66 relations: Adsorption, Alfred Hershey, Archaea, Bacteriophage, Base pair, Bruce Alberts, Capsid, Caudovirales, Cell membrane, Concatemer, Cyclic permutation, DNA, DNA repair, DNA replication, Endonuclease, Enterobacteria phage T2, Enterobacteria phage T6, Enzyme, Escherichia coli, Eukaryote, Francis Crick, Gene expression, Genetic recombination, Genome, Gisela Mosig, Hershey–Chase experiment, Icosahedron, Infection, Intron, James J. Bull, James Watson, Lipopolysaccharide, Lysis, Lysogenic cycle, Lysozyme, Lytic cycle, Max Delbrück, Meiosis, Methyl methanesulfonate, Methylnitronitrosoguanidine, Michael Rossmann, Milislav Demerec, Mitomycins, Mutation, Myoviridae, Nanometre, Nitrous acid, Nobel Prize, Nucleic acid, Peptidoglycan, ..., Phage group, Porin (protein), Prokaryote, RAD51, RecA, Richard Lenski, Salvador Luria, Seymour Benzer, Shine-Dalgarno sequence, T-even bacteriophages, T4 rII system, T4virus, Terminally redundant DNA, Tevenvirinae, Thomas F. Anderson, Virus. Expand index (16 more) » « Shrink index
Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions or molecules from a gas, liquid or dissolved solid to a surface.
Alfred Day Hershey (December 4, 1908 – May 22, 1997) was an American Nobel Prize–winning bacteriologist and geneticist.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
A bacteriophage, also known informally as a phage, is a virus that infects and replicates within Bacteria and Archaea.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
Bruce Michael Alberts (born April 14, 1938 in Chicago, Illinois) is an American biochemist and the Chancellor’s Leadership Chair in Biochemistry and Biophysics for Science and Education at the University of California, San Francisco.
A capsid is the protein shell of a virus.
The Caudovirales are an order of viruses also known as the tailed bacteriophages (cauda is Latin for "tail").
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
A concatemer is a long continuous DNA molecule that contains multiple copies of the same DNA sequence linked in series.
In mathematics, and in particular in group theory, a cyclic permutation (or cycle) is a permutation of the elements of some set X which maps the elements of some subset S of X to each other in a cyclic fashion, while fixing (that is, mapping to themselves) all other elements of X. If S has k elements, the cycle is called a k-cycle.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
Endonucleases are enzymes that cleave the phosphodiester bond within a polynucleotide chain.
Enterobacteria phage T2 is a virus that infects and kills E. coli.
Enterobacteria phage T6 is a bacteriophage that infects Escherichia coli bacteria.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Francis Harry Compton Crick (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004) was a British molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist, most noted for being a co-discoverer of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953 with James Watson, work which was based partly on fundamental studies done by Rosalind Franklin, Raymond Gosling and Maurice Wilkins.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
Gisela Mosig (November 29, 1930 – January 12, 2003) was a German-American molecular biologist best known for her work with enterobacteria phage T4.
The Hershey–Chase experiments were a series of experiments conducted in 1952 by Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase that helped to confirm that DNA is genetic material.
In geometry, an icosahedron is a polyhedron with 20 faces.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
An intron is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing during maturation of the final RNA product.
James J. Bull is Johann Friedrich Miescher Regents Professor in Molecular Biology at the University of Texas at Austin.
James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, geneticist and zoologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA in 1953 with Francis Crick and Rosalind Franklin.
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxins, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Lysis (Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") refers to the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic (that is, "lytic") mechanisms that compromise its integrity.
Lysogeny, or the lysogenic cycle, is one of two cycles of viral reproduction (the lytic cycle being the other).
Lysozyme, also known as muramidase or N-acetylmuramide glycanhydrolase is an antimicrobial enzyme produced by animals that forms part of the innate immune system.
The lytic cycle is one of the two cycles of viral reproduction (referring to bacterial viruses or bacteriophages), the other being the lysogenic cycle.
Max Ludwig Henning Delbrück (September 4, 1906 – March 9, 1981), a German–American biophysicist, helped launch the molecular biology research program in the late 1930s.
Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.
Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), also known as methyl mesylate, is an alkylating agent and a carcinogen.
Methylnitronitrosoguanidine (MNNG or MNG) is a biochemical tool used experimentally as a carcinogen and mutagen.
Michael G. Rossmann (born 1930) is a German-American physicist, microbiologist, and Hanley Distinguished Professor of Biological Sciences at Purdue University who led a team of researchers to be the first to map the structure of a human common cold virus to an atomic level.
Milislav Demerec (January 11, 1895 – April 12, 1966) was a Croatian-American geneticist, and the director of the Department of Genetics, Carnegie Institution of Washington, now Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) from 1941 to 1960, recruiting Barbara McClintock and Alfred Hershey.
The mitomycins are a family of aziridine-containing natural products isolated from Streptomyces caespitosus or Streptomyces lavendulae. They include mitomycin A, mitomycin B, and mitomycin C. When the name mitomycin occurs alone, it usually refers to mitomycin C, its international nonproprietary name.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
The Myoviridae is a family of bacteriophages in the order Caudovirales.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
Nitrous acid (molecular formula HNO2) is a weak and monobasic acid known only in solution and in the form of nitrite salts.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.
Peptidoglycan, also known as murein, is a polymer consisting of sugars and amino acids that forms a mesh-like layer outside the plasma membrane of most bacteria, forming the cell wall.
The phage group (sometimes called the American Phage Group) was an informal network of biologists centered on Max Delbrück that contributed heavily to bacterial genetics and the origins of molecular biology in the mid-20th century.
Porins are beta barrel proteins that cross a cellular membrane and act as a pore, through which molecules can diffuse.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
RAD51 is a eukaryotic gene.
RecA is a 38 kilodalton protein essential for the repair and maintenance of DNA.
Richard Eimer Lenski (born August 13, 1956) is an American evolutionary biologist, a MacArthur "genius" fellow, a Hannah Distinguished Professor of Microbial Ecology at Michigan State University, and a member of the National Academy of Sciences.
Salvador Edward Luria (August 13, 1912 – February 6, 1991) was an Italian microbiologist, later a naturalized U.S. citizen.
Seymour Benzer (October 15, 1921 – November 30, 2007) was an American physicist, molecular biologist and behavioral geneticist.
The Shine-Dalgarno (SD) Sequence is a ribosomal binding site in bacterial and archaeal messenger RNA, generally located around 8 bases upstream of the start codon AUG.
T-even phages, also known as the E. coli phages, are a group of double-stranded DNA bacteriophages from the family Myoviridae.
The T4 rII system is an experimental system developed in the 1950s by Seymour Benzer for studying the substructure of the gene.
T4virus is a genus of viruses in the order Caudovirales, in the family Myoviridae, in the subfamily Tevenvirinae.
Terminally redundant DNA is DNA that contains repeated sequences at each end called terminal repeats.
Tevenvirinae is a subfamily of viruses in the order Caudovirales, in the family Myoviridae.
Thomas Foxen Anderson (February 7, 1911 – August 11, 1991) was an American biophysical chemist and geneticist who developed crucial techniques for using electron microscopes.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.