113 relations: Acoustics, Affix, Alveolar consonant, Alveolar fricative, Ambrosia, Ancient Greek, Article (grammar), Assibilation, Assimilation (phonology), Brasília, Brazilian Portuguese, Celtic languages, Classical Arabic, Close vowel, Co-articulated consonant, Coarticulation, Consonant, Consonant cluster, Consonant harmony, Constructed language, Crasis, Dactyl (poetry), Dactylic hexameter, Dissimilation, Dutch language, East Slavic languages, Echo vowel, Elative case, England, English language, Finnish language, Florianopolitan dialect, French language, Gallo-Romance languages, General American, German language, Gothic language, Greek language, Hamtramck, Michigan, Hebrew language, Hiatus (linguistics), Hiberno-English, Historical linguistics, Hypothesis, Illative case, Infix, Japanese language, Korean language, L-vocalization, Labial consonant, ..., Labialization, Language game, Latin, Lenition, Linking and intrusive R, Logic, Lojban, Metathesis (linguistics), Metre (poetry), Middle Persian, Modern Hebrew, Mora (linguistics), Morpheme, Northeast Region, Brazil, Old Church Slavonic, Old English, Old Japanese, Palatalization (sound change), Paragoge, Persian language, Pharyngealization, Phoneme, Phonology, Phonotactics, Place of articulation, Postalveolar consonant, Prothesis (linguistics), Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Greek language, Proto-Slavic, Psycholinguistics, Received Pronunciation, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (state), Rural flight, Russian language, Salami, Sandhi, Sanskrit, Savonian dialects, São Paulo, Schwa, Scottish English, Secondary articulation, Sign language, Slavic languages, Spanish language, Spelling pronunciation, Stop consonant, Swordfish, Syllabification, Syllable, Synchrony and diachrony, The Umbrella Man (song), Tmesis, Turkish language, Umbrella (song), Velarization, Vowel, Vowel harmony, Vowel reduction, Western Romance languages, Yogi Bear. Expand index (63 more) » « Shrink index
Acoustics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound.
In linguistics, an affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
The alveolar fricative is a fricative consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth.
In the ancient Greek myths, ambrosia (ἀμβροσία, "immortality") is sometimes the food or drink of the Greek gods, often depicted as conferring longevity or immortality upon whoever consumed it.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.
In linguistics, assibilation is a sound change resulting in a sibilant consonant.
In phonology, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.
Brasília is the federal capital of Brazil and seat of government of the Federal District.
Brazilian Portuguese (português do Brasil or português brasileiro) is a set of dialects of the Portuguese language used mostly in Brazil.
The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
Classical Arabic is the form of the Arabic language used in Umayyad and Abbasid literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
Co-articulated consonants or complex consonants are consonants produced with two simultaneous places of articulation.
Coarticulation in its general sense refers to a situation in which a conceptually isolated speech sound is influenced by, and becomes more like, a preceding or following speech sound.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
In linguistics, a consonant cluster, consonant sequence or consonant compound is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel.
Consonant harmony is a type of "long-distance" phonological assimilation akin to the similar assimilatory process involving vowels, i.e. vowel harmony.
A constructed language (sometimes called a conlang) is a language whose phonology, grammar, and vocabulary have been consciously devised for human or human-like communication, instead of having developed naturally.
Crasis (from the Greek κρᾶσις, "mixing", "blending") is a type of contraction in which two vowels or diphthongs merge into one new vowel or diphthong, making one word out of two.
A dactyl (δάκτυλος, dáktylos, “finger”) is a foot in poetic meter.
Dactylic hexameter (also known as "heroic hexameter" and "the meter of epic") is a form of meter or rhythmic scheme in poetry.
In phonology, particularly within historical linguistics, dissimilation is a phenomenon whereby similar consonants or vowels in a word become less similar.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
The East Slavic languages constitute one of three regional subgroups of Slavic languages, currently spoken throughout Eastern Europe, Northern Asia, and the Caucasus.
An echo vowel, also known as a synharmonic vowel, is a paragogic vowel that repeats the final vowel in a word in speech.
Elative (abbreviated; from Latin efferre "to bring or carry out") is a locative case with the basic meaning "out of".
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
Florianopolitan dialect, pejoratively called manezês or manezinho, is a variety of Brazilian Portuguese heavily influenced by (and often considered an extension of) the Azorean dialect.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The Gallo-Romance branch of the Romance languages includes sensu stricto the French language, the Occitan language, and the Franco-Provençal language (Arpitan).
General American (abbreviated as GA or GenAm) is the umbrella variety of American English—the continuum of accents—spoken by a majority of Americans and popularly perceived, among Americans, as lacking any distinctly regional, ethnic, or socioeconomic characteristics.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Gothic is an extinct East Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Hamtramck is a city in Wayne County of the U.S. state of Michigan.
In phonology, hiatus or diaeresis refers to two vowel sounds occurring in adjacent syllables, with no intervening consonant.
Hiberno‐English (from Latin Hibernia: "Ireland") or Irish English is the set of English dialects natively written and spoken within the island of Ireland (including both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland).
Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.
A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.
Illative (abbreviated; from Latin illatus "brought in") is, in the Finnish language, the Estonian language, the Lithuanian language, and the Hungarian language, the third of the locative cases with the basic meaning of "into (the inside of)".
An infix is an affix inserted inside a word stem (an existing word).
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
L-vocalization, in linguistics, is a process by which a lateral approximant sound such as, or, more often, velarized, is replaced by a vowel or a semivowel.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages.
A language game (also called secret language, ludling, or argot) is a system of manipulating spoken words to render them incomprehensible to the untrained ear.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
In linguistics, lenition is a kind of sound change that alters consonants, making them more sonorous.
Linking R and intrusive R are sandhi or linking phenomena involving the appearance of the rhotic consonant (which normally corresponds to the letter) between two consecutive morphemes where it would not normally be pronounced.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
Lojban (pronounced) is a constructed, syntactically unambiguous human language, succeeding the Loglan project.
Metathesis (from Greek, from "I put in a different order"; Latin: trānspositiō) is the transposition of sounds or syllables in a word or of words in a sentence.
In poetry, metre is the basic rhythmic structure of a verse or lines in verse.
Middle Persian is the Middle Iranian language or ethnolect of southwestern Iran that during the Sasanian Empire (224–654) became a prestige dialect and so came to be spoken in other regions of the empire as well.
A mora (plural morae or moras; often symbolized μ) is a unit in phonology that determines syllable weight, which in some languages determines stress or timing.
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
The Northeast Region of Brazil (Região Nordeste do Brasil) is one of the five official and political regions of the country according to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics.
Old Church Slavonic, also known as Old Church Slavic (or Ancient/Old Slavonic often abbreviated to OCS; (autonym словѣ́ньскъ ѩꙁꙑ́къ, slověnĭskŭ językŭ), not to be confused with the Proto-Slavic, was the first Slavic literary language. The 9th-century Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius are credited with standardizing the language and using it in translating the Bible and other Ancient Greek ecclesiastical texts as part of the Christianization of the Slavs. It is thought to have been based primarily on the dialect of the 9th century Byzantine Slavs living in the Province of Thessalonica (now in Greece). It played an important role in the history of the Slavic languages and served as a basis and model for later Church Slavonic traditions, and some Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches use this later Church Slavonic as a liturgical language to this day. As the oldest attested Slavic language, OCS provides important evidence for the features of Proto-Slavic, the reconstructed common ancestor of all Slavic languages.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
is the oldest attested stage of the Japanese language.
In linguistics, palatalization is a sound change that either results in a palatal or palatalized consonant or a front vowel, or is triggered by one of them.
Paragoge (from παραγωγή), is the addition of a sound to the end of a word.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Pharyngealization is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the pharynx or epiglottis is constricted during the articulation of the sound.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Phonotactics (from Ancient Greek phōnḗ "voice, sound" and tacticós "having to do with arranging") is a branch of phonology that deals with restrictions in a language on the permissible combinations of phonemes.
In articulatory phonetics, the place of articulation (also point of articulation) of a consonant is the point of contact where an obstruction occurs in the vocal tract between an articulatory gesture, an active articulator (typically some part of the tongue), and a passive location (typically some part of the roof of the mouth).
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
In linguistics, prothesis (from post-classical Latin based on πρόθεσις próthesis 'placing before'), or less commonly prosthesis (from Ancient Greek πρόσθεσις prósthesis 'addition') is the addition of a sound or syllable at the beginning of a word without changing the word's meaning or the rest of its structure.
Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Proto-Greek language (also known as Proto-Hellenic) is the assumed last common ancestor of all known varieties of Greek, including Mycenaean Greek, the subsequent ancient Greek dialects (i.e., Attic, Ionic, Aeolic, Doric, Ancient Macedonian and Arcadocypriot) and, ultimately, Koine, Byzantine and Modern Greek.
Proto-Slavic is the unattested, reconstructed proto-language of all the Slavic languages.
Psycholinguistics or psychology of language is the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, comprehend and produce language.
Received Pronunciation (RP) is an accent of Standard English in the United Kingdom and is defined in the Concise Oxford English Dictionary as "the standard accent of English as spoken in the south of England", although it can be heard from native speakers throughout England and Wales.
Rio de Janeiro (River of January), or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas.
Rio de Janeiro is one of the 27 federative units of Brazil.
Rural flight (or rural exodus) is the migratory pattern of peoples from rural areas into urban areas.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Salami (singular salame) is a type of cured sausage consisting of fermented and air-dried meat, typically beef or pork.
SandhiThe pronunciation of the word "sandhi" is rather diverse among English speakers.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
The Savonian dialects (also called Savo Finnish) are forms of the Finnish language spoken in Savonia and other parts of Eastern Finland.
São Paulo is a municipality in the southeast region of Brazil.
In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa (rarely or; sometimes spelled shwa) is the mid central vowel sound (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ə, or another vowel sound close to that position.
Scottish English refers to the varieties of English spoken in Scotland.
Secondary articulation occurs when the articulation of a consonant is equivalent to the combined articulations of two or three simpler consonants, at least one of which is an approximant.
Sign languages (also known as signed languages) are languages that use manual communication to convey meaning.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
A spelling pronunciation is the pronunciation of a word according to its spelling, at odds with a standard or traditional pronunciation.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
Swordfish (Xiphias gladius), also known as broadbills in some countries, are large, highly migratory, predatory fish characterized by a long, flat bill.
Syllabification or syllabication is the separation of a word into syllables, whether spoken or written.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
Synchrony and diachrony are two different and complementary viewpoints in linguistic analysis.
"The Umbrella Man" (often popularly referred to as Any Umbrellas?) is a British song written by James Cavanaugh, Larry Stock and Vincent Rose.
Tmesis (Ancient Greek: τμῆσις tmēsis, "a cutting" The Oxford Companion to the English Language, Oxford University Press (1992), p. 1044.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
"Umbrella" is a song by Barbadian singer Rihanna from her third studio album Good Girl Gone Bad (2007).
Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
Vowel harmony is a type of long-distance assimilatory phonological process involving vowels that occurs in some languages.
In phonetics, vowel reduction is any of various changes in the acoustic quality of vowels, which are related to changes in stress, sonority, duration, loudness, articulation, or position in the word (e.g. for the Creek language), and which are perceived as "weakening".
Western Romance languages are one of the two subdivisions of a proposed subdivision of the Romance languages based on the La Spezia–Rimini line.
Yogi Bear is a cartoon character who has appeared in numerous comic books, animated television shows and films.