32 relations: Abies grandis, Alkaline phosphatase, Ancestral reconstruction, Atrazine, Biocatalysis, Bioremediation, Brevibacillus brevis, Cysteine synthase, Cytochrome P450, Deamination, Directed evolution, Drug metabolism, Enzyme, Estrogen receptor, Evolution by gene duplication, Glutathione S-transferase, Hydrolase, Last universal common ancestor, Melamine, Michaelis–Menten kinetics, Non-proteinogenic amino acids, Nonribosomal peptide, Protein moonlighting, Protein superfamily, Pseudomonas, Rational design, Secondary metabolite, Star activity, Steroid hormone receptor, Susumu Ohno, Transaminase, Tyrocidine.
Abies grandis (grand fir, giant fir, lowland white fir, great silver fir, western white fir, Vancouver fir, or Oregon fir) is a fir native to the Pacific Northwest and Northern California of North America, occurring at altitudes of sea level to 1,800 m.
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, ALKP, ALPase, Alk Phos) or basic phosphatase is a homodimeric protein enzyme of 86 kilodaltons.
Ancestral reconstruction (also known as Character Mapping or Character Optimization) is the extrapolation back in time from measured characteristics of individuals (or populations) to their common ancestors.
Atrazine is a herbicide of the triazine class.
Biocatalysis is catalysis in living (biological) systems.
Bioremediation is a process used to treat contaminated media, including water, soil and subsurface material, by altering environmental conditions to stimulate growth of microorganisms and degrade the target pollutants.
Brevibacillus brevis is a Gram-positive, aerobic, spore-forming bacillus commonly found in soil, air, water, and decaying matter.
In enzymology, a cysteine synthase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are O3-acetyl-L-serine and hydrogen sulfide, whereas its two products are L-cysteine and acetate.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
Deamination is the removal of an amine group from a protein molecule.
Directed evolution (DE, "gelenkte Evolution") is a method used in protein engineering that mimics the process of natural selection to evolve proteins or nucleic acids toward a user-defined goal.
Drug metabolism is the metabolic breakdown of drugs by living organisms, usually through specialized enzymatic systems.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of proteins found inside cells.
Evolution by gene duplication is an event by which a gene or part of a gene can have two identical copy that can not be distinguished from each other.
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), previously known as ligandins, comprise a family of eukaryotic and prokaryotic phase II metabolic isozymes best known for their ability to catalyze the conjugation of the reduced form of glutathione (GSH) to xenobiotic substrates for the purpose of detoxification.
Hydrolase is a class of enzyme that is commonly used as biochemical catalysts that utilize water to break a chemical bond.
The last universal common ancestor (LUCA), also called the last universal ancestor (LUA), cenancestor, or (incorrectlyThere is a common misconception that definitions of LUCA and progenote are the same; however, progenote is defined as an organism “still in the process of evolving the relationship between genotype and phenotype”, and it is only hypothesed that LUCA is a progenote.) progenote, is the most recent population of organisms from which all organisms now living on Earth have a common descent.
Melamine is the organic compound with the formula C3H6N6.
Michaelis–Menten saturation curve for an enzyme reaction showing the relation between the substrate concentration and reaction rate. In biochemistry, Michaelis–Menten kinetics is one of the best-known models of enzyme kinetics.
In biochemistry, non-coded or non-proteinogenic amino acids are those not naturally encoded or found in the genetic code of any organism.
Nonribosomal peptides (NRP) are a class of peptide secondary metabolites, usually produced by microorganisms like bacteria and fungi.
Protein moonlighting (or gene sharing) is a phenomenon by which a protein can perform more than one function.
A protein superfamily is the largest grouping (clade) of proteins for which common ancestry can be inferred (see homology).
Pseudomonas is a genus of Gram-negative, Gammaproteobacteria, belonging to the family Pseudomonadaceae and containing 191 validly described species.
In chemical biology and biomolecular engineering, rational design is the strategy of creating new molecules with a certain functionality, based upon the ability to predict how the molecule's structure will affect its behavior through physical models.
Secondary metabolites are organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development, or reproduction of an organism.
Star activity is the relaxation or alteration of the specificity of restriction enzyme mediated cleavage of DNA that can occur under reaction conditions that differ significantly from those optimal for the enzyme.
Steroid hormone receptors are found in the nucleus, cytosol, and also on the plasma membrane of target cells.
was a Japanese-American geneticist and evolutionary biologist, and seminal researcher in the field of molecular evolution.
Transaminases or aminotransferases are enzymes that catalyze a transamination reaction between an amino acid and an α-keto acid.
Tyrocidine is a mixture of cyclic decapeptides produced by the bacteria Bacillus brevis found in soil.