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Enzyme induction and inhibition

Index Enzyme induction and inhibition

Enzyme induction is a process in which a molecule (e.g. a drug) induces (i.e. initiates or enhances) the expression of an enzyme. [1]

24 relations: André Michel Lwoff, Arthur Pardee, Aryl hydrocarbon receptor, Competitive inhibition, Diauxie, Drug interaction, Drug metabolism, Enzyme, Enzyme inhibitor, Escherichia coli, François Jacob, Gene expression, Jacques Monod, Joshua Lederberg, Lac operon, Lac repressor, Metabolism, Molecular biology, Molecule, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Non-competitive inhibition, Pharmacology, Regulation of gene expression, Uncompetitive inhibitor.

André Michel Lwoff

André Michel Lwoff (8 May 1902 – 30 September 1994) was a French microbiologist and Nobel laureate.

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Arthur Pardee

Arthur Beck Pardee (born July 13, 1921) is an American biochemist.

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Aryl hydrocarbon receptor

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR or AHR or ahr or ahR) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AHR gene.

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Competitive inhibition

Competitive inhibition is a form of enzyme inhibition where binding of an inhibitor prevents binding of the target molecule of the enzyme, also known as the substrate.

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Diauxie

Diauxie is a Greek word coined by Jacques Monod to mean two growth phases.

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Drug interaction

A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance (usually another drug) affects the activity of a drug when both are administered together.

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Drug metabolism

Drug metabolism is the metabolic breakdown of drugs by living organisms, usually through specialized enzymatic systems.

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Enzyme

Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Enzyme inhibitor

4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.

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Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).

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François Jacob

François Jacob (17 June 1920 – 19 April 2013) was a French biologist who, together with Jacques Monod, originated the idea that control of enzyme levels in all cells occurs through regulation of transcription.

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Gene expression

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.

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Jacques Monod

Jacques Lucien Monod (February 9, 1910 – May 31, 1976), a French biochemist, won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1965, sharing it with François Jacob and Andre Lwoff "for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis".

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Joshua Lederberg

Joshua Lederberg, ForMemRS (May 23, 1925 – February 2, 2008) was an American molecular biologist known for his work in microbial genetics, artificial intelligence, and the United States space program.

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Lac operon

The lac operon (lactose operon) is an operon required for the transport and metabolism of lactose in Escherichia coli and many other enteric bacteria.

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Lac repressor

The lac repressor is a DNA-binding protein which inhibits the expression of genes coding for proteins involved in the metabolism of lactose in bacteria.

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Metabolism

Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Molecular biology

Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.

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Molecule

A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.

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Non-competitive inhibition

Non-competitive inhibition is a type of enzyme inhibition where the inhibitor reduces the activity of the enzyme and binds equally well to the enzyme whether or not it has already bound the substrate.

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Pharmacology

Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).

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Regulation of gene expression

Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA), and is informally termed gene regulation.

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Uncompetitive inhibitor

Uncompetitive inhibition, also known as anti-competitive inhibition, takes place when an enzyme inhibitor binds only to the complex formed between the enzyme and the substrate (the E-S complex).

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enzyme_induction_and_inhibition

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