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The Eocene (symbol E&thinsp) Epoch, lasting from, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era. [1]

166 relations: Africa, Alaska, Alps, Ancient Greek, Antarctic Circumpolar Current, Antarctic ice sheet, Antarctica, Archipelago, Arctic, Arctic Ocean, Arecaceae, Asia, Atlantic Ocean, Atmosphere of Earth, Australia, Axial tilt, Azolla, Azolla event, Baltic amber, Baltic Sea, Bartonian, Basilosaurus, Bat, Bibionidae, Bird, Bolca, Bolide, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbon-12, Carbon-13, Carcharhiniformes, Cenozoic, Chesapeake Bay impact crater, Clathrate compound, Coal, Continent, Crocodile, Cupressaceae, Dawn, Deciduous, Decomposition, Denmark, Desert, Drake Passage, Egypt, Elephant, Ellesmere Island, Eocene, Eocene Thermal Maximum 2, ..., Eocene–Oligocene extinction event, Eurasia, Europe, Even-toed ungulate, Evergreen, Extinction event, Fauna, Fish, Flora, Fold (geology), Foraminifera, Forest, Fossil, Fur Formation, Geologic time scale, Geology of the Himalaya, Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point, Global-warming potential, Grass, Green River Formation, Greenhouse gas, Greenland, Hand, Heat, Himalayas, Hoof, Hydrogen, India, Insular dwarfism, Isle of Wight, Isotope, Isotopes of carbon, Isotopes of oxygen, Lagerstätte, Lake, Laurasia, Leg, List of fossil sites, London Clay, Lutetian, Marsupial, Massignano, Mediterranean Sea, Mesonychid, Mesonyx, Messel pit, Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Methane, Methane clathrate, Mountain formation, Mud, New York, North America, Northern Europe, Ocean, Ocean gyre, Odd-toed ungulate, Oligocene, Online Etymology Dictionary, Orbital eccentricity, Orogeny, Paleocene, Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, Paleogene, Paris Basin (geology), Patagonia, Period (geology), Petroleum, Plain, Planet, Plate tectonics, Polar stratospheric cloud, Popigai crater, Precession, Predation, Priabonian, Primate, Proboscidea, Proxy (climate), Pythonidae, Rainforest, River, Rock (geology), Rodent, Savanna, Sea ice, Seafloor spreading, Season, Sirenia, Snake, South America, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Southeastern United States, Southern Ocean, Stratum, Subtropics, Supercontinent, Swamp, Temperature, Tethys Ocean, Titanoboa, Tooth, Tropical rainforest, Tundra, Turtle, Umbria, Ungulate, United Arab Emirates, Upwelling, Volcanism, Wadi Al-Hitan, Water, Weathering, Whale, Ypresian. Expand index (116 more) »


Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent.

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Alaska is a U.S. state situated in the northwest extremity of the North American continent.

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The Alps (Alpi; Alpes; Alpen; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe, stretching approximately across eight Alpine countries: Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Slovenia, and Switzerland.

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Ancient Greek

Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Antarctic Circumpolar Current

The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is an ocean current that flows clockwise from west to east around Antarctica.

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Antarctic ice sheet

The Antarctic ice sheet is one of the two polar ice caps of the Earth.

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Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent, containing the geographic South Pole.

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An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands.

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The Arctic (f) is a polar region located at the northernmost part of the Earth.

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Arctic Ocean

The Arctic Ocean (also known as the Northern Ocean), located in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Arctic north polar region, is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceanic divisions.

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The Arecaceae are a botanical family of perennial lianas, shrubs and trees commonly known as palm trees.

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Asia is the Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres.

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Atlantic Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceanic divisions, following the Pacific Ocean.

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Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth that is retained by Earth's gravity.

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Australia (colloquially), officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is an Oceanian country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands.

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Axial tilt

In astronomy, axial tilt, also known as obliquity, is the angle between an object's rotational axis and its orbital axis, or, equivalently, the angle between its equatorial plane and orbital plane.

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Azolla (mosquito fern, duckweed fern, fairy moss, water fern) is a genus of seven species of aquatic ferns in the family Salviniaceae.

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Azolla event

The Azolla event occurred in the middle Eocene epoch, around, when blooms of the freshwater fern Azolla are thought to have happened in the Arctic Ocean.

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Baltic amber

The Baltic region is home to the largest known deposit of amber, called Baltic amber or succinite.

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Baltic Sea

The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, the Baltic countries, and the North European Plain.

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The Bartonian is, in the ICS's geologic time scale, a stage or age in the middle Eocene epoch or series.

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Basilosaurus ("king lizard") is a genus of early whale that lived in the late Eocene.

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Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera (from the Greek χείρ - cheir, "hand" and πτερόν - pteron, "wing") whose forelimbs form webbed wings, making them the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.

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Bibionidae (march flies and lovebugs) is a family of flies (Diptera).

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Birds (class Aves) are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, a beak with no teeth, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a lightweight but strong skeleton.

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Bolca is a village in the Veneto, on the southern margin of the Italian Alps.

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A bolide (French from the Greek βολίς bolis, "missile" or "to flash") is an extremely bright meteor that often explodes in the atmosphere.

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Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas vital to life on Earth.

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Carbon-12 is the more abundant carbon of the two stable isotopes, amounting to 98.93% of the element carbon; its abundance is due to the triple-alpha process by which it is created in stars.

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Carbon-13 (13C) is a natural, stable isotope of carbon with a nucleus containing 6 protons and 7 neutrons.

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The ground sharks, order Carcharhiniformes, are the largest order of sharks.

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The Cenozoic Era (or; also Cænozoic, Caenozoic or Cainozoic or; meaning "new life", from Greek καινός kainos "new", and ζωή zoe "life") is the current and most recent of the three Phanerozoic geological eras, following the Mesozoic Era and covering the period from 65 million years ago to present day.

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Chesapeake Bay impact crater

The Chesapeake Bay impact crater was formed by a bolide that impacted the eastern shore of North America about 35 million years ago, in the late Eocene epoch.

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Clathrate compound

A clathrate is a chemical substance consisting of a lattice that traps or contains molecules.

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Coal (from the Old English term col, which has meant "mineral of fossilized carbon" since the 13th century) is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.

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A continent is one of several very large landmasses on Earth.

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Crocodiles (subfamily Crocodylinae) or true crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia.

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The Cupressaceae or cypress family is a conifer family with worldwide distribution.

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Dawn (from an Old English verb dagian "to become day") is the time that marks the beginning of the twilight before sunrise.

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Deciduous means "falling off at maturity" or "tending to fall off", and it is typically used in order to refer to trees or shrubs that lose their leaves seasonally (most commonly during autumn) and to the shedding of other plant structures such as petals after flowering or fruit when ripe.

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Decomposition is the process by which organic substances are broken down into a much simpler form of matter.

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Denmark (Danmark) is a country in Northern Europe.

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A desert is a barren area of land where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.

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Drake Passage

The Drake Passage or Mar de Hoces—Sea of Hoces—is the body of water between South America's Cape Horn and the South Shetland Islands of Antarctica.

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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia, via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea.

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Ellesmere Island

Ellesmere Island (Inuit: Umingmak Nuna, meaning "land of Muskox") is part of the Qikiqtaaluk Region of the Canadian territory of Nunavut.

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The Eocene (symbol E&thinsp) Epoch, lasting from, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era.

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Eocene Thermal Maximum 2

Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM-2), also called H-1 or the Elmo (Eocene Layer of Mysterious Origin) event, was a transient period of global warming that occurred approximately 53.7 million years ago (Ma).

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Eocene–Oligocene extinction event

The transition between the end of the Eocene and the beginning of the Oligocene, called the Grande Coupure (the "Great Break" in continuity) in Europe, is marked by large-scale extinction and floral and faunal turnover (although minor in comparison to the largest mass extinctions).

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Eurasia is the combined continental landmass of Asia and Europe.

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Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.

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Even-toed ungulate

The even-toed ungulates (order Artiodactyla) are ungulates (hoofed animals) whose weight is borne approximately equally by the third and fourth toes, rather than mostly or entirely by the third as in Odd-toed ungulate (perissodactyls), such as horses.

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In botany, an evergreen is a plant that has leaves throughout the year, always green.

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Extinction event

An extinction event (also known as a mass extinction or biotic crisis) is a widespread and rapid decrease in the amount of life on Earth.

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Fauna is all of the animal life of any particular region or time.

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A fish is any member of a paraphyletic group of organisms that consist of all gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.

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Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous—native plant life.

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Fold (geology)

A geological fold occurs when one or a stack of originally flat and planar surfaces, such as sedimentary strata, are bent or curved as a result of permanent deformation.

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Foraminifera (Latin meaning hole bearers, informally called "forams") are members of a phylum or class of amoeboid protists characterized by streaming granular ectoplasm that among other things is used for catching food, and commonly by an external shell or "test" made of various materials and constructed in diverse forms.

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A forest is a large area of land covered with trees or other woody vegetation.

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Fossils (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") are the preserved remains or traces of animals, plants, and other organisms from the remote past.

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Fur Formation

The Fur Formation is a marine geological formation of Ypresian (Lower Eocene Epoch, c. 56.0-54.5 Ma) age which crops out in the Limfjord region of Denmark from Silstrup via Mors and Fur to Ertebølle, and can be seen in many cliffs and quarries in the area.

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Geologic time scale

The geological time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological measurement that relates stratigraphy to time, and is used by geologists, paleontologists, and other Earth scientists to describe the timing and relationships between events that have occurred throughout Earth’s history.

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Geology of the Himalaya

The geology of the Himalaya is a record of the most dramatic and visible creations of modern plate tectonic forces.

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Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point

A Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point, abbreviated GSSP, is an internationally agreed upon reference point on a stratigraphic section which defines the lower boundary of a stage on the geologic time scale.

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Global-warming potential

Global-warming potential (GWP) is a relative measure of how much heat a greenhouse gas traps in the atmosphere.

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Grasses, or more technically graminoids, are monocotyledonous, usually herbaceous plants with narrow leaves growing from the base.

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Green River Formation

The Green River Formation is an Eocene geologic formation that records the sedimentation in a group of intermountain lakes in three basins along the present-day Green River in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah.

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Greenhouse gas

A greenhouse gas (sometimes abbreviated GHG) is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range.

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Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat; Grønland) is an autonomous country within the Kingdom of Denmark, located between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

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A hand (med./lat.: manus, pl. manūs) is a prehensile, multi-fingered extremity located at the end of an arm or forelimb of primates such as humans, chimpanzees, monkeys, and lemurs.

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In physics, heat is energy in a process of transfer between a system and its surroundings, other than as work or with the transfer of matter.

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The Himalayas or Himalaya (or; हिमालय, Nepali: हिमालय, Hindi: हिमालय, ہمالیہ; from Sanskrit hima (snow) + ālaya (dwelling), literally meaning "abode of snow") is a mountain range in South Asia and East Asia which separates the Indo-Gangetic Plain from the Tibetan Plateau.

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A hoof, plural hooves or hoofs, is the tip of a toe of an ungulate mammal, strengthened by a thick, horny, keratin covering.

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Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1.

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India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.

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Insular dwarfism

Insular dwarfism, a form of phyletic dwarfism, is the process and condition of the reduction in size of large animals over a number of generations when their population's range is limited to a small environment, primarily islands.

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Isle of Wight

The Isle of Wight, is a county and the largest and second most populous island of England.

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Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number, although all isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons in each atom.

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Isotopes of carbon

Carbon (C) has 15 known isotopes, from 8C to 22C, 2 of which (12C and 13C) are stable.

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Isotopes of oxygen

There are three stable isotopes of oxygen (16O, 17O, and 18O).

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A Lagerstätte (from Lager 'storage, lair' Stätte 'place'; plural Lagerstätten) is a sedimentary deposit that exhibits extraordinary fossils with exceptional preservation—sometimes including preserved soft tissues.

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A lake (in Scotland and Ireland, a loch) is an area (prototypically filled with water, also of variable size), localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.

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Laurasia was the northernmost of two supercontinents (the other being Gondwana) that formed part of the Pangaea supercontinent around (Mya).

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A leg is a weight bearing and locomotive structure, usually having a columnar shape.

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List of fossil sites

This list of fossil sites is a worldwide list of localities known well for the presence of fossils.

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London Clay

The London Clay Formation is a marine geological formation of Ypresian (Lower Eocene Epoch, c. 56-49 Ma) age which crops out in the southeast of England.

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The Lutetian is, in the geologic timescale, a stage or age in the Eocene.

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Marsupials are an infraclass of mammals living primarily in Australasia and the Americas.

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Massignano is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Ascoli Piceno in the Italian region Marche, located about southeast of Ancona and about northeast of Ascoli Piceno.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean surrounded by the Mediterranean region and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.

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Mesonychia ("middle claws") is an extinct taxon of small- to large-sized carnivorous digitigrade ungulates related to the cetartiodactyls.

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Mesonyx ("middle claw") was a wolf-like mammal of the family Mesonychidae, the type family of the order Mesonychia (sometimes referred to by its older name, "Acreodi"), existing 51.8—51.7 Ma (AEO).

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Messel pit

The Messel Pit (Grube Messel) is a disused quarry near the village of Messel, (Landkreis Darmstadt-Dieburg, Hesse) about southeast of Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

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Metasequoia glyptostroboides

Metasequoia glyptostroboides, the dawn redwood, is a fast-growing, endangered coniferous tree, the sole living species of the genus Metasequoia, one of three species in the subfamily Sequoioideae.

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Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).

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Methane clathrate

Methane clathrate (CH4·5.75H2O) or (4CH4·23H2O), also called methane hydrate, hydromethane, methane ice, fire ice, natural gas hydrate, or gas hydrate, is a solid clathrate compound (more specifically, a clathrate hydrate) in which a large amount of methane is trapped within a crystal structure of water, forming a solid similar to ice.

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Mountain formation

Mountain formation refers to the geological processes that underlie the formation of mountains.

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Mud is a mixture of water and any combination of soil, silt, and clay, and usually forms after rainfall or near water sources.

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New York

New York is a state in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.

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North America

North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere.

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Northern Europe

Northern Europe is the northern part or region of Europe.

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An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.

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Ocean gyre

A gyre in oceanography is any large system of rotating ocean currents, particularly those involved with large wind movements.

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Odd-toed ungulate

Perissodactyls, otherwise known as odd-toed ungulates, compose an order of mammals characterized by an odd number of toes and being hindgut fermenters with somewhat simple stomachs.

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The Oligocene (symbol O&thinsp) is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present (to). As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain.

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Online Etymology Dictionary

The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary that describes the origins of English-language words.

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Orbital eccentricity

The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle.

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Orogeny refers to forces and events leading to a large structural deformation of the Earth's lithosphere (crust and uppermost mantle) due to the interaction between tectonic plates.

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The Paleocene (or; symbol Pε&thinsp) or Palaeocene, the "old recent", is a geologic epoch that lasted from about.

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Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum

The Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), alternatively (ETM1), and formerly known as the "Initial Eocene" or "" refers to a climate event that began at the temporal boundary between the Paleocene and Eocene epochs.

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The Paleogene (or; also spelled Palaeogene or Palæogene; informally Lower Tertiary) is a geologic period and system that began ended and comprises the first part of the Cenozoic Era.

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Paris Basin (geology)

The Paris Basin is one of the major geological regions of France having developed since the Triassic on a basement formed by the Variscan orogeny.

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Patagonia is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile.

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Period (geology)

A geologic period is one of several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place.

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Petroleum (L. petroleum, from early 15c. "petroleum, rock oil" (mid-14c. in Anglo-French), from Medieval Latin petroleum, from petra: "rock" + ''oleum'': "oil".) is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface, which is commonly refined into various types of fuels.

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In geography, a plain is a flat area.

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A planet is an astronomical object orbiting a star, brown dwarf, or stellar remnant that.

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Plate tectonics

Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory that describes the large-scale motion of Earth's lithosphere.

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Polar stratospheric cloud

Polar stratospheric clouds or PSCs, also known as nacreous clouds (from nacre, or mother of pearl, due to its iridescence), are clouds in the winter polar stratosphere at altitudes of.

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Popigai crater

The Popigai crater (or astrobleme) in Siberia, Russia is tied with the Manicouagan Crater as the fourth largest verified impact crater on Earth.

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Precession is a change in the orientation of the rotational axis of a rotating body.

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In ecosystem predation is a biological interaction where a predator (an organism that is hunting) feeds on its prey (the organism that is attacked).

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The Priabonian is, in the ICS's geologic timescale, the latest age or the upper stage of the Eocene epoch or series.

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A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").

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The Proboscidea (from the Greek προβοσκίς and the Latin proboscis) are a taxonomic order of afrotherian mammals containing one living family, Elephantidae, and several extinct families.

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Proxy (climate)

In the study of past climates ("paleoclimatology"), climate proxies are preserved physical characteristics of the past that stand in for direct measurements to enable scientists to reconstruct the climatic conditions that prevailed during much of the Earth's history.

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The Pythonidae, commonly known simply as pythons, from the Greek word python (πυθων), are a family of nonvenomous snakes found in Africa, Asia, and Australia.

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Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall between.

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A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.

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Rock (geology)

In geology, rock is a naturally occurring solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.

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Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of unremittingly growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.

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A savanna or savannah is a grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close.

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Sea ice

Sea ice arises as seawater freezes.

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Seafloor spreading

Seafloor spreading is a process that occurs at mid-ocean ridges, where new oceanic crust is formed through volcanic activity and then gradually moves away from the ridge.

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A season is a division of the year, marked by changes in weather, ecology and hours of daylight.

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Sirenia (commonly referred to as sea cows) are an order of fully aquatic, herbivorous mammals that inhabit swamps, rivers, estuaries, marine wetlands, and coastal marine waters.

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Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes that can be distinguished from legless lizards by their lack of eyelids and external ears.

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South America

South America is a continent located in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

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South Asia

South Asia or Southern Asia is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.

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Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.

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Southeastern United States

The Southeastern United States is the eastern portion of the Southern United States, and the southern portion of the Eastern United States.

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Southern Ocean

The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean or the Austral Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctica.

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In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers.

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The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropic circle of latitude (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and the 38th parallel in each hemisphere.

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In geology, a supercontinent is the assembly of most or all of the Earth's continental blocks or cratons to form a single large landmass.

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A swamp is a wetland that is forested.

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A temperature is an objective comparative measure of hot or cold.

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Tethys Ocean

The Tethys Ocean (Greek: Τηθύς) was an ocean that existed between the continents of Gondwana and Laurasia during much of the Mesozoic era, before the opening of the Indian and Atlantic oceans during the Cretaceous period.

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Titanoboa,; meaning "titanic boa," is an extinct genus of snake that lived approximately 60–58 million years ago, during the Paleocene epoch, a 10-million-year period immediately following the dinosaur extinction event.

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A tooth (plural teeth) is a small, calcified, whitish structure found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebrates and used to break down food.

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Tropical rainforest

A tropical rainforest is a biome type that occurs roughly within the latitudes 28 degrees north or south of the equator (in the equatorial zone between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn).

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In physical geography, tundra is type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.

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Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (or Chelonii) characterised by a special bony or cartilaginous shell developed from their ribs and acting as a shield.

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Umbria, is a region of historic and modern central Italy.

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Ungulates (pronounced) are any members of a diverse clade of primarily large mammals that includes odd-toed ungulates such as horses and Rhinos, and even-toed ungulates such as cattle, pigs, giraffes, camels, deer, and hippopotami.

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United Arab Emirates

The United Arab Emirates (دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates or the UAE,الامارات is a country located in the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing sea borders with Qatar and Iran.

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Upwelling is an oceanographic phenomenon that involves wind-driven motion of dense, cooler, and usually nutrient-rich water towards the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-depleted surface water.

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Volcanism is the phenomenon of eruption of molten rock (magma) onto the surface of the Earth or a solid-surface planet or moon, where lava, pyroclastics and volcanic gases erupt through a break in the surface called a vent.

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Wadi Al-Hitan

Wadi Al-Hitan (وادي الحيتان, "Whales Valley") is a paleontological site in the Al Fayyum Governorate of Egypt, some 150 km southwest of Cairo.

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Water (chemical formula: H2O) is a transparent fluid which forms the world's streams, lakes, oceans and rain, and is the major constituent of the fluids of organisms.

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Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil and minerals as well as artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, biota and waters.

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Whale is the common name for a widely distributed and diverse group of fully aquatic marine mammals.

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In the geologic timescale the Ypresian is the oldest age or lowest stratigraphic stage of the Eocene.

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Redirects here:

Eocene Climatic Optimum, Eocene Epoch, Eocene age, Eocene epoch, Eocenic, Geiseltalian, Grand coupre, Late Eocene, Late Eocene period, Middle Eocene, Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum, Upper Eocene.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eocene

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