403 relations: A Sand County Almanac, A. Carl Leopold, Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi, Abu Bakr, Abu Sahl 'Isa ibn Yahya al-Masihi, Advocacy group, Afforestation, Agricultural science, Air pollution, Al Gore, Al-Kindi, Al-Razi, Alan Pears, Aldo Leopold, Alfred Newton, Ali ibn Ridwan, Alice Waters, Alicia Silverstone, Alkali Act 1863, Alliance 90/The Greens, American bison, Amory Lovins, Animal welfare, Ansel Adams, Anti-environmentalism, Anti-WAAhnsinns Festival, Art, Assassination, Atmosphere, Avicenna, Back-to-the-land movement, Banu Tamim, Barbara Pyle, Barry Commoner, Beekeeping, Berta Cáceres, Bible, Bill McKibben, Bioconservatism, Biodiversity, Biophilia hypothesis, Bonnie Raitt, Boston, Bountiful Harvest, British Isles, Caliphate, Camp for Climate Action, Campaign against Climate Change, Cancer, Captain Planet and the Planeteers, ..., Car-Free Days, Car-free movement, Carol Browner, Caroline Lucas, Carousel Productions, Cass Sunstein, Charles, Prince of Wales, Chemical substance, Chico Mendes, Chipko movement, CITES, Class action, Clean Air Act (United States), Clean Air Act 1956, Clean Water Act, Climate change, Climate Rush, Coal, Commission for Environmental Cooperation, Confederación Nacional del Trabajo, Conservation (ethic), Conservation movement, Consumerism, Counterculture of the 1960s, Dakota Access Pipeline, Daniel Guérin, Daryl Hannah, David Attenborough, David Bellamy, David Brower, David McTaggart, David Suzuki, DDT, Deep ecology, Deep Green Resistance, Deforestation, Democratic Federation of Northern Syria, Demonstration (protest), Denis Hayes, Derek Wall, Developing country, Dinosaur National Monument, Direct action, Dominique Voynet, Drought, E. F. Schumacher, Earth, Earth Day, Earth First!, Earth Liberation Front, Earth Summit, Earthlife Africa, Ecological economics, Ecology, Ecology Party, Economics, Ecosystem, Ecosystem services, Ecotax, Ed Dodd, Edward Abbey, Edward Carpenter, Edward I of England, Efficient energy use, Elephant Nature Park, Elizabeth Economy, Emily Williamson, Endangered species, Endangered Species Act of 1973, Ennerdale Water, Environment (biophysical), Environmental consulting, Environmental Defense Fund, Environmental engineering, Environmental ethics, Environmental impact assessment, Environmental inequality in Europe, Environmental justice, Environmental law, Environmental movement, Environmental movement in the United States, Environmental organization, Environmental protection, Environmental Protection UK, Environmental racism, Environmental science, Environmental skepticism, Environmental sociology, Environmentalism, Environmentalist, Erin Brockovich, Erosion, Ethology, Eucalyptus, European Environment Agency, Evangelicalism, Expo '74, FernGully 2: The Magical Rescue, FernGully: The Last Rainforest, Fertilizer, Filmography of environmentalism, Forest management, Forestry Commission, Frances Beinecke, Free market, Free-market environmentalism, Friends of the Earth, Friends of the Earth (US), Gabriel Willow, Gaia hypothesis, Garden city movement, Garrett Hardin, Gas, Gaylord Nelson, Genetic engineering, George Bernard Shaw, George Monbiot, Gifford Pinchot, Global Day of Action, Global warming, Grand Canyon, Great Recession, Great Smog of London, Green economy, Green Party (UK), Green politics, Green seniors, Greening, Greenpeace, Greenwashing, Greenway (landscape), H. G. Wells, Habiba Sarābi, Hands off our Forest, Hans-Josef Fell, Hardwicke Rawnsley, Health, Hearing (law), Helen Caldicott, Henry David Thoreau, Herman Daly, History of coal mining, Homes before Roads, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Howard Zahniser, Human impact on the environment, Human overpopulation, Human rights, Hunter Lovins, Hydrochloric acid, Ibn al-Jazzar, Ibn al-Nafis, Ibn Jumay‘, Ideology, In the Fourth Year, Industrial Revolution, Industrialisation, Intentional community, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Irrigation, Isaac Israeli ben Solomon, Jacques Cousteau, James Hansen, James Lovelock, Jane Fonda, Jane Goodall, Jarid Manos, Jo Valentine, Baroness Valentine, John James Audubon, John McCormick (political scientist), John Muir, John Ruskin, John Wesley Powell, Jonathon Porritt, Joni Mitchell, Josh Fox, Judi Bari, Julia Butterfly Hill, Kevin Buzzacott, Kupa Piti Kungka Tjuta, Lacandon Jungle, Lake District, Land ethic, Laurie David, Leblanc process, Leonardo DiCaprio, Lester R. Brown, Linear park, Lisa P. Jackson, List of anarchist communities, List of Nobel laureates, Lobbying, Lois Gibbs, London, Love Canal, Mahatma Gandhi, Majora Carter, Make America Great Again, March Against Monsanto, Marina DeBris, Marina Silva, Mark Trail, Martin Litton (environmentalist), Maypole, Medicine in the medieval Islamic world, Mesoamerica Project, Middle East, Miss Earth, Miss Universe, Miss World, Mizuho Fukushima, Monoculture, Morris dance, Municipal solid waste, Murray Bookchin, Nancy Newhall, National Park Service, National Wildlife Federation, Natural environment, Natural resource management, Natural Resources Defense Council, Nature reserve, Naturism, Nazi Germany, Neuchâtel, Nevada Desert Experience, New Zealand, Newlands Valley, Non-governmental organization, North American Free Trade Agreement, Octavia Hill, Open Spaces Society, Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, Ornithology, Passenger pigeon, Paul R. Ehrlich, Permaculture, Pesticide, Peter Dauvergne, Peter Garrett, Peter Kropotkin, Phil Radford, Philip Hyde (photographer), Philosophy of life, Plane Mad, Plane Stupid, Political movement, Pollution, Popular Indigenous Council of Oaxaca "Ricardo Flores Magón", President of the United States, Public Health Act 1875, Public transport, Qidong protest, Qusta ibn Luqa, Rachel Carson, Ralph Nader, Rebel Zapatista Autonomous Municipalities, Reclaimed water, Reforestation, Religion and environmentalism, Renewable energy, Renewable resource, Right to property, Robert Hunter (National Trust), Romanticism, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Rudolf Hess, Sabotage, San Francisco, Save Manapouri campaign, Say Yes demonstrations, Sea Birds Preservation Act 1869, Shifang protest, Shrimp farming, Sierra Club, Silent Spring, Simran Sethi, Sit-in, Slow movement (culture), Small Is Beautiful, Smoke, Smokey Bear, Social ecology, Social movement, Socialist League (UK, 1885), Sodium carbonate, Soil contamination, Solar Energy Generating Systems, Solar power, Spaceship Earth, Spanish Revolution of 1936, Spokane, Washington, Stewart Udall, Sustainability, Swami Sundaranand, Switzerland, Sylvia Earle, Syrian Civil War, Tasmania, Ted Turner, Tetsunari Iida, The Clarion, The Climate Coalition (UK), The Guardian, The Kind Diet, The Nature Conservancy, The Wilderness Society (United States), Theodore Roosevelt, Theology, Tort, Trashion, Tree sitting, United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, United Nations Environment Programme, United Nations Messengers of Peace, United States Environmental Protection Agency, United States Forest Service, United States Geological Survey, United States Secretary of the Interior, United Tasmania Group, University of Arizona Press, Urban agriculture, Urban planning, Utopia, Values Party, Vandana Shiva, Vector (epidemiology), Vice President of the United States, Walden, Wallace Stegner, Wangari Maathai, Washington (state), Water pollution, Wave Hill walk-off, Wendell Berry, Wilderness Act, Wildlife Conservation Society, William Blake Richmond, William Morris, William Wordsworth, Wind farm, Wood industry, Woodrow Wilson, Worker cooperative, World Bank Group, World Wide Fund for Nature, World's fair, Wyoming Outdoor Council, Xiuhtezcatl Martinez, Yosemite National Park, Yosemite Valley, 2010 Xinfa aluminum plant protest. 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A Sand County Almanac: And Sketches Here and There is a 1949 non-fiction book by American ecologist, forester, and environmentalist Aldo Leopold.
Aldo Carl Leopold (December 18, 1919 – November 18, 2009) was an American academic and plant physiologist.
Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi or Abdallatif al-Baghdadi (عبداللطيف البغدادي, 1162 in Baghdad–1231), short for Muwaffaq al-Din Muhammad Abd al-Latif ibn Yusuf al-Baghdadi (موفق الدين محمد عبد اللطيف بن يوسف البغدادي), was a physician, historian, Egyptologist and traveler, and one of the most voluminous writers of the Near East in his time.
Abū Bakr aṣ-Ṣiddīq ‘Abdallāh bin Abī Quḥāfah (أبو بكر الصديق عبد الله بن أبي قحافة; 573 CE23 August 634 CE), popularly known as Abu Bakr (أبو بكر), was a senior companion (Sahabi) and—through his daughter Aisha—the father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Abu Bakr became the first openly declared Muslim outside Muhammad's family.Muhammad Mustafa Al-A'zami (2003), The History of The Qur'anic Text: From Revelation to Compilation: A Comparative Study with the Old and New Testaments, p.26, 59. UK Islamic Academy.. Abu Bakr served as a trusted advisor to Muhammad. During Muhammad's lifetime, he was involved in several campaigns and treaties.Tabqat ibn al-Saad book of Maghazi, page no:62 He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632 to 634 CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad's death. As caliph, Abu Bakr succeeded to the political and administrative functions previously exercised by Muhammad. He was commonly known as The Truthful (الصديق). Abu Bakr's reign lasted for 2 years, 2 months, 2 weeks and 1 day ending with his death after an illness.
Abu Sahl 'Isa ibn Yahya al-Masihi al-Jurjani (ابو سهل عيسى بن يحيى مسيحی گرگانی) was a Persian physician, from Gorgan, east of the Caspian Sea, in Iran.
Advocacy groups (also known as pressure groups, lobby groups, campaign groups, interest groups, or special interest groups) use various forms of advocacy in order to influence public opinion and/or policy.
Afforestation is the establishment of a forest or stand of trees (forestation) in an area where there was no previous tree cover.
Agricultural science is a broad multidisciplinary field of biology that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture.
Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.
Albert Arnold Gore Jr. (born March 31, 1948) is an American politician and environmentalist who served as the 45th Vice President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
Abu Yūsuf Yaʻqūb ibn ʼIsḥāq aṣ-Ṣabbāḥ al-Kindī (أبو يوسف يعقوب بن إسحاق الصبّاح الكندي; Alkindus; c. 801–873 AD) was an Arab Muslim philosopher, polymath, mathematician, physician and musician.
Razi or Al-Razi is the title of several Iranian scholars who were born in the town of Rey, Iran.
Alan Pears, AM, is an environmental consultant, and a pioneer of energy efficiency policy in Australia since the late 1970s.
Aldo Leopold (January 11, 1887 – April 21, 1948) was an American author, philosopher, scientist, ecologist, forester, conservationist, and environmentalist.
Alfred Newton FRS HFRSE (11 June 18297 June 1907) was an English zoologist and ornithologist.
Abu'l Hassan Ali ibn Ridwan Al-Misri, أبو الحسن علي بن رضوان المصري (c. 988 - c. 1061) was an Arab of Egyptian origin who was a physician, astrologer and astronomer, born in Giza. He was a commentator on ancient Greek medicine, and in particular on Galen; his commentary on Galen's Ars Parva was translated by Gerardo Cremonese. However, he is better known for providing the most detailed description of the supernova now known as SN 1006, the brightest stellar event in recorded history, which he observed in the year 1006. This was written in a commentary on Ptolemy's work Tetrabiblos. He was later cited by European authors as Haly, or Haly Abenrudian. According to Alistair Cameron Crombie he also contributed to the theory of induction. He engaged in a celebrated polemic against another physician, Ibn Butlan of Baghdad.
Alice Louise Waters (born April 28, 1944) is an American chef, restaurateur, activist and author.
Alicia Silverstone (born October 4, 1976) is an American actress.
Under the British Alkali Act 1863, an alkali inspector and four subinspectors were appointed to curb discharge into the air of muriatic acid gas (gaseous hydrochloric acid) from Leblanc alkali works.
Alliance 90/The Greens, often simply Greens (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen or Grüne), is a green political party in Germany that was formed from the merger of the German Green Party (founded in West Germany in 1980 and merged with the East Greens in 1990) and Alliance 90 (founded during the Revolution of 1989–1990 in East Germany) in 1993.
The American bison or simply bison (Bison bison), also commonly known as the American buffalo or simply buffalo, is a North American species of bison that once roamed the grasslands of North America in massive herds.
Amory Bloch Lovins (born November 13, 1947) is an American physicist, environmental scientist, writer, and Chairman/Chief Scientist of the Rocky Mountain Institute.
Animal welfare is the well-being of animals.
Ansel Easton Adams (February 20, 1902 – April 22, 1984) was an American photographer and environmentalist.
Anti-environmentalism refers to the way that various groups in society have sought to counter the effects of environmental ideology and movements, to redirect and diminish public concern about the environment, to attack left-leaning environmentalists, and to persuade politicians against increased environmental regulation.
The Anti-WAAhnsinns Festivals were political rock concerts, which took place in Germany in the 1980s.
Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual idea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.
Assassination is the killing of a prominent person, either for political or religious reasons or for payment.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
The term Back-to-the-Land movement covers a number of agrarian movements across different historical periods.
The tribe of Banu Tamim (بـنـو تـمـيـم) or Bani Tamim (بـني تـمـيـم) is one of the main tribes of Arabia.
Barbara Y. E. Pyle is an American executive producer, filmmaker, environmental activist and media innovator who pioneered the use of broadcast programming to inform critical social and environmental issues on a global scale.
Barry Commoner (May 28, 1917 – September 30, 2012) was an American cellular biologist, college professor, and politician.
Beekeeping (or apiculture) is the maintenance of bee colonies, commonly in man-made hives, by humans.
Berta Isabel Cáceres Flores (4 March 1971, 1972, or 1973 – 2 March 2016) (Lenca) was a Honduran environmental activist, indigenous leader, and co-founder and coordinator of the Council of Popular and Indigenous Organizations of Honduras (COPINH).
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
William Ernest "Bill" McKibben (born December 8, 1960)"Bill Ernest McKibben." Environmental Encyclopedia.
Bioconservatism (a portmanteau of "biology" and "conservatism") is a stance of hesitancy and skepticism regarding radical technological advances, especially those that seek to modify or enhance the human condition.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
The biophilia hypothesis also called BET suggests that humans possess an innate tendency to seek connections with nature and other forms of life.
Bonnie Lynn Raitt (born November 8, 1949) is an American blues singer-songwriter, musician, and activist.
Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
Bountiful Harvest is a book by University of Houston economics professor Thomas R. DeGregori, debunking what he calls "anti-science environmental activists", and arguing for the employment modern agricultural innovations such as bioengineered foods, which he claims have increased life expectancy and crop yields, and generally improved human well-being.
The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
The Camps for Climate Action are campaign gatherings (similar to peace camps) that take place to draw attention to, and act as a base for direct action against, major carbon emitters, as well as to develop ways to create a zero-carbon society.
The Campaign against Climate Change (variously abbreviated to CCC or CaCC) is a UK-based pressure group that aims to raise public awareness of anthropogenic climate change through mobilizing mass demonstrations.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Captain Planet and the Planeteers was an American animated environmentalist television program created by Ted Turner and Barbara Pyle. The series was produced by Turner Program Services and DiC Entertainment and it was broadcast on TBS from September 15, 1990, to December 5, 1992. A sequel series, The New Adventures of Captain Planet, was produced by Hanna-Barbera Cartoons, Inc. and distributed by Turner Program Services and was broadcast from September 11, 1993, to May 11, 1996. Both series continue today in syndication. The program is a form of edutainment and advocates environmentalism and is famous for having a number of famous actors providing voices for the villains.Captain Planet Zooms to the Rescue of the Environment, Washington Post – Sep 16, 1990 The show spawned a franchise consisting of a charity, a Marvel comic book series, video games, and a TV crossover with OK K.O.! Let's Be Heroes.
World Car Free Day, which is celebrated on September 22, encourages motorists to give up their cars for a day.
The car-free movement is a broad, informal, emergent network of individuals and organizations including social activists, urban planners and others brought together by a shared belief that large and/or high-speed motorized vehicles (cars, trucks, tractor units, motorcycles,...) are too dominant in most modern cities.
Carol Martha Browner (born December 16, 1955) is an American lawyer, environmentalist, and businesswoman, who served as director of the White House Office of Energy and Climate Change Policy in the Obama administration from 2009 to 2011.
Caroline Patricia Lucas (born 9 December 1960) is a British politician, and since 2 September 2016, Co-Leader of the Green Party of England and Wales, with Jonathan Bartley.
Carousel Productions, Inc. is the organization that currently owns and runs the Miss Earth and Miss Philippines Earth beauty contests.
Cass Robert Sunstein FBA (born September 21, 1954) is an American legal scholar, particularly in the fields of constitutional law, administrative law, environmental law, and law and behavioral economics, who was the Administrator of the White House Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs in the Obama administration from 2009 to 2012.
Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948) is the heir apparent to the British throne as the eldest child of Queen Elizabeth II.
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
Francisco Alves Mendes Filho, better known as Chico Mendes (December 15, 1944 – December 22, 1988), was a Brazilian rubber tapper, trade union leader and environmentalist.
The Chipko movement or Chipko Andolan was a forest conservation movement where people embraced the trees to prevent them from being cut.
CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, also known as the Washington Convention) is a multilateral treaty to protect endangered plants and animals.
A class action, class suit, or representative action is a type of lawsuit where one of the parties is a group of people who are represented collectively by a member of that group.
The Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C.) is a United States federal law designed to control air pollution on a national level.
The Clean Air Act 1956 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed in response to London's Great Smog of 1952.
The Clean Water Act (CWA) is the primary federal law in the United States governing water pollution.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
Climate Rush is a UK organisation that campaigns on various environmental issues related to climate change.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
The Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC; Comisión para la Cooperación Ambiental; Commission de coopération environnementale) was established by Canada, Mexico, and the United States to implement the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC), the environmental side accord to the North American Free Trade Agreement.
The Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (National Confederation of Labour; CNT) is a Spanish confederation of anarcho-syndicalist labour unions, which was long affiliated with the International Workers' Association (AIT).
Conservation is an ethic of resource use, allocation, and protection.
The conservation movement, also known as nature conservation, is a political, environmental, and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including animal and plant species as well as their habitat for the future.
Consumerism is a social and economic order and ideology that encourages the acquisition of goods and services in ever-increasing amounts.
The counterculture of the 1960s refers to an anti-establishment cultural phenomenon that developed first in the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US) and then spread throughout much of the Western world between the mid-1960s and the mid-1970s, with London, New York City, and San Francisco being hotbeds of early countercultural activity.
The Dakota Access Pipeline (DAPL) or Bakken pipeline is a underground oil pipeline in the United States.
Daniel Guérin (19 May 1904 in Paris – 14 April 1988 in Suresnes) was a French anarcho-communist author, best known for his work Anarchism: From Theory to Practice, as well as his collection No Gods No Masters: An Anthology of Anarchism in which he collected writings on the idea and movement it inspired, from the first writings of Max Stirner in the mid-19th century through the first half of the 20th century.
Daryl Christine Hannah (born December 3, 1960) is an American film actress and an environmental activist.
Sir David Frederick Attenborough (born 8 May 1926) is an English broadcaster and naturalist.
David James Bellamy OBE (born 18 January 1933) is an English author, broadcaster, environmental campaigner and botanist.
David Ross Brower (July 1, 1912 – November 5, 2000) was a prominent environmentalist and the founder of many environmental organizations, including the John Muir Institute for Environmental Studies, Friends of the Earth (1969), the League of Conservation Voters, Earth Island Institute (1982), North Cascades Conservation Council, and Fate of the Earth Conferences.
David Fraser McTaggart (June 24, 1932 – March 23, 2001) was a Canadian-born environmentalist who played a central part in the foundation of Greenpeace International.
David Takayoshi Suzuki (born March 24, 1936) is a Canadian academic, science broadcaster and environmental activist.
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, commonly known as DDT, is a colorless, tasteless, and almost odorless crystalline chemical compound, an organochlorine, originally developed as an insecticide, and ultimately becoming infamous for its environmental impacts.
Deep ecology is an ecological and environmental philosophy promoting the inherent worth of living beings regardless of their instrumental utility to human needs, plus a radical restructuring of modern human societies in accordance with such ideas.
Deep Green Resistance (DGR) is a radical environmental movement that views mainstream environmental activism as being largely ineffective.
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.
The Democratic Federation of Northern Syria (DFNS), commonly known as Rojava, is a de facto autonomous region in northern Syria.
A demonstration or street protest is action by a mass group or collection of groups of people in favor of a political or other cause; it normally consists of walking in a mass march formation and either beginning with or meeting at a designated endpoint, or rally, to hear speakers.
Denis Allen Hayes (born August 29, 1944) is an environmental advocate and proponent of solar power.
Derek Norman Wall is a British politician and member of the Green Party of England and Wales.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Dinosaur National Monument is a United States National Monument located on the southeast flank of the Uinta Mountains on the border between Colorado and Utah at the confluence of the Green and Yampa Rivers.
Direct action occurs when a group takes an action which is intended to reveal an existing problem, highlight an alternative, or demonstrate a possible solution to a social issue.
Dominique Voynet (born 4 November 1958 in Montbéliard, Doubs département, France) is a French politician who is a member of Europe Écologie–The Greens.
A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water.
Ernst Friedrich Schumacher (19 August 1911 – 4 September 1977) was a German statistician and economist who is best known for his proposals for human-scale, decentralised and appropriate technologies.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Earth Day is an annual event celebrated on April 22.
Earth First! is a radical environmental advocacy group that emerged in the Southwestern United States in 1979.
The Earth Liberation Front (ELF), also known as "Elves" or "The Elves", is the collective name for autonomous individuals or covert cells who, according to the ELF Press Office, use "economic sabotage and guerrilla warfare to stop the exploitation and destruction of the environment".
The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, the Rio Summit, the Rio Conference, and the Earth Summit (Portuguese: ECO92), was a major United Nations conference held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992.
Earthlife Africa is a South African environmental and anti-nuclear organisation founded in August 1988, in Johannesburg.
Ecological economics (also called eco-economics, ecolonomy or bioeconomics of Georgescu-Roegen) is both a transdisciplinary and an interdisciplinary field of academic research addressing the interdependence and coevolution of human economies and natural ecosystems, both intertemporally and spatially.
Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.
The Ecology Party was a political party in the United Kingdom.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Ecosystem services are the many and varied benefits that humans freely gain from the natural environment and from properly-functioning ecosystems.
An Ecotax (short for ecological taxation) is a tax levied on activities which are considered to be harmful to the environment and is intended to promote environmentally friendly activities via economic incentives.
Edward Benton "Ed" Dodd (November 7, 1902 – May 27, 1991) was a 20th-century American cartoonist known for his Mark Trail comic strip.
Edward Paul Abbey (January 29, 1927 – March 14, 1989) was an American author and essayist noted for his advocacy of environmental issues, criticism of public land policies, and anarchist political views.
Edward Carpenter (29 August 1844 – 28 June 1929) was an English socialist poet, philosopher, anthologist, and early activist for rights for homosexuals.
Edward I (17/18 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots (Malleus Scotorum), was King of England from 1272 to 1307.
Efficient energy use, sometimes simply called energy efficiency, is the goal to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services.
Elephant Nature Park is a sanctuary and rescue centre for elephants in Mae Taeng District, Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand, approximately from Chiang Mai City, co-founded by Sangduen "Lek" (Thai for "Shorty") Chailert.
Elizabeth Economy is the C. V. Starr senior fellow and director for Asia studies at the Council on Foreign Relations.
Emily Williamson, née Bateson (17 April 1855 – 12 January 1936) was an English philanthropist.
An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct.
The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA; 16 U.S.C. § 1531 et seq.) is one of the few dozens of US environmental laws passed in the 1970s, and serves as the enacting legislation to carry out the provisions outlined in The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).
Ennerdale Water is the most westerly lake in the Lake District National Park in Cumbria, England.
A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution.
Environmental consulting is often a form of compliance consulting, in which the consultant ensures that the client maintains an appropriate measure of compliance with environmental regulations.
Environmental Defense Fund or EDF (formerly known as Environmental Defense) is a United States-based nonprofit environmental advocacy group.
Environmental engineering system is the branch of engineering concerned with the application of scientific and engineering principles for protection of human populations from the effects of adverse environmental factors; protection of environments, both local and global, from potentially deleterious effects of natural and human activities; and improvement of environmental quality.
Environmental ethics is the part of environmental philosophy which considers extending the traditional boundaries of ethics from solely including humans to including the non-human world.
Environmental assessment (EA) is the assessment of the environmental consequences (positive and negative) of a plan, policy, program, or actual projects prior to the decision to move forward with the proposed action.
Environmental racism in Europe has been documented in relation to racialized immigrant and migrant populations alongside Romani (Roma/Gypsy), Yenish, Irish Traveller, and communities (such as the Sami, Komi, and Nenets) from within continental borders.
Environmental justice emerged as a concept in the United States in the early 1980s.
Environmental law, also known as environmental and natural resources law, is a collective term describing the network of treaties, statutes, regulations, common and customary laws addressing the effects of human activity on the natural environment.
The environmental movement (sometimes referred to as the ecology movement), also including conservation and green politics, is a diverse scientific, social, and political movement for addressing environmental issues.
In the United States today, the organized environmental movement is represented by a wide range of organizations sometimes called non-governmental organizations or NGOs.
An environmental organization is an organization coming out of the conservation or environmental movements that seeks to protect, analyse or monitor the environment against misuse or degradation from human forces.
Environmental protection is a practice of protecting the natural environment on individual, organization controlled or governmental levels, for the benefit of both the environment and humans.
Environmental Protection UK is a UK environmental Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) working to improve the quality of the local environment - specialising in the subjects of air quality, noise management and land quality.
Environmental racism is a term used to describe environmental injustice within a racialized context.
Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical, biological and information sciences (including ecology, biology, physics, chemistry, plant science, zoology, mineralogy, oceanology, limnology, soil science, geology and physical geography (geodesy), and atmospheric science) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems.
Environmental skepticism is the belief that claims by environmentalists, and the environmental scientists who support them, are false or exaggerated.
Environmental sociology is the study of interactions between societies and their natural environments.
Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy, ideology, and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the impact of changes to the environment on humans, animals, plants and non-living matter.
An environmentalist is a supporter of the goals of the environmental movement, "a political and ethical movement that seeks to improve and protect the quality of the natural environment through changes to environmentally harmful human activities".
Erin Brockovich (born Pattee; June 22, 1960) is an American legal clerk and environmental activist, who, despite her lack of formal education in the law, was instrumental in building a case against the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) of California in 1993.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
Ethology is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions, and viewing behaviour as an evolutionarily adaptive trait.
Eucalyptus L'Héritier 1789 (plural eucalypti, eucalyptuses or eucalypts) is a diverse genus of flowering trees and shrubs (including a distinct group with a multiple-stem mallee growth habit) in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae.
The European Environment Agency (EEA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) that provides independent information on the environment, thereby helping those involved in developing, adopting, implementing and evaluating environmental policy, as well as informing the general public.
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
Expo '74 was the first environmentally themed world's fair.
FernGully 2: The Magical Rescue is a 1998 animated film, a direct-to-video sequel to FernGully: The Last Rainforest (1992).
FernGully: The Last Rainforest is a 1992 animated musical fantasy film, directed by Bill Kroyer and scripted by Jim Cox.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
Forest management is a branch of forestry concerned with overall administrative, economic, legal, and social aspects, as well as scientific and technical aspects, such as silviculture, protection, and forest regulation.
The Forestry Commission is a non-ministerial government department responsible for forestry in England and Scotland (on 1 April 2013 Forestry Commission Wales merged with other agencies to become Natural Resources Wales).
Frances Beinecke is the former president of the Natural Resources Defense Council, the nonprofit conservation group, serving since 2006.
In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.
Free-market environmentalism argues that the free market, property rights, and tort law provide the best means of preserving the environment, internalizing pollution costs, and conserving resources.
Friends of the Earth International (FoEI) is an international network of environmental organizations in 74 countries.
Friends of the Earth U.S. is a non-governmental environmental organization headquartered in Washington, D.C. with an office in the David Brower Center in Berkeley, California.
Gabriel Willow is an environmental educator, an ecologist, and an urban naturalist who lives and works in New York City.
The Gaia hypothesis, also known as the Gaia theory or the Gaia principle, proposes that living organisms interact with their inorganic surroundings on Earth to form a synergistic and self-regulating, complex system that helps to maintain and perpetuate the conditions for life on the planet.
The garden city movement is a method of urban planning in which self-contained communities are surrounded by "greenbelts", containing proportionate areas of residences, industry, and agriculture.
Garrett James Hardin (April 21, 1915 – September 14, 2003) was an American ecologist and philosopher who warned of the dangers of overpopulation.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
Gaylord Anton Nelson (June 4, 1916July 3, 2005) was an American politician and environmentalist from Wisconsin who served as a United States Senator and governor.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.
George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856 – 2 November 1950), known at his insistence simply as Bernard Shaw, was an Irish playwright, critic, polemicist, and political activist.
George Joshua Richard Monbiot (born 27 January 1963) is a British writer known for his environmental, political activism.
Gifford Pinchot (August 11, 1865October 4, 1946) was an American forester and politician.
Global Day of Action is a direct action protest format.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
The Grand Canyon (Hopi: Ongtupqa; Wi:kaʼi:la, Navajo: Tsékooh Hatsoh, Spanish: Gran Cañón) is a steep-sided canyon carved by the Colorado River in Arizona, United States.
The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s.
The Great Smog of London, or Great Smog of 1952, was a severe air-pollution event that affected the British capital of London in early December 1952.
The green economy is defined as an economy that aims at reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities, and that aims for sustainable development without degrading the environment.
The Green Party, also known as the Green Party UK, was a Green political party in the United Kingdom.
Green politics (also known as ecopolitics) is a political ideology that aims to create an ecologically sustainable society rooted in environmentalism, nonviolence, social justice and grassroots democracy.
Green seniors refers to elderly or retired people who have an active interest in environmental issues.
Greening is the process of transforming artifacts such as a space, a lifestyle or a brand image into a more environmentally friendly version (i.e. 'greening your home' or 'greening your office').
Greenpeace is a non-governmental environmental organization with offices in over 39 countries and with an international coordinating body in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Greenwashing (a compound word modelled on "whitewash"), also called "green sheen", is a form of spin in which green PR or green marketing is deceptively used to promote the perception that an organization's products, aims or policies are environmentally friendly.
A greenway is "a strip of undeveloped land near an urban area, set aside for recreational use or environmental protection".
Herbert George Wells.
Hands off our Forest (HOOF) is a campaign group formed in 2010 to fight the UK Government's proposed sale of publicly owned land in the Forest of Dean.
Hans-Josef Fell (born 7 January 1952 in Hammelburg, German) was a member of the German Parliamentary Group Alliance 90/ the Greens from 1998 to 2013.
Canon Hardwicke Drummond Rawnsley (29 September 1851 – 28 May 1920) was a Church of England clergyman, poet, hymn writer, local politician, and conservationist.
Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.
In law, a hearing is a proceeding before a court or other decision-making body or officer, such as a government agency or a Parliamentary committee.
Helen Mary Caldicott (born 7 August 1938) is an Australian physician, author, and anti-nuclear advocate who has founded several associations dedicated to opposing the use of nuclear power, depleted uranium munitions, nuclear weapons, nuclear weapons proliferation, and military action in general.
Henry David Thoreau (see name pronunciation; July 12, 1817 – May 6, 1862) was an American essayist, poet, philosopher, abolitionist, naturalist, tax resister, development critic, surveyor, and historian.
Herman Edward Daly (born July 21, 1938) is an American ecological and Georgist economist and emeritus professor at the School of Public Policy of University of Maryland, College Park in the United States.
The history of coal mining goes back thousands of years.
Homes before Roads was a 1970s political movement and campaign in the United Kingdom initially formed in London in 1970 to oppose plans to construct a system of four interlinked concentric motorways through and around London, known as Ringways.
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH) is an educational and trade publisher in the United States.
Howard Clinton Zahniser (February 25, 1906 – May 5, 1964) was an American environmental activist.
Human impact on the environment or anthropogenic impact on the environment includes changes to biophysical environments and ecosystems, biodiversity, and natural resources caused directly or indirectly by humans, including global warming, environmental degradation (such as ocean acidification), mass extinction and biodiversity loss, ecological crises, and ecological collapse.
Human overpopulation (or population overshoot) occurs when the ecological footprint of a human population in a specific geographical location exceeds the carrying capacity of the place occupied by that group.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Ahmed Bin Jaafar Bin Brahim Ibn Al Jazzar Al-Qayrawani (895 – 979) (أبو جعفر أحمد بن أبي خالد بن الجزار القيرواني), was an influential 10th-century Muslim Arab physician who became famous for his writings on Islamic medicine.
Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي), known as Ibn al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس), was an Arab physician mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood.
Abū al-Makārim Hibat Allāh ibn Zayn al-Dīn Ibn Jumay‘ (died 1198 / AH 594) was an Egyptian Jewish physician, chief physician at the court of Saladin.
An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.
In the Fourth Year is a collection H.G. Wells assembled in the spring of 1918 from essays he had recently published discussing the problem of establishing lasting peace when World War I ended.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.
An intentional community is a planned residential community designed from the start to have a high degree of social cohesion and teamwork.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific and intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations, set up at the request of member governments, dedicated to the task of providing the world with an objective, scientific view of climate change and its political and economic impacts.
The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) is an international financial institution that offers loans to middle-income developing countries.
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
Isaac Israeli ben Solomon (Hebrew: Yitzhak ben Shlomo ha-Yisraeli; Arabic: Abu Ya'qub Ishaq ibn Suleiman al-Isra'ili) (c. 832 – c. 932), also known as Isaac Israeli the Elder and Isaac Judaeus, was one of the foremost Arab Jewish physicians and philosophers of his time.
Jacques-Yves Cousteau (11 June 1910 – 25 June 1997) was a French naval officer, explorer, conservationist, filmmaker, innovator, scientist, photographer, author and researcher who studied the sea and all forms of life in water.
James Edward Hansen (born 29 March 1941) is an American adjunct professor directing the Program on Climate Science, Awareness and Solutions of the Earth Institute at Columbia University.
James Ephraim Lovelock, (born 26 July 1919) is an independent scientist, environmentalist, and futurist who lives in Dorset, England.
Jane Seymour Fonda (born December 21, 1937) is an American actress, writer, political activist, former fashion model and fitness guru.
Dame Jane Morris Goodall (born Valerie Jane Morris-Goodall, 3 April 1934), formerly Baroness Jane van Lawick-Goodall, is a British primatologist and anthropologist.
Jarid Manos is an author, speaker, environmental activist and founder and president of the Great Plains Restoration Council.
Josephine Clare Valentine, Baroness Valentine (born 8 December 1958) is a Crossbench member of the British House of Lords.
John James Audubon (born Jean Rabin; April 26, 1785 – January 27, 1851) was an American ornithologist, naturalist, and painter.
John McCormick (born November 30, 1954) is Jean Monnet Chair of European Union Politics at Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), and was department chair from 2001 until 2008.
John Muir (April 21, 1838 – December 24, 1914) also known as "John of the Mountains" and "Father of the National Parks", was an influential Scottish-American naturalist, author, environmental philosopher, glaciologist and early advocate for the preservation of wilderness in the United States.
John Ruskin (8 February 1819 – 20 January 1900) was the leading English art critic of the Victorian era, as well as an art patron, draughtsman, watercolourist, a prominent social thinker and philanthropist.
John Wesley "Wes" Powell (March 24, 1834 – September 23, 1902) was a U.S. soldier, geologist, explorer of the American West, professor at Illinois Wesleyan University, and director of major scientific and cultural institutions.
Jonathon Espie Porritt, CBE (born 6 July 1950) is a leading British environmentalist and writer.
Roberta Joan "Joni" Mitchell, CC (née Anderson; born November 7, 1943) is a Canadian singer-songwriter.
Josh Fox (born 1972) is an American film director, playwright and environmental activist, best known for his Oscar-nominated 2010 documentary, Gasland.
Judi Bari (November 7, 1949 – March 2, 1997) was an American environmentalist and labor leader, a feminist, and the principal organizer of Earth First! campaigns against logging in the ancient redwood forests of Northern California in the 1980s and '90s.
Julia Lorraine Hill (known as Julia "Butterfly" Hill, born February 18, 1974) is an American environmental activist and tax redirection advocate.
Kevin Buzzacott (born 1947), often referred to as Uncle Kev as an Aboriginal elder, is an Indigenous Australian from the Arabunna nation in northern South Australia.
The Kupa Piti Kungka Tjuta is a council of Senior Aboriginal Women from Coober Pedy, South Australia.
The Lacandon Jungle (Spanish: Selva Lacandona) is an area of rainforest which stretches from Chiapas, Mexico, into Guatemala and into the southern part of the Yucatán Peninsula.
The Lake District, also known as the Lakes or Lakeland, is a mountainous region in North West England.
A land ethic is a philosophy or theoretical framework about how, ethically, humans should regard the land.
Laurie Ellen David (née Lennard; born March 22, 1958) is an American environmental activist.
The Leblanc process was an early industrial process for the production of soda ash (sodium carbonate) used throughout the 19th century, named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc.
Leonardo Wilhelm DiCaprio (born November 11, 1974) is an American actor and film producer.
Lester Russel Brown (born March 28, 1934) is a United States environmental analyst, founder of the Worldwatch Institute, and founder and former president of the Earth Policy Institute, a nonprofit research organization based in Washington, D.C. BBC Radio commentator Peter Day referred to him as "one of the great pioneer environmentalists." Brown is the author or co-author of over 50 books on global environmental issues and his works have been translated into more than forty languages.
A linear park is a park in an urban or suburban setting that is substantially longer than it is wide.
Lisa Perez JacksonPhillips, Kate.
This is a list of anarchist communities representing any society or portion thereof founded by anarchists that functions according to anarchist philosophy and principles.
The Nobel Prizes (Nobelpriset, Nobelprisen) are prizes awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.
Lobbying, persuasion, or interest representation is the act of attempting to influence the actions, policies, or decisions of officials in their daily life, most often legislators or members of regulatory agencies.
Lois Marie Gibbs (born June 25, 1951) is an American environmental activist.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Love Canal is a neighborhood within Niagara Falls, New York.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule.
Majora Carter (born October 27, 1966) is an American urban revitalization strategist and public radio host from the South Bronx area of New York City.
"Make America Great Again" (abbreviated as MAGA) is a campaign slogan used in American politics that was popularized by Donald Trump in his successful 2016 presidential campaign.
The March Against Monsanto is an international grassroots movement and protest against Monsanto corporation, a producer of genetically modified organism (GMOs) and Roundup, a glyphosate-based herbicide.
Marina DeBris is the name used by an Australian based artist whose work focuses on reusing trash to raise awareness of ocean and beach pollution.
Maria Osmarina Marina Silva Vaz de Lima (born 8 February 1958) is a Brazilian politician.
Mark Trail is a newspaper comic strip created by the American cartoonist Ed Dodd.
Clyde Martin Litton (February 13, 1917 – November 30, 2014) was a Grand Canyon river runner and a longtime conservationist, best known as a staunch opponent of the construction of Glen Canyon Dam and other dams on the Colorado River.
A maypole is a tall wooden pole erected as a part of various European folk festivals, around which a maypole dance often takes place.
In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine is the science of medicine developed in the Islamic Golden Age, and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of Islamic civilization.
The Mesoamerica Integration and Development Project (Proyecto Mesoamérica, or PM) is a regional mechanism specialized in implementing projects that deliver regional public goods for inclusive development and integration of the 10 participating countries that share a common history and culture: Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Panama.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Miss Earth is an annual international environmental-themed beauty pageant promoting environmental awareness.
Miss Universe is an annual international beauty pageant that is run by the American based Miss Universe Organization.
Miss World is the oldest running international beauty pageant.
is a Japanese politician.
Monoculture is the agricultural practice of producing or growing a single crop, plant, or livestock species, variety, or breed in a field or farming system at a time.
Morris dance is a form of English folk dance usually accompanied by music.
Municipal solid waste (MSW), commonly known as trash or garbage in the United States and rubbish in Britain, is a waste type consisting of everyday items that are discarded by the public.
Murray Bookchin (January 14, 1921 – July 30, 2006)was an American social theorist, author, orator, historian, and political philosopher.
Nancy Wynne Newhall (May 9, 1908 – July 7, 1974) was an American photography critic.
The National Park Service (NPS) is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations.
The National Wildlife Federation (NWF) is the United States' largest private, nonprofit conservation education and advocacy organization, with over six million members and supporters, and 51 state and territorial affiliated organizations (including Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands).
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.
Natural resource management refers to the management of natural resources such as land, water, soil, plants and animals, with a particular focus on how management affects the quality of life for both present and future generations (stewardship).
The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) is a United States-based, non-profit international environmental advocacy group, with its headquarters in New York City and offices in Washington, D.C.; San Francisco; Los Angeles; New Delhi, India; Chicago; Bozeman, Montana; and Beijing, China.
A nature reserve (also called a natural reserve, bioreserve, (natural/nature) preserve, or (national/nature) conserve) is a protected area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research.
Naturism, or nudism, is a cultural and political movement practising, advocating, and defending personal and social nudity, most but not all of which takes place on private property.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Neuchâtel, or Neuchatel; (neu(f) "new" and chatel "castle" (château); Neuenburg; Neuchâtel; Neuchâtel or Neufchâtel)The city was also called Neuchâtel-outre-Joux (Neuchâtel beyond Joux) to distinguish it from another Neuchâtel in Burgundy, now Neuchâtel-Urtière.
The Nevada Desert Experience is a name for the movement to stop U.S. nuclear weapons testing that came into use in the middle 1980s.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
The Newlands Valley is in the Lake District National Park in Cumbria, England.
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA; Spanish: Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte, TLCAN; French: Accord de libre-échange nord-américain, ALÉNA) is an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America.
Octavia Hill (3 December 1838 – 13 August 1912) was an English social reformer, whose main concern was the welfare of the inhabitants of cities, especially London, in the second half of the nineteenth century.
The Open Spaces Society is a campaign group that works to protect public rights of way and open spaces in the United Kingdom, such as common land and village greens.
Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War began with demonstrations in 1964 against the escalating role of the U.S. military in the Vietnam War and grew into a broad social movement over the ensuing several years.
Ornithology is a branch of zoology that concerns the study of birds.
The passenger pigeon or wild pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius) is an extinct species of pigeon that was endemic to North America.
Paul Ralph Ehrlich (born May 29, 1932) is an American biologist, best known for his warnings about the consequences of population growth and limited resources.
Permaculture is a system of agricultural and social design principles centered around simulating or directly utilizing the patterns and features observed in natural ecosystems.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
Peter Dauvergne is an author and environmentalist.
Peter Robert Garrett (born 16 April 1953) is an Australian musician, environmentalist, activist and former politician.
Pyotr Alexeevich Kropotkin (Пётр Алексе́евич Кропо́ткин; December 9, 1842 – February 8, 1921) was a Russian activist, revolutionary, scientist and philosopher who advocated anarcho-communism.
Philip David Radford (born January 2, 1976) is an American environmental, clean energy and democracy leader who served as the youngest executive director of Greenpeace USA.
Philip Hyde (1921–2006) was a pioneer landscape photographer and conservationisthttps://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res.
There are at least two senses in which the term philosophy is used: a formal and an informal sense.
Plane Mad is an Irish direct action group that campaigns against the aviation industry's contribution to climate change.
Plane Stupid is a UK-focused group of environmental protesters who state their aim as wanting to see an end to airport expansion for what it sees as "unnecessary and unsustainable" flights.
In the social sciences, a political movement is a social group that operates together to obtain a political goal, on a local, regional, national, or international scope.
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.
The Popular Indigenous Council of Oaxaca "Ricardo Flores Magón" (Consejo Indígena Popular de Oaxaca "Ricardo Flores Magón"), also known by its acronym CIPO-RFM, is an organization drawn from rural indigenous peoples and communities in the Mexican state of Oaxaca.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
The Public Health Act 1875 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, one of the Public Health Acts, and a significant step in the advance of public health in Britain.
Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, or mass transit) is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public, typically managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, and that charge a posted fee for each trip.
The Qidong protest was an environmental protest against a proposed waste water pipeline in the Chinese city of Qidong province.
Qusta ibn Luqa (820–912) (Costa ben Luca, Constabulus) was a Syrian Melkite physician, scientist and translator.
Rachel Louise Carson (May 27, 1907 – April 14, 1964) was an American marine biologist, author, and conservationist whose book Silent Spring and other writings are credited with advancing the global environmental movement.
Ralph Nader (born February 27, 1934) is an American political activist, author, lecturer, and attorney, noted for his involvement in consumer protection, environmentalism and government reform causes.
Rebel Zapatista Autonomous Municipalities (in Spanish, known by the acronym MAREZ) are small territories controlled by the Zapatista support bases in the Mexican state of Chiapas, founded in December 1994.
Reclaimed or recycled water (also called wastewater reuse or water reclamation) is the process of converting wastewater into water that can be reused for other purposes.
Reforestation is the natural or intentional restocking of existing forests and woodlands (forestation) that have been depleted, usually through deforestation.
Religion and environmentalism is an emerging interdisciplinary subfield in the academic disciplines of religious studies, religious ethics, the sociology of religion, and theology amongst others, with environmentalism and ecological principles as a primary focus.
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
A renewable resource is a natural resource which replenishes to overcome resource depletion caused by usage and consumption, either through biological reproduction or other naturally recurring processes in a finite amount of time in a human time scale.
The right to property or right to own property (cf. ownership) is often classified as a human right for natural persons regarding their possessions.
Sir Robert Hunter, KCB (27 October 1844 – 6 November 1913) was a solicitor, civil servant and co-founder of the National Trust.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) is a charitable organisation registered in England and Wales and in Scotland.
Rudolf Walter Richard Hess (Heß in German; 26 April 1894 – 17 August 1987), was a prominent politician in Nazi Germany.
Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening a polity, effort or organization through subversion, obstruction, disruption or destruction.
San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.
The Save Manapouri campaign was an environmental campaign waged between 1959 and 1972 in New Zealand to prevent the raising of the levels of lakes Manapouri and Te Anau as part of the construction of the Manapouri Power Project.
The "Say Yes" demonstrations were a series of simultaneous political demonstrations held in major cities across Australia on 5 June 2011 to coincide with World Environment Day.
The Sea Birds Preservation Act 1869 (32 & 33 Vict. c. 17) was an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom.
The Shifang protest was a large-scale environmental protest in the southwestern Chinese city of Shifang, Sichuan province, against a copper plant that residents feared posed environmental and public health risks.
Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business that exists in either a marine or freshwater environment, producing shrimp or prawns (crustaceans of the groups Caridea or Dendrobranchiata) for human consumption.
The Sierra Club is an environmental organization in the United States.
Silent Spring is an environmental science book by Rachel Carson.
Simran Preeti Sethi (born October 12, 1970, in Munich, Germany) is an Indian American journalist.
A sit-in or sit-down is a form of direct action that involves one or more people occupying an area for a protest, often to promote political, social, or economic change.
The slow movement (sometimes capitalised Slow movement or Slow Movement) advocates a cultural shift toward slowing down life's pace.
Small Is Beautiful: A Study of Economics As If People Mattered is a collection of essays by German born British economist E. F. Schumacher.
Smoke is a collection of airborne solid and liquid particulates and gases emitted when a material undergoes combustion or pyrolysis, together with the quantity of air that is entrained or otherwise mixed into the mass.
Smokey Bear is an American advertising icon created by the U.S. Forest Service with artist Albert Staehle, at Don Markstein's Toonopedia from the original on June 5, 2017.
Social ecology is a critical social theory founded by American anarchist and libertarian socialist author Murray Bookchin.
A social movement is a type of group action.
The Socialist League was an early revolutionary socialist organisation in the United Kingdom.
Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate) is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.
Soil contamination or soil pollution as part of land degradation is caused by the presence of xenobiotic (human-made) chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment.
Solar Energy Generating Systems (SEGS) in California, with the combined capacity from three separate locations at 354 megawatts (MW, 474,700 hp), is now the world's second largest solar thermal energy generating facility, after the commissioning of the even larger Ivanpah facility in 2014.
Solar power is the conversion of energy from sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), indirectly using concentrated solar power, or a combination.
Spaceship Earth or Spacecraft Earth is a world view encouraging everyone on Earth to act as a harmonious crew working toward the greater good.
The Spanish Revolution was a workers' social revolution that began during the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936 and resulted in the widespread implementation of anarchist and more broadly libertarian socialist organizational principles throughout various portions of the country for two to three years, primarily Catalonia, Aragon, Andalusia, and parts of the Valencian Community.
Spokane is a city in the state of Washington in the northwestern United States.
Stewart Lee Udall (January 31, 1920 – March 20, 2010) was an American politician and later, a federal government official.
Sustainability is the process of change, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations.
Swami Sundaranand (born April, 1926 near Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India) is a Yogi, photographer, author and mountaineer who lectures widely in India on threats to the Ganges River and the loss of Himalayan glaciers due to global warming.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Sylvia Alice Earle (née Reade; born August 30, 1935) is an American marine biologist, explorer, author, and lecturer.
The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.
Tasmania (abbreviated as Tas and known colloquially as Tassie) is an island state of Australia.
Robert Edward "Ted" Turner III (born November 19, 1938) is an American media mogul and philanthropist.
Tetsunari Iida (飯田 哲也, Iida Tetsunari; born 1959, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan) is director of the Institute for Sustainable Energy Policies in Japan.
The Clarion was a weekly newspaper published by Robert Blatchford, based in the United Kingdom.
The Climate Coalition is the UK's largest group of people dedicated to action against climate change.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Kind Diet: A Simple Guide to Feeling Great, Losing Weight and Saving the Planet is a vegan cookbook written by actress and animal rights activist Alicia Silverstone.
The Nature Conservancy is a charitable environmental organization, headquartered in Arlington, Virginia, United States.
The Wilderness Society is an American non-profit land conservation organization that is dedicated to protecting natural areas and federal public lands in the United States.
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was an American statesman and writer who served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
A tort, in common law jurisdictions, is a civil wrong that causes a claimant to suffer loss or harm resulting in legal liability for the person who commits the tortious act.
Trashion (a portmanteau of "trash" and "fashion") is a term for art, jewellery, fashion and objects for the home created from used, thrown-out, found and repurposed elements.
Tree sitting is a form of environmentalist civil disobedience in which a protester sits in a tree, usually on a small platform built for the purpose, to protect it from being cut down (speculating that loggers will not endanger human lives by cutting an occupied tree).
The United Nations Conference on the Human Environment was held in Stockholm, Sweden from June 5–16 in 1972.
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency of United Nations and coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.
United Nations Messenger of Peace is a title bestowed by the United Nations to "distinguished individuals, carefully selected from the fields of art, music, literature and sports, who have agreed to help focus worldwide attention on the work of the United Nations." The messengers are initially chosen for a period of three years; although three of the current twelve messengers, Michael Douglas, Jane Goodall, and Yo-Yo Ma have served for more than ten years.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
The United States Forest Service (USFS) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the U.S. Department of the Interior.
The United Tasmania Group (UTG) is generally acknowledged as the world's first Green party to contest elections.
The University of Arizona Press, a publishing house founded in 1959 as a department of the University of Arizona, is a nonprofit publisher of scholarly and regional books.
Urban agriculture, urban farming, or urban gardening is the practice of cultivating, processing and distributing food in or around a village, town, or city.
Urban planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and design of land use in an urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks.
A utopia is an imagined community or society that possesses highly desirable or nearly perfect qualities for its citizens.
The Values Party was a New Zealand political party.
Vandana Shiva (born 5 November 1952) is an Indian scholar, environmental activist, food sovereignty advocate, and alter-globalization author.
In epidemiology, a disease vector is any agent that carries and transmits an infectious pathogen into another living organism; most agents regarded as vectors are organisms, such as intermediate parasites or microbes, but it could be an inanimate medium of infection such as dust particles.
The Vice President of the United States (informally referred to as VPOTUS, or Veep) is a constitutional officer in the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States as the President of the Senate under Article I, Section 3, Clause 4, of the United States Constitution, as well as the second highest executive branch officer, after the President of the United States.
Walden (first published as Walden; or, Life in the Woods) is a book by noted transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau.
Wallace Earle Stegner (February 18, 1909 – April 13, 1993) was an American novelist, short story writer, environmentalist, and historian, often called "The Dean of Western Writers".
Wangari Muta Maathai (1 April 1940 – 25 September 2011) was an internationally renowned Kenyan environmental political activist and Nobel laureate.
Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities.
Wave Hill walk-off or The Gurindji strike was a walk-off and strike by 200 Gurindji stockmen, house servants and their families in August 1966 at Wave Hill cattle station in Kalkarindji (formerly known as Wave Hill), Northern Territory.
Wendell Erdman Berry (born August 5, 1934) is an American novelist, poet, environmental activist, cultural critic, and farmer.
The Wilderness Act of 1964 was written by Howard Zahniser of The Wilderness Society.
Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) was founded in 1895 as the New York Zoological Society (NYZS) and currently works to conserve more than two million square miles of wild places around the world.
Sir William Blake Richmond KCB, RA, PPRBSA (29 November 1842 – 11 February 1921), was a portrait painter and a designer of stained glass and mosaic, whose works include mosaic decorations below the dome and in the apse of St Paul's cathedral in London.
William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896) was an English textile designer, poet, novelist, translator, and socialist activist.
William Wordsworth (7 April 1770 – 23 April 1850) was a major English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their joint publication Lyrical Ballads (1798).
A wind farm is a group of wind turbines in the same location used to produce electricity.
The wood industry or lumber industry is a - usually private - economic sector concerned with forestry, logging, timber trade, and the production of forest products, timber/lumber, primary forest and wood products (e.g. furniture) and secondary products like wood pulp for the pulp and paper industry.
Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
A worker cooperative, is a cooperative that is owned and self-managed by its workers.
The World Bank Group (WBG) (Groupe de la Banque mondiale) is a family of five international organizations that make leveraged loans to developing countries.
The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment.
A world's fair, world fair, world expo, universal exposition, or international exposition (sometimes expo or Expo for short) is a large international exhibition designed to showcase achievements of nations.
The Wyoming Outdoor Council is Wyoming’s oldest, independent, membership-based conservation organization.
Xiuhtezcatl Martinez (ʃuwˈteskat͡ɬ, "shoo-TEHZ-caht") or Xiuhtezcatl Roske-Martinez, is an indigenous environmental activist, hip hop artist and youth director of Earth Guardians, a worldwide conservation organization.
Yosemite National Park is an American national park lying in the western Sierra Nevada of California.
Yosemite Valley is a glacial valley in Yosemite National Park in the western Sierra Nevada mountains of Central California.
The 2010 Xinfa aluminum plant protest (信发铝厂污染引抗议) occurred when the Chiping County, Shandong Xinfa aluminum & power group (山东信发铝电集团) began when villagers started complaining about pollution created by the factory.
Ecologism, Envirnmentalism, Enviromentalism, Enviromentalists, Environmental Activist, Environmental activism, Environmental activist, Environmental activists, Environmental awareness, Environmental consciousness, Environmental preservation, Environmental rights, Environmentalisms, Environmentalist movement, Environmentally-conscious, Go green, Going green, Green (environment), Greenism, Greenisms, History of environmentalism, Natural Environmental Crisis, Preservation ethic, Victoria sewage debate, Yellow environmentalism.