).
The University of Cagliari (Università degli Studi di Cagliari) is a university in Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy.
The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.
The University of Florence (Italian: Università degli Studi di Firenze, UniFI) is an Italian public research university located in Florence, Italy.
The University of Göttingen (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, GAU, known informally as Georgia Augusta) is a public research university in the city of Göttingen, Germany.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Uranium oxide is an oxide of the element uranium.
The Via Panisperna boys (Italian: I ragazzi di Via Panisperna) were a group of young scientists led by Enrico Fermi.
Victor Frederick "Viki" Weisskopf (September 19, 1908 – April 22, 2002) was an Austrian-born American theoretical physicist.
Vito Volterra (3 May 1860 – 11 October 1940) was an Italian mathematician and physicist, known for his contributions to mathematical biology and integral equations, being one of the founders of functional analysis.
In particle physics, the weak interaction (the weak force or weak nuclear force) is the mechanism of interaction between sub-atomic particles that causes radioactive decay and thus plays an essential role in nuclear fission.
Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics.
A wet nurse is a woman who breast feeds and cares for another's child.
Willis Eugene Lamb Jr. (July 12, 1913 – May 15, 2008) was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1955 "for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum." The Nobel Committee that year awarded half the prize to Lamb and the other half to Polykarp Kusch, who won "for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron." Lamb was able to determine precisely a surprising shift in electron energies in a hydrogen atom (see Lamb shift).
Wolfgang Ernst Pauli (25 April 1900 – 15 December 1958) was an Austrian-born Swiss and American theoretical physicist and one of the pioneers of quantum physics.
World government or global government is the notion of a common political authority for all of humanity, yielding a global government and a single state that exercises authority over the entire Earth.
The world line (or worldline) of an object is the path that object traces in -dimensional spacetime.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The X-10 Graphite Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, formerly known as the Clinton Pile and X-10 Pile, was the world's second artificial nuclear reactor (after Enrico Fermi's Chicago Pile-1), and the first designed and built for continuous operation.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
Xenon-135 (135Xe) is an unstable isotope of xenon with a half-life of about 9.2 hours.