218 relations: Acetate, Acetolactate synthase, Acetylcholine, Acetylcholine receptor, Acetylcholinesterase, Aciclovir, Active site, Activity-based proteomics, Adenosine diphosphate, Adenosine triphosphate, Adverse drug reaction, African trypanosomiasis, Aldehyde, Algal bloom, Alkene, Allopurinol, Allosteric regulation, Alpha-Amanitin, Amanita phalloides, Amino acid, Anticonvulsant, Antimetabolite, Antinutrient, Ataluren, Atropa belladonna, Atropine, Bacterial cell structure, Barnase, Barstar, Biochemistry, Bioinformatics, Biomolecular structure, Bioscientifica, Carbamate, Carotenoid, Catabolism, Catalysis, Catalytic triad, Cell (biology), Cell signaling, CGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5, Chemical synapse, Chemical warfare, Chemotherapy, Chlorpyrifos, Choline, Cholinesterase, Combinatorial chemistry, Competitive inhibition, Conformational change, ..., Conformational isomerism, Corpus cavernosum penis, Covalent bond, Cyclic guanosine monophosphate, Cysteine, Cytoskeleton, DD-transpeptidase, Denaturation (biochemistry), Dihydrofolate reductase, Diisopropyl fluorophosphate, Disinfectant, Dissociation constant, DNA replication, Docking (molecular), Dopamine, Drug design, Drug development, Eadie–Hofstee diagram, Edrophonium, Eflornithine, Eggplant, Electrophile, Enzyme, Enzyme activator, Enzyme assay, Enzyme induction and inhibition, Enzyme kinetics, EPSP synthase, European Journal of Endocrinology, Exponential decay, Fatty acid, Feedback, Folate, Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, Gene expression, Glucose, Glycoalkaloid, Glycolysis, Glycoside hydrolase, Glyphosate, Haloalkane, Herbicide, High-throughput screening, HIV, Homeostasis, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen bond, Hydrophobe, Hydroxy group, Imine, Insecticide, Integrative Biology, Ion channel, Ionic bonding, Isoniazid, Isothermal titration calorimetry, Legume, Lineweaver–Burk plot, Lipid, Malathion, Management of HIV/AIDS, Mass spectrometry, Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, Medication, Metabolic pathway, Metabolism, Metabolite, Methotrexate, Methoxy arachidonyl fluorophosphonate, Michael reaction, Michaelis–Menten kinetics, Microcystin, Microtubule, Mixed inhibition, Molecular mechanics, Molecule, Myasthenia gravis, Negative feedback, Neostigmine, Nerve agent, Neuraminidase, Neurotoxin, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, Nitrogen mustard, Non-competitive inhibition, Non-covalent interactions, Nonlinear regression, Norepinephrine, Nuclease, Nucleophile, Nucleotide, Organophosphate, Ornithine, Ornithine decarboxylase, Oseltamivir, Oxidative phosphorylation, Oxonium ion, Paclitaxel, Pancreas, Paralysis, Parathion, Pathogen, Penicillin, Peptide, Peptide bond, Peptide mass fingerprinting, Peptidoglycan, Pesticide, Pharmacology, Pharmacophore, Phosphatase, Phosphofructokinase, Photosynthesis, Physostigmine, Poison, Polyamine, Potato, Predation, Protease, Protease inhibitor (pharmacology), Protein, Protein kinase, Protein structure, Protein–protein interaction, Proteomics, Pyruvic acid, Rate equation, Receptor (biochemistry), Receptor antagonist, Reversible reaction, Ribonuclease, Ribonuclease inhibitor, Ribosome, Ricin, Ricinus, Ritonavir, RNA polymerase II, Royal Society of Chemistry, Sarin, Secondary metabolite, Sensitivity and specificity, Serine, Serotonin, Sildenafil, Small molecule, Solanaceae, Substrate (chemistry), Suicide inhibition, Sulfonate, Synapse, Taxus, Thiol, Threonine, Tipranavir, Tomato, Toxicity, Transition state, Transition state analog, Triclosan, Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanothione, Trypsin, Trypsin inhibitor, Tubulin, Tyrosine, Uncompetitive inhibitor, Vancomycin, Zymogen. Expand index (168 more) » « Shrink index
An acetate is a salt formed by the combination of acetic acid with an alkaline, earthy, metallic or nonmetallic and other base.
The acetolactate synthase (ALS) enzyme (also known as acetohydroxy acid synthase, or AHAS) is a protein found in plants and micro-organisms.
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
An acetylcholine receptor (abbreviated AChR) is an integral membrane protein that responds to the binding of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter.
Acetylcholinesterase, encoded by HGNC gene ACHE; EC 22.214.171.124) is the primary cholinesterase in the body. It is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of acetylcholine and of some other choline esters that function as neurotransmitters. AChE is found at mainly neuromuscular junctions and in chemical synapses of the cholinergic type, where its activity serves to terminate synaptic transmission. It belongs to carboxylesterase family of enzymes. It is the primary target of inhibition by organophosphorus compounds such as nerve agents and pesticides.
Aciclovir (ACV), also known as acyclovir, is an antiviral medication.
In biology, the active site is the region of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction.
Activity-based proteomics, or activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) is a functional proteomic technology that uses chemical probes that react with mechanistically related classes of enzymes.
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is essential to the flow of energy in living cells.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
An adverse drug reaction (ADR) is an injury caused by taking a medication.
African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is an insect-borne parasitic disease of humans and other animals.
An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.
An algal bloom is a rapid increase or accumulation in the population of algae in freshwater or marine water systems, and is recognized by the discoloration in the water from their pigments.
In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.
Allopurinol, sold under the brand name Zyloprim among others, is a medication used to decrease high blood uric acid levels.
In biochemistry, allosteric regulation (or allosteric control) is the regulation of an enzyme by binding an effector molecule at a site other than the enzyme's active site.
alpha-Amanitin or α-amanitin is a cyclic peptide of eight amino acids.
Amanita phalloides, commonly known as the death cap, is a deadly poisonous basidiomycete fungus, one of many in the genus Amanita.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.
An antimetabolite is a chemical that inhibits the use of a metabolite, which is another chemical that is part of normal metabolism.
Antinutrients are natural or synthetic compounds that interfere with the absorption of nutrients.
Ataluren, formerly known as PTC124, is a pharmaceutical drug for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
Atropa belladonna, commonly known as belladonna or deadly nightshade, is a perennial herbaceous plant in the nightshade family Solanaceae, which includes tomatoes, potatoes, and aubergine.
Atropine is a medication to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisonings as well as some types of slow heart rate and to decrease saliva production during surgery.
Bacteria, despite their simplicity, contain a well-developed cell structure which is responsible for some of their unique biological structures and pathogenicity.
Barnase (a portmanteau of "BActerial" "RiboNucleASE") is a bacterial protein that consists of 110 amino acids and has ribonuclease activity.
Barstar is a small protein synthesized by the bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biological data.
Biomolecular structure is the intricate folded, three-dimensional shape that is formed by a molecule of protein, DNA, or RNA, and that is important to its function.
Established in 1996, Bioscientifica Ltd is the commercial subsidiary of the Society for Endocrinology, and provides publishing, events, and association management services to biomedical societies, and to the pharmaceutical industry.
A carbamate is an organic compound derived from carbamic acid (NH2COOH).
Carotenoids, also called tetraterpenoids, are organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria and fungi.
Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
A catalytic triad is a set of three coordinated amino acids that can be found in the active site of some enzymes.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 is an enzyme from the phosphodiesterase class.
Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
Chlorpyrifos (CPS), sold under many brandnames, is an organophosphate pesticide used to kill a number of pests including insects and worms.
Choline is a water-soluble vitamin-like essential nutrient.
In biochemistry, a cholinesterase or choline esterase is an esterase that lyses choline-based esters, several of which serve as neurotransmitters.
Combinatorial chemistry comprises chemical synthetic methods that make it possible to prepare a large number (tens to thousands or even millions) of compounds in a single process.
Competitive inhibition is a form of enzyme inhibition where binding of an inhibitor prevents binding of the target molecule of the enzyme, also known as the substrate.
In biochemistry, a conformational change is a change in the shape of a macromolecule, often induced by environmental factors.
In chemistry, conformational isomerism is a form of stereoisomerism in which the isomers can be interconverted just by rotations about formally single bonds (refer to figure on single bond rotation).
A corpus cavernosum penis (singular) (cavernous body of the penis) is one of a pair of sponge-like regions of erectile tissue, the corpora cavernosa (plural) (cavernous bodies), which contain most of the blood in the penis during an erection.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a cyclic nucleotide derived from guanosine triphosphate (GTP).
Cysteine (symbol Cys or C) is a semi-essential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH.
A cytoskeleton is present in all cells of all domains of life (archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes).
DD-transpeptidase (DD-peptidase, DD-transpeptidase, DD-carboxypeptidase, D-alanyl-D-alanine carboxypeptidase, D-alanyl-D-alanine-cleaving-peptidase, D-alanine carboxypeptidase, D-alanyl carboxypeptidase, and serine-type D-Ala-D-Ala carboxypeptidase.) is a bacterial enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the R-L-aca-D-alanyl moiety of R-L-aca-D-alanyl-D-alanine carbonyl donors to the γ-OH of their active-site serine and from this to a final acceptor.
Denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure, tertiary structure, and secondary structure which is present in their native state, by application of some external stress or compound such as a strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), radiation or heat.
Dihydrofolate reductase, or DHFR, is an enzyme that reduces dihydrofolic acid to tetrahydrofolic acid, using NADPH as electron donor, which can be converted to the kinds of tetrahydrofolate cofactors used in 1-carbon transfer chemistry.
Diisopropyl fluorophosphate is an oily, colorless liquid with the chemical formula C6H14FO3P.
Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to the surface of non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects.
In chemistry, biochemistry, and pharmacology, a dissociation constant (K_d) is a specific type of equilibrium constant that measures the propensity of a larger object to separate (dissociate) reversibly into smaller components, as when a complex falls apart into its component molecules, or when a salt splits up into its component ions.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
In the field of molecular modeling, docking is a method which predicts the preferred orientation of one molecule to a second when bound to each other to form a stable complex.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Drug design, often referred to as rational drug design or simply rational design, is the inventive process of finding new medications based on the knowledge of a biological target.
Drug development is the process of bringing a new pharmaceutical drug to the market once a lead compound has been identified through the process of drug discovery.
In biochemistry, an Eadie–Hofstee diagram (also Woolf–Eadie–Augustinsson–Hofstee or Eadie–Augustinsson plot) is a graphical representation of enzyme kinetics in which reaction rate is plotted as a function of the ratio between rate and substrate concentration: where v represents reaction rate, KM is the Michaelis–Menten constant, is the substrate concentration, and Vmax is the maximum reaction rate.
Edrophonium is a readily reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor.
Eflornithine, sold under the brand name Vaniqa among others, is a medication used to treat African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) and excessive hair growth on the face in women.
Eggplant (Solanum melongena) or aubergine is a species of nightshade grown for its edible fruit.
In organic chemistry, an electrophile is a reagent attracted to electrons.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Enzyme activators are molecules that bind to enzymes and increase their activity.
Enzyme assays are laboratory methods for measuring enzymatic activity.
Enzyme induction is a process in which a molecule (e.g. a drug) induces (i.e. initiates or enhances) the expression of an enzyme.
Enzyme kinetics is the study of the chemical reactions that are catalysed by enzymes.
5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase is an enzyme produced by plants and microorganisms.
The European Journal of Endocrinology is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal covering endocrinology with a focus on clinical and translational studies, research and reviews in paediatric and adult endocrinology.
A quantity is subject to exponential decay if it decreases at a rate proportional to its current value.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop.
Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.
Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, abbreviated Fru-2,6-P2, is a metabolite that allosterically affects the activity of the enzymes phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK-1) and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase-1) to regulate glycolysis and gluconeogenesis.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glycoalkaloids are a family of chemical compounds derived from alkaloids in which sugar groups are appended.
Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.
Glycoside hydrolases (also called glycosidases or glycosyl hydrolases) catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds in complex sugars.
Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide and crop desiccant.
The haloalkanes (also known as halogenoalkanes or alkyl halides) are a group of chemical compounds derived from alkanes containing one or more halogens.
Herbicides, also commonly known as weedkillers, are chemical substances used to control unwanted plants.
High-throughput screening (HTS) is a method for scientific experimentation especially used in drug discovery and relevant to the fields of biology and chemistry.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
An imine is a functional group or chemical compound containing a carbon–nitrogen double bond.
Insecticides are substances used to kill insects.
Integrative Biology is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the interface between biology and the fields of physics, chemistry, engineering, imaging, and informatics.
Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.
Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds.
Isoniazid, also known as isonicotinylhydrazide (INH), is an antibiotic used for the treatment of tuberculosis.
Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a physical technique used to determine the thermodynamic parameters of interactions in solution.
A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).
In biochemistry, the Lineweaver–Burk plot (or double reciprocal plot) is a graphical representation of the Lineweaver–Burk equation of enzyme kinetics, described by Hans Lineweaver and Dean Burk in 1934.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
Malathion is an organophosphate insecticide which acts as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor.
The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection.
Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.
In mass spectrometry, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is an ionization technique that uses a laser energy absorbing matrix to create ions from large molecules with minimal fragmentation.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
Methotrexate (MTX), formerly known as amethopterin, is a chemotherapy agent and immune system suppressant.
Methoxy arachidonyl fluorophosphonate, commonly referred as MAFP, is an irreversible active site-directed enzyme inhibitor that inhibits nearly all serine hydrolases and serine proteases.
The Michael reaction or Michael addition is the nucleophilic addition of a carbanion or another nucleophile to an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound.
Michaelis–Menten saturation curve for an enzyme reaction showing the relation between the substrate concentration and reaction rate. In biochemistry, Michaelis–Menten kinetics is one of the best-known models of enzyme kinetics.
Microcystins — or cyanoginosins — are a class of toxins produced by certain freshwater cyanobacteria; primarily Microcystis aeruginosa but also other Microcystis, as well as members of the Planktothrix, Anabaena, Oscillatoria and Nostoc genera.
Microtubules are tubular polymers of tubulin that form part of the cytoskeleton that provides the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells and some bacteria with structure and shape.
Mixed inhibition is a type of enzyme inhibition in which the inhibitor may bind to the enzyme whether or not the enzyme has already bound the substrate but has a greater affinity for one state or the other.
Molecular mechanics uses classical mechanics to model molecular systems.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a long-term neuromuscular disease that leads to varying degrees of skeletal muscle weakness.
Negative feedback (or balancing feedback) occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances.
Neostigmine, sold under the brand name Prostigmin among others, is a medication used to treat myasthenia gravis, Ogilvie syndrome, and urinary retention without the presence of a blockage.
Nerve agents, sometimes also called nerve gases, are a class of organic chemicals that disrupt the mechanisms by which nerves transfer messages to organs.
Neuraminidase enzymes are glycoside hydrolase enzymes that cleave the glycosidic linkages of neuraminic acids.
Neurotoxins are toxins that are poisonous or destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity).
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells.
Nitrogen mustards are cytotoxic chemotherapy agents derived from mustard gas.
Non-competitive inhibition is a type of enzyme inhibition where the inhibitor reduces the activity of the enzyme and binds equally well to the enzyme whether or not it has already bound the substrate.
A non-covalent interaction differs from a covalent bond in that it does not involve the sharing of electrons, but rather involves more dispersed variations of electromagnetic interactions between molecules or within a molecule.
In statistics, nonlinear regression is a form of regression analysis in which observational data are modeled by a function which is a nonlinear combination of the model parameters and depends on one or more independent variables.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
A nuclease (also archaically known as nucleodepolymerase or polynucleotidase) is an enzyme capable of cleaving the phosphodiester bonds between monomers of nucleic acids.
Nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
Organophosphates (also known as phosphate esters) are a class of organophosphorus compounds with the general structure O.
Ornithine is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that plays a role in the urea cycle.
The enzyme ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) catalyzes the decarboxylation of ornithine (a product of the urea cycle) to form putrescine.
Oseltamivir, sold under the brand name Tamiflu, is an antiviral medication used to treat and prevent influenza A and influenza B (flu).
Oxidative phosphorylation (or OXPHOS in short) (UK, US) is the metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to oxidize nutrients, thereby releasing energy which is used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
In chemistry, an oxonium ion is any oxygen cation with three bonds.
Paclitaxel (PTX), sold under the brand name Taxol among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer.
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
Paralysis is a loss of muscle function for one or more muscles.
Parathion, also called parathion-ethyl or diethyl parathion and locally known as "Folidol", is an organophosphate insecticide and acaricide.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Penicillin (PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics which include penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (use by mouth), procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use).
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
A peptide bond is a covalent chemical bond linking two consecutive amino acid monomers along a peptide or protein chain.
Peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) (also known as protein fingerprinting) is an analytical technique for protein identification in which the unknown protein of interest is first cleaved into smaller peptides, whose absolute masses can be accurately measured with a mass spectrometer such as MALDI-TOF or ESI-TOF.
Peptidoglycan, also known as murein, is a polymer consisting of sugars and amino acids that forms a mesh-like layer outside the plasma membrane of most bacteria, forming the cell wall.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
An example of a pharmacophore model. A pharmacophore is an abstract description of molecular features that are necessary for molecular recognition of a ligand by a biological macromolecule.
A phosphatase is an enzyme that uses water to cleave a phosphoric acid monoester into a phosphate ion and an alcohol.
Phosphofructokinase is a kinase enzyme that phosphorylates fructose 6-phosphate in glycolysis.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Physostigmine (also known as eserine from éséré, the West African name for the Calabar bean) is a highly toxic parasympathomimetic alkaloid, specifically, a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor.
In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.
A polyamine is an organic compound having more than two amino groups.
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.
Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).
A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme that performs proteolysis: protein catabolism by hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
Protease inhibitors (PIs) are a class of antiviral drugs that are widely used to treat HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C. Protease inhibitors prevent viral replication by selectively binding to viral proteases (e.g. HIV-1 protease) and blocking proteolytic cleavage of protein precursors that are necessary for the production of infectious viral particles.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
A protein kinase is a kinase enzyme that modifies other proteins by chemically adding phosphate groups to them (phosphorylation).
Protein structure is the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in an amino acid-chain molecule.
Protein–protein interactions (PPIs) are the physical contacts of high specificity established between two or more protein molecules as a result of biochemical events steered by electrostatic forces including the hydrophobic effect.
Proteomics is the large-scale study of proteins.
Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group.
The rate law or rate equation for a chemical reaction is an equation that links the reaction rate with the concentrations or pressures of the reactants and constant parameters (normally rate coefficients and partial reaction orders).
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
A reversible reaction is a reaction where the reactants form products, which react together to give the reactants back.
Ribonuclease (commonly abbreviated RNase) is a type of nuclease that catalyzes the degradation of RNA into smaller components.
Ribonuclease inhibitor (RI) is a large (~450 residues, ~49 kDa), acidic (pI ~4.7), leucine-rich repeat protein that forms extremely tight complexes with certain ribonucleases.
The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).
Ricin, a lectin (a carbohydrate-binding protein) produced in the seeds of the castor oil plant, Ricinus communis, is a highly potent toxin.
Ricinus communis, the castor bean or castor oil plant, is a species of perennial flowering plant in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.
Ritonavir, sold under the trade name Norvir, is an antiretroviral medication used along with other medications to treat HIV/AIDS.
RNA polymerase II (RNAP II and Pol II) is a multiprotein complex.
The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".
Sarin, or NATO designation GB (G-series, 'B'), is a highly toxic synthetic organophosphorus compound.
Secondary metabolites are organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development, or reproduction of an organism.
Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures of the performance of a binary classification test, also known in statistics as a classification function.
Serine (symbol Ser or S) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Sildenafil, sold as the brand name Viagra among others, is a medication used to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Within the fields of molecular biology and pharmacology, a small molecule is a low molecular weight (< 900 daltons) organic compound that may regulate a biological process, with a size on the order of 1 nm.
The Solanaceae, or nightshades, are an economically important family of flowering plants.
In chemistry, a substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which reacts with a reagent to generate a product.
In biochemistry, suicide inhibition, also known as suicide inactivation or mechanism-based inhibition, is an irreversible form of enzyme inhibition that occurs when an enzyme binds a substrate analogue and forms an irreversible complex with it through a covalent bond during the normal catalysis reaction.
A sulfonate is a salt or ester of a sulfonic acid.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
Taxus is a small genus of coniferous trees or shrubs in the yew family Taxaceae.
Thiol is an organosulfur compound that contains a carbon-bonded sulfhydryl (R–SH) group (where R represents an alkyl or other organic substituent).
Threonine (symbol Thr or T) is an amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Tipranavir (TPV), or tipranavir disodium, is a nonpeptidic protease inhibitor (PI) manufactured by Boehringer Ingelheim under the trade name Aptivus.
The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red, fruit/berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
The transition state of a chemical reaction is a particular configuration along the reaction coordinate.
Transition state analogs (transition state analogues), are chemical compounds with a chemical structure that resembles the transition state of a substrate molecule in an enzyme-catalyzed chemical reaction.
Triclosan (sometimes abbreviated as TCS) is an antibacterial and antifungal agent found in some consumer products, including toothpaste, soaps, detergents, toys, and surgical cleaning treatments.
Trypanosoma cruzi is a species of parasitic euglenoids.
Trypsin is a serine protease from the PA clan superfamily, found in the digestive system of many vertebrates, where it hydrolyzes proteins.
A trypsin inhibitor is a type of serine protease inhibitor that reduces the biological activity of trypsin.
Tubulin in molecular biology can refer either to the tubulin protein superfamily of globular proteins, or one of the member proteins of that superfamily.
Tyrosine (symbol Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.
Uncompetitive inhibition, also known as anti-competitive inhibition, takes place when an enzyme inhibitor binds only to the complex formed between the enzyme and the substrate (the E-S complex).
Vancomycin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.
A zymogen, also called a proenzyme, is an inactive precursor of an enzyme.
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