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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts. [1]

332 relations: -ase, Acetolactate decarboxylase, Acetylcholinesterase, Activation energy, Active site, Active transport, Adenosine triphosphate, Alcohol, Alcohol dehydrogenase, Allosteric regulation, Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, Amylase, Ancient Greek, Anselme Payen, Antibiotic, Antimicrobial resistance, Aspirin, Émile Duclaux, Beer, Beta-lactam, Beta-lactamase, Beta-mannosidase, Binding site, Biofuel, Biomass, Biomolecular structure, Biopharmaceutical, Biotin, Biscuit, Blood sugar level, Blue cheese, BRENDA, Brewing, Camembert, Cancer syndrome, Carbonic anhydrase, Carcinogenesis, Catabolism, Catalase, Catalysis, Catalytic triad, Cell (biology), Cellular compartment, Cellular respiration, Cellulase, Cellulosic ethanol, Cheese, Chemical equilibrium, Chemical industry, Chemical reaction, ..., Chemoselectivity, Cholesterol, Chymosin, Chymotrypsin, Chymotrypsinogen, Citric acid cycle, Coenzyme A, Cofactor (biochemistry), Competitive inhibition, Concentration, Conformational change, Conformational ensembles, Conformational proofreading, Contact lens, Cooking, Covalent bond, Cyanide, Cyclooxygenase, Cytochrome c oxidase, Cytochrome P450, Cytoplasm, Cytoskeleton, Cytosol, Dairy, Daniel E. Koshland Jr., David Chilton Phillips, De novo synthesis, Denaturation (biochemistry), Diacetyl, Diastase, Diffusion, Diffusion limited enzyme, Dihydrofolate reductase, DNA ligase, DNA polymerase, DNA repair, Drug, Drug interaction, Drug metabolism, Eduard Buchner, Egg white, Endoplasmic reticulum, Endothermic process, Entropy, Enzyme activator, Enzyme assay, Enzyme catalysis, Enzyme Commission number, Enzyme inducer, Enzyme inhibitor, Enzyme promiscuity, Enzyme repressor, Eukaryote, Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, ExPASy, Fat, Fatty acid, Fatty acid synthase, Feedback, Fermentation in food processing, Firefly, Flavin adenine dinucleotide, Flavin group, Flavin mononucleotide, Flour, Flux (metabolism), Folate, Food processing, Fumarase, Function (biology), Functional group, Gastrointestinal tract, Gene expression, Genetic disorder, Genome, George Edward Briggs, Germline mutation, Gibbs free energy, Globular protein, Glucanase, Glucokinase, Glucose, Glycogen, Glycogen synthase, Glycolysis, Glycoside hydrolase, Glycosylation, Golgi apparatus, Guar gum, Heme, Herbivore, Hermann Emil Fischer, Hexokinase, Hexosaminidase, High-fructose corn syrup, HIV, Homeostasis, Hot spring, Humboldt University of Berlin, Hydride, Hydrolase, Hydrolysis, Hydrophile, Hydrophobe, Hypoallergenic, Industrial enzymes, Inflammation, Influenza, Inorganic compound, Insulin, Integrase, Intellectual disability, IntEnz, International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inverted sugar syrup, Ion, Ion transporter, Iron–sulfur cluster, Isomer, Isomerase, Isozyme, J. B. S. Haldane, James B. Sumner, John Howard Northrop, Juice, KEGG, Kinase, Kraft paper, Lactase, Lactose, Lactose intolerance, Laundry detergent, Law of mass action, Leonor Michaelis, Ligand (biochemistry), Ligase, Lignin, Lignin peroxidase, Lignin-modifying enzyme, Lipase, List of enzymes, Liver, Louis Pasteur, Luciferase, Lung, Lyase, Lysosome, Lysozyme, Macromolecular crowding, Macromolecule, Malt, Maltose, Maud Menten, Meat, Meat tenderizer, Metabolic pathway, Metabolism, MetaCyc, Methotrexate, Michaelis–Menten kinetics, Mitochondrion, Mixed inhibition, Molecular biology, Molecule, Monomer, Multicellular organism, Muscle contraction, Myosin, Myristoylation, Negative feedback, Neuraminidase, Neutral theory of molecular evolution, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nomenclature, Non-competitive inhibition, Nuclease, Organ (anatomy), Organic compound, Orotidine 5'-phosphate decarboxylase, Oxidoreductase, Oxyanion hole, Pancreas, Papain, Paper, Pectinase, Penicillin, Pentose phosphate pathway, Pepsin, Periplasm, Personal care, PH, Phenylalanine, Phenylalanine hydroxylase, Phenylketonuria, Phosphatase, Phosphorylation, Poison, Polymerase, Polymerase chain reaction, Post-translational modification, Product (chemistry), Proofreading (biology), Prostaglandin, Protease, Protease inhibitor (pharmacology), Protein, Protein complex, Protein domain, Protein engineering, Protein secondary structure, Protein targeting, Protonation, Pseudocholinesterase deficiency, Pseudoenzyme, Pullulanase, Pyruvate carboxylase, Pyruvic acid, Reaction mechanism, Reaction rate, Reaction rate constant, Recombinant DNA, Redox, Regioselectivity, Regulation of gene expression, Restriction enzyme, Retrovirus, Reverse transcriptase, Ribbon diagram, Ribosome, Ribozyme, Richard Willstätter, RNA, RNA polymerase, Roquefort, Ruminant, S-Adenosyl methionine, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase enzyme, Saliva, Side chain, Signal transduction, Skin cancer, Solution, Solvent, Starch, Statin, Stereospecificity, Stomach, Structural biology, Substrate (chemistry), Sugar, Superoxide dismutase, Tay–Sachs disease, Temperature, Tetrahydrofolic acid, Thermodynamic equilibrium, Thiamine pyrophosphate, Tissue (biology), Transcription (biology), Transferase, Transition state, Translation (biology), Triosephosphate isomerase, Trypsin, Turn (biochemistry), Ultraviolet, Uncompetitive inhibitor, Urease, Virus, Vitalism, Vitamin, Wendell Meredith Stanley, Wilhelm Kühne, Wort, X-ray crystallography, Xeroderma pigmentosum, Xylanase, Yeast, Zymase, Zymogen, 4-Oxalocrotonate tautomerase. Expand index (282 more) »

-ase

The suffix -ase is used in biochemistry to form names of enzymes.

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Acetolactate decarboxylase

In enzymology, an acetolactate decarboxylase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, (S)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-3-oxobutanoate, and two products, (R)-2-acetoin and CO2.

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Acetylcholinesterase

Acetylcholinesterase, encoded by HGNC gene ACHE; EC 3.1.1.7) is the primary cholinesterase in the body. It is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of acetylcholine and of some other choline esters that function as neurotransmitters. AChE is found at mainly neuromuscular junctions and in chemical synapses of the cholinergic type, where its activity serves to terminate synaptic transmission. It belongs to carboxylesterase family of enzymes. It is the primary target of inhibition by organophosphorus compounds such as nerve agents and pesticides.

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Activation energy

In chemistry and physics, activation energy is the energy which must be available to a chemical or nuclear system with potential reactants to result in: a chemical reaction, nuclear reaction, or other various other physical phenomena.

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Active site

In biology, the active site is the region of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction.

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Active transport

Active transport is the movement of molecules across a membrane from a region of their lower concentration to a region of their higher concentration—in the direction against the concentration gradient.

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Adenosine triphosphate

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.

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Alcohol

In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.

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Alcohol dehydrogenase

Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) are a group of dehydrogenase enzymes that occur in many organisms and facilitate the interconversion between alcohols and aldehydes or ketones with the reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ to NADH).

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Allosteric regulation

In biochemistry, allosteric regulation (or allosteric control) is the regulation of an enzyme by binding an effector molecule at a site other than the enzyme's active site.

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Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase

An aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS or ARS), also called tRNA-ligase, is an enzyme that attaches the appropriate amino acid onto its tRNA.

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Amylase

An amylase is an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of starch into sugars.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Anselme Payen

Anselme Payen (6 January 1795 – 13 May 1871) was a French chemist known for discovering the enzyme diastase, and the carbohydrate cellulose.

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Antibiotic

An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.

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Antimicrobial resistance

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.

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Aspirin

Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.

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Émile Duclaux

Émile Duclaux (24 June 1840 – May 2, 1904) was a French microbiologist and chemist born in Aurillac, Cantal.

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Beer

Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.

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Beta-lactam

A beta-lactam (β-lactam) ring is a four-membered lactam.

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Beta-lactamase

Beta-lactamases are enzymes produced by bacteria that provide multi-resistance to β-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins, cephalosporins, cephamycins, and carbapenems (ertapenem), although carbapenems are relatively resistant to beta-lactamase.

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Beta-mannosidase

Beta-mannosidase (mannanase, mannase, beta-D-mannosidase, beta-mannoside mannohydrolase, exo-beta-D-mannanase, lysosomal beta A mannosidase) is an enzyme with systematic name beta-D-mannoside mannohydrolase, which is in humans encoded by the MANBA gene.

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Binding site

In biochemistry, a binding site is a region on a protein or piece of DNA or RNA to which ligands (specific molecules and/or ions) may form a chemical bond.

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Biofuel

A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.

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Biomass

Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.

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Biomolecular structure

Biomolecular structure is the intricate folded, three-dimensional shape that is formed by a molecule of protein, DNA, or RNA, and that is important to its function.

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Biopharmaceutical

A biopharmaceutical, also known as a biologic(al) medical product, biological, or biologic, is any pharmaceutical drug product manufactured in, extracted from, or semisynthesized from biological sources.

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Biotin

Biotin is a water-soluble B vitamin, also called vitamin B7 and formerly known as vitamin H or coenzyme R. Biotin is composed of a ureido ring fused with a tetrahydrothiophene ring.

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Biscuit

Biscuit is a term used for a variety of primarily flour-based baked food products.

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Blood sugar level

The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.

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Blue cheese

Blue cheese is a general classification of cheeses that have had cultures of the mold Penicillium added so that the final product is spotted or veined throughout with blue, or blue-grey mold and carries a distinct smell, either from that or various specially cultivated bacteria.

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BRENDA

BRENDA (The Comprehensive Enzyme Information System) is an information system representing one of the most comprehensive enzyme repositories.

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Brewing

Brewing is the production of beer by steeping a starch source (commonly cereal grains, the most popular of which is barley) in water and fermenting the resulting sweet liquid with yeast.

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Camembert

Camembert is a moist, soft, creamy, surface-ripened cow's milk cheese.

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Cancer syndrome

A cancer syndrome or family cancer syndrome is a genetic disorder in which inherited genetic mutations in one or more genes predispose the affected individuals to the development of cancers and may also cause the early onset of these cancers.

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Carbonic anhydrase

The carbonic anhydrases (or carbonate dehydratases) form a family of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion between carbon dioxide and water and the dissociated ions of carbonic acid (i.e. bicarbonate and protons).

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Carcinogenesis

Carcinogenesis, also called oncogenesis or tumorigenesis, is the formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.

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Catabolism

Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.

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Catalase

Catalase is a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms exposed to oxygen (such as bacteria, plants, and animals).

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Catalysis

Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.

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Catalytic triad

A catalytic triad is a set of three coordinated amino acids that can be found in the active site of some enzymes.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cellular compartment

Cellular compartments in cell biology comprise all of the closed parts within the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell, usually surrounded by a single or double lipid layer membrane.

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Cellular respiration

Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.

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Cellulase

Cellulase is any of several enzymes produced chiefly by fungi, bacteria, and protozoans that catalyze cellulolysis, the decomposition of cellulose and of some related polysaccharides.

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Cellulosic ethanol

Cellulosic ethanol is ethanol (ethyl alcohol) produced from cellulose (the stringy fiber of a plant) rather than from the plant's seeds or fruit.

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Cheese

Cheese is a dairy product derived from milk that is produced in a wide range of flavors, textures, and forms by coagulation of the milk protein casein.

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Chemical equilibrium

In a chemical reaction, chemical equilibrium is the state in which both reactants and products are present in concentrations which have no further tendency to change with time, so that there is no observable change in the properties of the system.

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Chemical industry

The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals.

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Chemical reaction

A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.

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Chemoselectivity

Chemoselectivity is the preferential outcome of a chemical reaction over a set of possible alternative reactions.

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Cholesterol

Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.

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Chymosin

Chymosin or rennin is a protease found in rennet.

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Chymotrypsin

Chymotrypsin (chymotrypsins A and B, alpha-chymar ophth, avazyme, chymar, chymotest, enzeon, quimar, quimotrase, alpha-chymar, alpha-chymotrypsin A, alpha-chymotrypsin) is a digestive enzyme component of pancreatic juice acting in the duodenum, where it performs proteolysis, the breakdown of proteins and polypeptides.

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Chymotrypsinogen

Chymotrypsinogen is a proteolytic enzyme and a precursor (zymogen) of the digestive enzyme chymotrypsin.

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Citric acid cycle

The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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Coenzyme A

Coenzyme A (CoA,SCoA,CoASH) is a coenzyme, notable for its role in the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids, and the oxidation of pyruvate in the citric acid cycle.

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Cofactor (biochemistry)

A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.

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Competitive inhibition

Competitive inhibition is a form of enzyme inhibition where binding of an inhibitor prevents binding of the target molecule of the enzyme, also known as the substrate.

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Concentration

In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.

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Conformational change

In biochemistry, a conformational change is a change in the shape of a macromolecule, often induced by environmental factors.

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Conformational ensembles

Conformational ensembles, also known as structural ensembles are experimentally constrained computational models describing the structure of intrinsically unstructured proteins.

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Conformational proofreading

Conformational proofreading (CPR) or conformational selection is a general mechanism of molecular recognition systems in which introducing a structural mismatch between a molecular recognizer and its target, or an energetic barrier, enhances the recognition specificity and quality.

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Contact lens

A contact lens, or simply contact, is a thin lens placed directly on the surface of the eye.

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Cooking

Cooking or cookery is the art, technology, science and craft of preparing food for consumption.

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Covalent bond

A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.

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Cyanide

A cyanide is a chemical compound that contains the group C≡N.

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Cyclooxygenase

Cyclooxygenase (COX), officially known as prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS), is an enzyme (specifically, a family of isozymes) that is responsible for formation of prostanoids, including thromboxane and prostaglandins such as prostacyclin, from arachidonic acid.

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Cytochrome c oxidase

The enzyme cytochrome c oxidase or Complex IV, is a large transmembrane protein complex found in bacteria, archaea, and in eukaryotes in their mitochondria.

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Cytochrome P450

Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.

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Cytoplasm

In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.

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Cytoskeleton

A cytoskeleton is present in all cells of all domains of life (archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes).

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Cytosol

The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.

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Dairy

A dairy is a business enterprise established for the harvesting or processing (or both) of animal milk – mostly from cows or goats, but also from buffaloes, sheep, horses, or camels – for human consumption.

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Daniel E. Koshland Jr.

Daniel Edward Koshland Jr. (March 30, 1920July 23, 2007) was an American biochemist.

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David Chilton Phillips

David Chilton Phillips, Baron Phillips of Ellesmere, KBE, FRS HFRSE (7 March 1924 – 23 February 1999) was a pioneering structural biologist and an influential figure in science and government.

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De novo synthesis

De novo synthesis refers to the synthesis of complex molecules from simple molecules such as sugars or amino acids, as opposed to recycling after partial degradation.

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Denaturation (biochemistry)

Denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure, tertiary structure, and secondary structure which is present in their native state, by application of some external stress or compound such as a strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), radiation or heat.

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Diacetyl

Diacetyl (IUPAC systematic name: butanedione or butane-2,3-dione) is an organic compound with the chemical formula (CH3CO)2.

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Diastase

A diastase (from Greek διάστασις, "separation") is any one of a group of enzymes that catalyses the breakdown of starch into maltose.

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Diffusion

Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.

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Diffusion limited enzyme

A Diffusion limited enzyme is an enzyme which catalyses a reaction so efficiently that the rate limiting step is that of substrate diffusion into the active site, or product diffusion out.

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Dihydrofolate reductase

Dihydrofolate reductase, or DHFR, is an enzyme that reduces dihydrofolic acid to tetrahydrofolic acid, using NADPH as electron donor, which can be converted to the kinds of tetrahydrofolate cofactors used in 1-carbon transfer chemistry.

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DNA ligase

DNA ligase is a specific type of enzyme, a ligase, that facilitates the joining of DNA strands together by catalyzing the formation of a phosphodiester bond.

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DNA polymerase

DNA polymerases are enzymes that synthesize DNA molecules from deoxyribonucleotides, the building blocks of DNA.

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DNA repair

DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.

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Drug

A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.

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Drug interaction

A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance (usually another drug) affects the activity of a drug when both are administered together.

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Drug metabolism

Drug metabolism is the metabolic breakdown of drugs by living organisms, usually through specialized enzymatic systems.

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Eduard Buchner

Eduard Buchner (20 May 1860 – 13 August 1917) was a German chemist and zymologist, awarded the 1907 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on fermentation.

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Egg white

Egg white is the clear liquid (also called the albumen or the glair/glaire) contained within an egg.

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Endoplasmic reticulum

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.

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Endothermic process

The term endothermic process describes the process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings, usually in the form of heat.

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Entropy

In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.

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Enzyme activator

Enzyme activators are molecules that bind to enzymes and increase their activity.

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Enzyme assay

Enzyme assays are laboratory methods for measuring enzymatic activity.

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Enzyme catalysis

Enzyme catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction by the active site of a protein.

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Enzyme Commission number

The Enzyme Commission number (EC number) is a numerical classification scheme for enzymes, based on the chemical reactions they catalyze.

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Enzyme inducer

An enzyme inducer is a type of drug that increases the metabolic activity of an enzyme either by binding to the enzyme and activating it, or by increasing the expression of the gene coding for the enzyme.

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Enzyme inhibitor

4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.

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Enzyme promiscuity

Enzyme promiscuity is the ability of an enzyme to catalyse a fortuitous side reaction in addition to its main reaction.

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Enzyme repressor

An enzyme repressor is a substance that negatively regulates the amount of an enzyme by decreasing the rate of its biosynthesis.

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Eukaryote

Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).

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Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency

Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is the inability to properly digest food due to a lack of digestive enzymes made by the pancreas.

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ExPASy

ExPASy is a bioinformatics resource portal operated by the SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics and in particular the SIB Web Team.

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Fat

Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.

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Fatty acid

In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.

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Fatty acid synthase

Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FASN gene.

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Feedback

Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop.

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Fermentation in food processing

Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions.

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Firefly

The Lampyridae are a family of insects in the beetle order Coleoptera.

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Flavin adenine dinucleotide

In biochemistry, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a redox cofactor, more specifically a prosthetic group of a protein, involved in several important enzymatic reactions in metabolism.

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Flavin group

Flavin (from Latin flavus, "yellow") is the common name for a group of organic compounds based on pteridine, formed by the tricyclic heterocycle isoalloxazine.

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Flavin mononucleotide

Flavin mononucleotide (FMN), or riboflavin-5′-phosphate, is a biomolecule produced from riboflavin (vitamin B2) by the enzyme riboflavin kinase and functions as prosthetic group of various oxidoreductases including NADH dehydrogenase as well as cofactor in biological blue-light photo receptors.

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Flour

Flour is a powder made by grinding raw grains or roots and used to make many different foods.

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Flux (metabolism)

Flux, or metabolic flux is the rate of turnover of molecules through a metabolic pathway.

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Folate

Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.

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Food processing

Food processing is the transformation of cooked ingredients, by physical or chemical means into food, or of food into other forms.

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Fumarase

Fumarase (or fumarate hydratase) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration/dehydration of fumarate to malate.

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Function (biology)

In biology, function has been defined in many ways.

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Functional group

In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.

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Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.

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Gene expression

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.

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Genetic disorder

A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.

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Genome

In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.

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George Edward Briggs

George Edward Briggs FRS (25 June 1893 – 7 February 1985) was Professor of Botany at the University of Cambridge.

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Germline mutation

A germline mutation, or germinal mutation, is any detectable variation within germ cells (cells that, when fully developed, become sperm and ovum).

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Gibbs free energy

In thermodynamics, the Gibbs free energy (IUPAC recommended name: Gibbs energy or Gibbs function; also known as free enthalpy to distinguish it from Helmholtz free energy) is a thermodynamic potential that can be used to calculate the maximum of reversible work that may be performed by a thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure (isothermal, isobaric).

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Globular protein

Globular proteins or spheroproteins are spherical ("globe-like") proteins and are one of the common protein types (the others being fibrous, disordered and membrane proteins).

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Glucanase

Glucanases are enzymes that break down a glucan, a polysaccharide made of several glucose sub-units.

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Glucokinase

Glucokinase is an enzyme that facilitates phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate.

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Glucose

Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.

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Glycogen

Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.

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Glycogen synthase

Glycogen synthase (UDP-glucose-glycogen glucosyltransferase) is a key enzyme in glycogenesis, the conversion of glucose into glycogen.

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Glycolysis

Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.

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Glycoside hydrolase

Glycoside hydrolases (also called glycosidases or glycosyl hydrolases) catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds in complex sugars.

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Glycosylation

Glycosylation (see also chemical glycosylation) is the reaction in which a carbohydrate, i.e. a glycosyl donor, is attached to a hydroxyl or other functional group of another molecule (a glycosyl acceptor).

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Golgi apparatus

The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.

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Guar gum

Guar gum, also called guaran, is a galactomannan polysaccharide extracted from guar beans that has thickening and stabilizing properties useful in the food and hydraulic fracturing industries.

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Heme

Heme or haem is a coordination complex "consisting of an iron ion coordinated to a porphyrin acting as a tetradentate ligand, and to one or two axial ligands." The definition is loose, and many depictions omit the axial ligands.

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Herbivore

A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.

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Hermann Emil Fischer

Hermann Emil Louis Fischer FRS FRSE FCS (9 October 1852 – 15 July 1919) was a German chemist and 1902 recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

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Hexokinase

A hexokinase is an enzyme that phosphorylates hexoses (six-carbon sugars), forming hexose phosphate.

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Hexosaminidase

Hexosaminidase (beta-acetylaminodeoxyhexosidase, N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase, N-acetyl-beta-hexosaminidase, N-acetyl hexosaminidase, beta-hexosaminidase, beta-acetylhexosaminidinase, beta-D-N-acetylhexosaminidase, beta-N-acetyl-D-hexosaminidase, beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase, hexosaminidase A, N-acetylhexosaminidase, beta-D-hexosaminidase) is an enzyme involved in the hydrolysis of terminal N-acetyl-D-hexosamine residues in N-acetyl-β-D-hexosaminides.

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High-fructose corn syrup

High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) (also called glucose-fructose, isoglucose and glucose-fructose syrup) is a sweetener made from corn starch that has been processed by glucose isomerase to convert some of its glucose into fructose.

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HIV

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

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Homeostasis

Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.

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Hot spring

A hot spring is a spring produced by the emergence of geothermally heated groundwater that rises from the Earth's crust.

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Humboldt University of Berlin

The Humboldt University of Berlin (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, abbreviated HU Berlin), is a university in the central borough of Mitte in Berlin, Germany.

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Hydride

In chemistry, a hydride is the anion of hydrogen, H−, or, more commonly, it is a compound in which one or more hydrogen centres have nucleophilic, reducing, or basic properties.

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Hydrolase

Hydrolase is a class of enzyme that is commonly used as biochemical catalysts that utilize water to break a chemical bond.

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Hydrolysis

Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.

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Hydrophile

A hydrophile is a molecule or other molecular entity that is attracted to water molecules and tends to be dissolved by water.

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Hydrophobe

In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.

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Hypoallergenic

Hypoallergenic, meaning "below normal" or "slightly" allergenic, was a term first used in a cosmetics campaign in 1953.

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Industrial enzymes

Industrial enzymes are enzymes that are commercially used in a variety of industries such as pharmaceuticals, chemical production, biofuels, food & beverage, and consumer products.

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Inflammation

Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.

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Influenza

Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.

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Inorganic compound

An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.

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Insulin

Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.

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Integrase

Retroviral integrase (IN) is an enzyme produced by a retrovirus (such as HIV) that enables its genetic material to be integrated into the DNA of the infected cell.

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Intellectual disability

Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.

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IntEnz

IntEnz (Integrated relational Enzyme database) contains data on enzymes organized by enzyme EC number and is the official version of the Enzyme Nomenclature system developed by the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

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International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB) is an international non-governmental organisation concerned with biochemistry and molecular biology.

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Inverted sugar syrup

Invert(ed) sugar (syrup) is an edible mixture of two simple sugars—glucose and fructose—that is made by heating sucrose (table sugar) with water.

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Ion

An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Ion transporter

In biology, an ion transporter (or ion pump) is a transmembrane protein that moves ions across a plasma membrane against their concentration gradient through active transport.

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Iron–sulfur cluster

Iron–sulfur clusters are molecular ensembles of iron and sulfide.

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Isomer

An isomer (from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos.

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Isomerase

Isomerases are a general class of enzymes that convert a molecule from one isomer to another.

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Isozyme

Isozymes (also known as isoenzymes or more generally as multiple forms of enzymes) are enzymes that differ in amino acid sequence but catalyze the same chemical reaction.

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J. B. S. Haldane

John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (5 November 18921 December 1964) was an English scientist known for his work in the study of physiology, genetics, evolutionary biology, and in mathematics, where he made innovative contributions to the fields of statistics and biostatistics.

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James B. Sumner

James Batcheller Sumner (November 19, 1887 – August 12, 1955) was an American chemist.

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John Howard Northrop

John Howard Northrop (July 5, 1891 – May 27, 1987) was an American biochemist who, with James Batcheller Sumner and Wendell Meredith Stanley, won the 1946 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

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Juice

Juice is a drink made from the extraction or pressing of the natural liquid contained in fruit and vegetables.

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KEGG

KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) is a collection of databases dealing with genomes, biological pathways, diseases, drugs, and chemical substances.

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Kinase

In biochemistry, a kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups from high-energy, phosphate-donating molecules to specific substrates.

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Kraft paper

Kraft paper or kraft is paper or paperboard (cardboard) produced from chemical pulp produced in the kraft process.

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Lactase

Lactase is an enzyme produced by many organisms.

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Lactose

Lactose is a disaccharide.

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Lactose intolerance

Lactose intolerance is a condition in which people have symptoms due to the decreased ability to digest lactose, a sugar found in dairy products.

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Laundry detergent

Laundry detergent, or washing powder, is a type of detergent (cleaning agent) that is added for cleaning laundry.

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Law of mass action

In chemistry, the law of mass action is the proposition that the rate of a chemical reaction is directly proportional to the product of the activities or concentrations of the reactants.

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Leonor Michaelis

Leonor Michaelis (January 16, 1875 – October 8, 1949) was a German biochemist, physical chemist, and physician, known primarily for his work with Maud Menten on enzyme kinetics and Michaelis–Menten kinetics in 1913.

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Ligand (biochemistry)

In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.

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Ligase

In biochemistry, a ligase is an enzyme that can catalyze the joining of two large molecules by forming a new chemical bond, usually with accompanying hydrolysis of a small pendant chemical group on one of the larger molecules or the enzyme catalyzing the linking together of two compounds, e.g., enzymes that catalyze joining of C-O, C-S, C-N, etc.

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Lignin

Lignin is a class of complex organic polymers that form important structural materials in the support tissues of vascular plants and some algae. Lignins are particularly important in the formation of cell walls, especially in wood and bark, because they lend rigidity and do not rot easily. Chemically, lignins are cross-linked phenolic polymers.

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Lignin peroxidase

Lignin is highly resistant to biodegradation and only higher fungi and some bacteria are capable of degrading the polymer via an oxidative process.

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Lignin-modifying enzyme

Lignin-modifying enzymes (LMEs) are various types of enzymes produced by fungi and bacteria that catalyze the breakdown of lignin, a biopolymer commonly found in the cell walls of plants.

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Lipase

A lipase is any enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fats (lipids).

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List of enzymes

This page lists enzymes by their classification in the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology's Enzyme Commission numbering system.

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Liver

The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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Louis Pasteur

Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.

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Luciferase

Luciferase is a generic term for the class of oxidative enzymes that produce bioluminescence, and is usually distinguished from a photoprotein.

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Lung

The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.

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Lyase

In biochemistry, a lyase is an enzyme that catalyzes the breaking (an "elimination" reaction) of various chemical bonds by means other than hydrolysis (a "substitution" reaction) and oxidation, often forming a new double bond or a new ring structure.

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Lysosome

A lysosome is a membrane-bound organelle found in nearly all animal cells.

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Lysozyme

Lysozyme, also known as muramidase or N-acetylmuramide glycanhydrolase is an antimicrobial enzyme produced by animals that forms part of the innate immune system.

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Macromolecular crowding

The phenomenon of macromolecular crowding alters the properties of molecules in a solution when high concentrations of macromolecules such as proteins are present.

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Macromolecule

A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).

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Malt

Malt is germinated cereal grains that have been dried in a process known as "malting".

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Maltose

Maltose, also known as maltobiose or malt sugar, is a disaccharide formed from two units of glucose joined with an α(1→4) bond. In the isomer isomaltose, the two glucose molecules are joined with an α(1→6) bond. Maltose is the two-unit member of the amylose homologous series, the key structural motif of starch. When beta-amylase breaks down starch, it removes two glucose units at a time, producing maltose. An example of this reaction is found in germinating seeds, which is why it was named after malt. Unlike sucrose, it is a reducing sugar.

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Maud Menten

Maud Leonora Menten (March 20, 1879 – July 26, 1960) was a Canadian physician-scientist who made significant contributions to enzyme kinetics and histochemistry.

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Meat

Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food.

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Meat tenderizer

A meat tenderizer, meat mallet, or meat pounder is a hand-powered tool used to tenderize slabs of meat in preparation for cooking.

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Metabolic pathway

In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.

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Metabolism

Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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MetaCyc

The MetaCyc database contains extensive information on metabolic pathways and enzymes from many organisms.

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Methotrexate

Methotrexate (MTX), formerly known as amethopterin, is a chemotherapy agent and immune system suppressant.

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Michaelis–Menten kinetics

Michaelis–Menten saturation curve for an enzyme reaction showing the relation between the substrate concentration and reaction rate. In biochemistry, Michaelis–Menten kinetics is one of the best-known models of enzyme kinetics.

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Mitochondrion

The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.

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Mixed inhibition

Mixed inhibition is a type of enzyme inhibition in which the inhibitor may bind to the enzyme whether or not the enzyme has already bound the substrate but has a greater affinity for one state or the other.

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Molecular biology

Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.

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Molecule

A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Monomer

A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that "can undergo polymerization thereby contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macromolecule".

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Multicellular organism

Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.

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Muscle contraction

Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers.

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Myosin

Myosins are a superfamily of motor proteins best known for their roles in muscle contraction and in a wide range of other motility processes in eukaryotes.

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Myristoylation

Myristoylation is a lipidation modification where a myristoyl group, derived from myristic acid, is covalently attached by an amide bond to the alpha-amino group of an N-terminal glycine residue.

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Negative feedback

Negative feedback (or balancing feedback) occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances.

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Neuraminidase

Neuraminidase enzymes are glycoside hydrolase enzymes that cleave the glycosidic linkages of neuraminic acids.

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Neutral theory of molecular evolution

The neutral theory of molecular evolution holds that at the molecular level most evolutionary changes and most of the variation within and between species is not caused by natural selection but by genetic drift of mutant alleles that are neutral.

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Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells.

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Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, abbreviated NADP or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a cofactor used in anabolic reactions, such as lipid and nucleic acid synthesis, which require NADPH as a reducing agent.

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Nobel Prize in Chemistry

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.

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Nomenclature

Nomenclature is a system of names or terms, or the rules for forming these terms in a particular field of arts or sciences.

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Non-competitive inhibition

Non-competitive inhibition is a type of enzyme inhibition where the inhibitor reduces the activity of the enzyme and binds equally well to the enzyme whether or not it has already bound the substrate.

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Nuclease

A nuclease (also archaically known as nucleodepolymerase or polynucleotidase) is an enzyme capable of cleaving the phosphodiester bonds between monomers of nucleic acids.

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Organ (anatomy)

Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.

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Organic compound

In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.

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Orotidine 5'-phosphate decarboxylase

Orotidine 5'-phosphate decarboxylase (OMP decarboxylase) or orotidylate decarboxylase is an enzyme involved in pyrimidine biosynthesis.

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Oxidoreductase

In biochemistry, an oxidoreductase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of electrons from one molecule, the reductant, also called the electron donor, to another, the oxidant, also called the electron acceptor.

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Oxyanion hole

An oxyanion hole is a pocket in the active site of an enzyme that stabilizes transition state negative charge on a deprotonated oxygen or alkoxide.

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Pancreas

The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.

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Papain

Papain, also known as papaya proteinase I, is a cysteine protease enzyme present in papaya (Carica papaya) and mountain papaya (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis).

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Paper

Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.

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Pectinase

Pectinase is an enzyme that breaks down pectin, a polysaccharide found in plant cell walls.

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Penicillin

Penicillin (PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics which include penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (use by mouth), procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use).

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Pentose phosphate pathway

The pentose phosphate pathway (also called the phosphogluconate pathway and the hexose monophosphate shunt) is a metabolic pathway parallel to glycolysis.

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Pepsin

Pepsin is an endopeptidase that breaks down proteins into smaller peptides (that is, a protease).

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Periplasm

The periplasm is a concentrated gel-like matrix in the space between the inner cytoplasmic membrane and the bacterial outer membrane called the periplasmic space in gram-negative bacteria.

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Personal care

Personal care or toiletries are consumer products used in personal hygiene and for beautification.

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PH

In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.

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Phenylalanine

Phenylalanine (symbol Phe or F) is an α-amino acid with the formula.

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Phenylalanine hydroxylase

Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of the aromatic side-chain of phenylalanine to generate tyrosine.

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Phenylketonuria

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inborn error of metabolism that results in decreased metabolism of the amino acid phenylalanine.

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Phosphatase

A phosphatase is an enzyme that uses water to cleave a phosphoric acid monoester into a phosphate ion and an alcohol.

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Phosphorylation

In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.

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Poison

In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.

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Polymerase

A polymerase is an enzyme (EC 2.7.7.6/7/19/48/49) that synthesizes long chains of polymers or nucleic acids.

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Polymerase chain reaction

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.

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Post-translational modification

Post-translational modification (PTM) refers to the covalent and generally enzymatic modification of proteins following protein biosynthesis.

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Product (chemistry)

Products are the species formed from chemical reactions.

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Proofreading (biology)

The term proofreading is used in genetics to refer to the error-correcting processes, first proposed by John Hopfield and Jacques Ninio, involved in DNA replication, immune system specificity, enzyme-substrate recognition among many other processes that require enhanced specificity.

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Prostaglandin

The prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects in animals.

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Protease

A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme that performs proteolysis: protein catabolism by hydrolysis of peptide bonds.

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Protease inhibitor (pharmacology)

Protease inhibitors (PIs) are a class of antiviral drugs that are widely used to treat HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C. Protease inhibitors prevent viral replication by selectively binding to viral proteases (e.g. HIV-1 protease) and blocking proteolytic cleavage of protein precursors that are necessary for the production of infectious viral particles.

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Protein

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein complex

A protein complex or multiprotein complex is a group of two or more associated polypeptide chains.

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Protein domain

A protein domain is a conserved part of a given protein sequence and (tertiary) structure that can evolve, function, and exist independently of the rest of the protein chain.

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Protein engineering

Protein engineering is the process of developing useful or valuable proteins.

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Protein secondary structure

Protein secondary structure is the three dimensional form of local segments of proteins.

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Protein targeting

Protein targeting or protein sorting is the biological mechanism by which proteins are transported to the appropriate destinations in the cell or outside it.

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Protonation

In chemistry, protonation is the addition of a proton (H+) to an atom, molecule, or ion, forming the conjugate acid.

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Pseudocholinesterase deficiency

Pseudocholinesterase deficiency is an inherited blood plasma enzyme abnormality in which the body's production of butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE; pseudocholinesterase) is impaired.

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Pseudoenzyme

Pseudoenzymes are variants of enzymes (usually proteins) that are catalytically deficient (usually inactive), meaning that they perform little or no enzyme catalysis.

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Pullulanase

Pullulanase (limit dextrinase, amylopectin 6-glucanohydrolase, bacterial debranching enzyme, debranching enzyme, alpha-dextrin endo-1,6-alpha-glucosidase, R-enzyme, pullulan alpha-1,6-glucanohydrolase) is a specific kind of glucanase, an amylolytic exoenzyme, that degrades pullulan.

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Pyruvate carboxylase

Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) encoded by the gene PC is an enzyme of the ligase class that catalyzes (depending on the species) the physiologically irreversible carboxylation of pyruvate to form oxaloacetate (OAA).

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Pyruvic acid

Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group.

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Reaction mechanism

In chemistry, a reaction mechanism is the step by step sequence of elementary reactions by which overall chemical change occurs.

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Reaction rate

The reaction rate or rate of reaction is the speed at which reactants are converted into products.

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Reaction rate constant

In chemical kinetics a reaction rate constant or reaction rate coefficient, k, quantifies the rate of a chemical reaction.

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Recombinant DNA

Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome.

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Redox

Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

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Regioselectivity

In chemistry, regioselectivity is the preference of one direction of chemical bond making or breaking over all other possible directions.

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Regulation of gene expression

Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA), and is informally termed gene regulation.

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Restriction enzyme

A restriction enzyme or restriction endonuclease is an enzyme that cleaves DNA into fragments at or near specific recognition sites within the molecule known as restriction sites.

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Retrovirus

A retrovirus is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus with a DNA intermediate and, as an obligate parasite, targets a host cell.

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Reverse transcriptase

A reverse transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme used to generate complementary DNA (cDNA) from an RNA template, a process termed reverse transcription.

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Ribbon diagram

Ribbon diagrams, also known as Richardson diagrams, are 3D schematic representations of protein structure and are one of the most common methods of protein depiction used today.

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Ribosome

The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).

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Ribozyme

Ribozymes (ribonucleic acid enzymes) are RNA molecules that are capable of catalyzing specific biochemical reactions, similar to the action of protein enzymes.

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Richard Willstätter

Richard Martin Willstätter, (13 August 1872 – 3 August 1942) was a German organic chemist whose study of the structure of plant pigments, chlorophyll included, won him the 1915 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.

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RNA

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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RNA polymerase

RNA polymerase (ribonucleic acid polymerase), both abbreviated RNAP or RNApol, official name DNA-directed RNA polymerase, is a member of a family of enzymes that are essential to life: they are found in all organisms (-species) and many viruses.

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Roquefort

Roquefort (or;; from Occitan ròcafòrt) is a sheep milk cheese from the south of France, and together with Bleu d'Auvergne, Stilton, and Gorgonzola is one of the world's best known blue cheeses.

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Ruminant

Ruminants are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions.

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S-Adenosyl methionine

S-Adenosyl methionineSAM-e, SAMe, SAM, S-Adenosyl-L-methionine, AdoMet, ademetionine is a common cosubstrate involved in methyl group transfers, transsulfuration, and aminopropylation.

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S-adenosylmethionine synthetase enzyme

S-adenosylmethionine synthetase (also known as methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT)) is an enzyme that creates S-adenosylmethionine (a.k.a. AdoMet, SAM or SAMe) by reacting methionine (a non-polar amino acid) and ATP (the basic currency of energy).

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Saliva

Saliva is a watery substance formed in the mouths of animals, secreted by the salivary glands.

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Side chain

In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a side chain is a chemical group that is attached to a core part of the molecule called "main chain" or backbone.

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Signal transduction

Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.

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Skin cancer

Skin cancers are cancers that arise from the skin.

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Solution

In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.

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Solvent

A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.

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Starch

Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.

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Statin

Statins, also known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are a class of lipid-lowering medications.

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Stereospecificity

In chemistry, stereospecificity is the property of a reaction mechanism that leads to different stereoisomeric reaction products from different stereoisomeric reactants, or which operates on only one (or a subset) of the stereoisomers.

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Stomach

The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.

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Structural biology

Structural biology is a branch of molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics concerned with the molecular structure of biological macromolecules (especially proteins, made up of amino acids, and RNA or DNA, made up of nucleic acids), how they acquire the structures they have, and how alterations in their structures affect their function.

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Substrate (chemistry)

In chemistry, a substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which reacts with a reagent to generate a product.

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Sugar

Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.

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Superoxide dismutase

Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an enzyme that alternately catalyzes the dismutation (or partitioning) of the superoxide (O2&minus) radical into either ordinary molecular oxygen (O2) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).

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Tay–Sachs disease

Tay–Sachs disease is a genetic disorder that results in the destruction of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord.

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Temperature

Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

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Tetrahydrofolic acid

Tetrahydrofolic acid, or tetrahydrofolate, is a folic acid derivative.

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Thermodynamic equilibrium

Thermodynamic equilibrium is an axiomatic concept of thermodynamics.

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Thiamine pyrophosphate

Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP or ThPP), or thiamine diphosphate (ThDP), or cocarboxylase is a thiamine (vitamin B1) derivative which is produced by the enzyme thiamine diphosphokinase.

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Tissue (biology)

In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.

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Transcription (biology)

Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.

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Transferase

A transferase is any one of a class of enzymes that enact the transfer of specific functional groups (e.g. a methyl or glycosyl group) from one molecule (called the donor) to another (called the acceptor).

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Transition state

The transition state of a chemical reaction is a particular configuration along the reaction coordinate.

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Translation (biology)

In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.

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Triosephosphate isomerase

Triose-phosphate isomerase (TPI or TIM) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of the triose phosphate isomers dihydroxyacetone phosphate and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate.

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Trypsin

Trypsin is a serine protease from the PA clan superfamily, found in the digestive system of many vertebrates, where it hydrolyzes proteins.

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Turn (biochemistry)

A turn is an element of secondary structure in proteins where the polypeptide chain reverses its overall direction.

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Ultraviolet

Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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Uncompetitive inhibitor

Uncompetitive inhibition, also known as anti-competitive inhibition, takes place when an enzyme inhibitor binds only to the complex formed between the enzyme and the substrate (the E-S complex).

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Urease

Ureases, functionally, belong to the superfamily of amidohydrolases and phosphotriesterases.

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Virus

A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.

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Vitalism

Vitalism is the belief that "living organisms are fundamentally different from non-living entities because they contain some non-physical element or are governed by different principles than are inanimate things".

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Vitamin

A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.

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Wendell Meredith Stanley

Wendell Meredith Stanley (16 August 1904 – 15 June 1971) was an American biochemist, virologist and Nobel laureate.

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Wilhelm Kühne

Wilhelm Friedrich Kühne (28 March 1837 – 10 June 1900) was a German physiologist.

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Wort

Wort is the liquid extracted from the mashing process during the brewing of beer or whisky.

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X-ray crystallography

X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.

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Xeroderma pigmentosum

Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a genetic disorder in which there is a decreased ability to repair DNA damage such as that caused by ultraviolet (UV) light.

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Xylanase

Xylanase (endo-(1->4)-beta-xylan 4-xylanohydrolase, endo-1,4-xylanase, endo-1,4-beta-xylanase, beta-1,4-xylanase, endo-1,4-beta-D-xylanase, 1,4-beta-xylan xylanohydrolase, beta-xylanase, beta-1,4-xylan xylanohydrolase, beta-D-xylanase) is the name given to a class of enzymes which degrade the linear polysaccharide beta-1,4-xylan into xylose, thus breaking down hemicellulose, one of the major components of plant cell walls.

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Yeast

Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.

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Zymase

Zymase is an enzyme complex that catalyzes the fermentation of sugar into ethanol and carbon dioxide.

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Zymogen

A zymogen, also called a proenzyme, is an inactive precursor of an enzyme.

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4-Oxalocrotonate tautomerase

4-Oxalocrotonate tautomerase (EC 5.3.2.-4-OT) is an enzyme that converts 2-hydroxymuconate to the αβ-unsaturated ketone, 2-oxo-3-hexenedioate.

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Apoenzyme, Apoenzymes, Biocatalyst, Biocatalysts, Coenzymes and cofactors, Cofactors and coenzymes, ENZ, ENZYME STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION, Encyme, Ensyme, Enyme characteristics, Enyzme, Enzime, Enzymatic, Enzymatically, Enzyme action, Enzyme preparations, Enzyme regulation, Enzyme specificity, Enzyme type, Enzyme-substrate complex, Enzymes, Enzymic, Enzymology, Haloenzyme, Holoenzyme, Holoenzymes, Induced fit model, Lock and Key Theory, Lock and key model, Lock and key theory, Lock-and-key model, Lock-and-key model (enzyme), Mechanisms of enzyme action, Regulation mechanism, Specificity (biochemistry).

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enzyme

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