144 relations: Acidosis, Acne, Adrenaline, Adrenergic receptor, Adverse drug reaction, Alkaloid, Amine, Ammonia, Amphetamine, Anesthesia, Angina, Asthma, Benign prostatic hyperplasia, Birch reduction, Blood–brain barrier, Bodybuilding, Breastfeeding, British National Formulary, Bronchodilator, Brown adipose tissue, Bupropion, Caffeine, Central nervous system, Chemical reaction, Chemical synthesis, Chinese herbology, Chiral auxiliary, Chirality (chemistry), Circulatory system, Clandestine chemistry, Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005, Confusion, Contraindication, Delusion, Dermatology, Developing country, Diabetes mellitus, Dopamine, ECA stack, Enantiomer, Ephedra, Ephedra (plant), Fischer projection, Fluoxetine, Food and Drug Administration, Formication, Gastrointestinal tract, Generic drug, Genitourinary system, George W. Bush, ..., Glaucoma, Hallucination, Halostachine, Han dynasty, Health Canada, Health system, Heart arrhythmia, Hostility, Hydroxy group, Hypercapnia, Hyperglycemia, Hypertension, Hyperthyroidism, Hypotension, Hypoxia (medical), Insomnia, Intramuscular injection, Intravenous therapy, Iodine, Journal of Organic Chemistry, Kampo, Khat, Letter case, Lithium, Liver, Mania, Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference, Merck & Co., Metaraminol, Methamphetamine, Methcathinone, Methyl group, Monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Myocardial infarction, N-Methylephedrine, Nagai Nagayoshi, Narcolepsy, Nasal congestion, Nervous system, Norepinephrine, Norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor, Norpseudoephedrine, Obesity, Oregon, Organic chemistry, Over-the-counter drug, Oxyfedrine, Panic, Paranoia, Patriot Act, Phenethylamine, Phenylpropanolamine, Pheochromocytoma, Phosphorus, Preferred IUPAC name, Pseudoephedrine, Psychomotor agitation, Redox, Respiratory system, Saquinavir, Shortness of breath, Skeletal muscle, Small caps, Spinal anaesthesia, Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons, Stereochemistry, Stereoisomerism, Stimulant, Stomach, Stroke, Structural analog, Subcutaneous injection, Substantia nigra, Substituted amphetamine, Substituted phenethylamine, Sympathetic nervous system, Sympathomimetic drug, Synephrine, Tachycardia, Theophylline, Thermogenesis, Traditional Chinese medicine, United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, United States Attorney General, United States Code, United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit, United States District Court for the District of Utah, United States House of Representatives, Urine, Vasoconstriction, Weight loss, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, World Anti-Doping Agency, Xanthine. Expand index (94 more) » « Shrink index
Acidosis is a process causing increased acidity in the blood and other body tissues (i.e., an increased hydrogen ion concentration).
Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines, especially norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline).
An adverse drug reaction (ADR) is an injury caused by taking a medication.
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness.
Angina, also known as angina pectoris, is chest pain or pressure, usually due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), also called prostate enlargement, is a noncancerous increase in size of the prostate.
The Birch reduction is an organic reaction which is particularly useful in synthetic organic chemistry.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Bodybuilding is the use of progressive resistance exercise to control and develop one's musculature.
Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.
The British National Formulary (BNF) is a United Kingdom (UK) pharmaceutical reference book that contains a wide spectrum of information and advice on prescribing and pharmacology, along with specific facts and details about many medicines available on the UK National Health Service (NHS).
A bronchodilator is a substance that dilates the bronchi and bronchioles, decreasing resistance in the respiratory airway and increasing airflow to the lungs.
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) or brown fat makes up the adipose organ together with white adipose tissue (or white fat).
Bupropion, sold under the brand names Wellbutrin and Zyban among others, is a medication primarily used as an antidepressant and smoking cessation aid.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
Chinese herbology is the theory of traditional Chinese herbal therapy, which accounts for the majority of treatments in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).
A chiral auxiliary is a stereogenic group or unit that is temporarily incorporated into an organic compound in order to control the stereochemical outcome of the synthesis.
Chirality is a geometric property of some molecules and ions.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Clandestine chemistry is chemistry carried out in secret, and particularly in illegal drug laboratories.
The Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005 (CMEA) is federal legislation enacted in the United States on March 9, 2006, to regulate, among other things, retail over-the-counter sales of following products because of their use in the manufacture of illegal drugs.
Confusion (from Latin confusĭo, -ōnis, from confundere: "to pour together;" "to mingle together;" "to confuse") is the state of being bewildered or unclear in one’s mind about something.
In medicine, a contraindication is a condition or factor that serves as a reason to withhold a certain medical treatment due to the harm that it would cause the patient.
A delusion is a mistaken belief that is held with strong conviction even in the presence of superior evidence to the contrary.
Dermatology (from ancient Greek δέρμα, derma which means skin and λογία, logia) is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin, nails, hair and its diseases.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
The ECA stack is a drug combination used in weight loss and as a stimulant.
In chemistry, an enantiomer, also known as an optical isomer (and archaically termed antipode or optical antipode), is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are the same except for being reversed along one axis (the hands cannot be made to appear identical simply by reorientation).
Ephedra is a medicinal preparation from the plant Ephedra sinica.
Ephedra is a genus of gymnosperm shrubs, the only genus in its family, Ephedraceae, and order, Ephedrales.
The Fischer projection, devised by Hermann Emil Fischer in 1891, is a two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional organic molecule by projection.
Fluoxetine, also known by trade names Prozac and Sarafem, among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
In medicine, formication is the sensation that resembles that of small insects crawling on (or under) the skin.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that is equivalent to a brand-name product in dosage, strength, route of administration, quality, performance, and intended use, but does not carry the brand name.
The genitourinary system or urogenital system is the organ system of the reproductive organs and the urinary system.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.
A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.
Halostachine (also known as N-methylphenylethanolamine) is a natural product, an alkaloid first isolated from the Asian shrub Halostachys caspica (synonym Halostachys belangeriana), and structurally a β-hydroxy-phenethylamine (a phenylethanolamine) related to its better-known "parent" biogenic amine, phenylethanolamine, to the adrenergic drug synephrine, and to the alkaloid ephedrine.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Health Canada (Santé Canada) is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for national public health.
A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Hostility is seen as form of emotionally charged aggressive behavior.
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
Hypercapnia, also known as hypercarbia and CO2 retention, is a condition of abnormally elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the blood.
Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar (also spelled hyperglycaemia or hyperglycæmia) is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.
Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.
Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
The Journal of Organic Chemistry, colloquially known as JOC or J Org, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal for original contributions of fundamental research in all branches of theory and practice in organic and bioorganic chemistry.
, often known simply as, is the study of traditional Chinese medicine in Japan following its introduction, beginning in the 7th century.
Khat or qat (Catha edulis, qat from القات) is a flowering plant native to the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.
Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Mania, also known as manic syndrome, is a state of abnormally elevated arousal, affect, and energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect." Although mania is often conceived as a "mirror image" to depression, the heightened mood can be either euphoric or irritable; indeed, as the mania intensifies, irritability can be more pronounced and result in violence, or anxiety.
Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference is a reference book published by Pharmaceutical Press listing some 6,000 drugs and medicines used throughout the world, including details of over 180,000 proprietary preparations.
Merck & Company, Inc., d.b.a. Merck Sharp & Dohme (MSD) outside the United States and Canada, is an American pharmaceutical company and one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world.
Metaraminol (INN; trade names Aramine, Metaramin, and Pressonex), also known as metaradrine, a stereoisomer of ''meta''-hydroxynorephedrine (3,β-dihydroxyamphetamine), is a potent sympathomimetic amine used in the prevention and treatment of hypotension, particularly as a complication of anesthesia.
Methamphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.
Methcathinone (α-methylamino-propiophenone or ephedrone) (sometimes called "cat" or "jeff" or "catnip" or "intash") is a monoamine alkaloid and psychoactive stimulant, a substituted cathinone.
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B).
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
N-Methylephedrine is a derivative of ephedrine.
was a notable Japanese organic chemist and pharmacologist, best known for his study of ephedrine.
Narcolepsy is a long-term neurological disorder that involves a decreased ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles.
Nasal congestion is the blockage of the nasal passages usually due to membranes lining the nose becoming swollen from inflamed blood vessels.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
A norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI) is a drug that acts as a reuptake inhibitor for the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine by blocking the action of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) and the dopamine transporter (DAT), respectively.
Norpseudoephedrine may refer to.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.
Oxyfedrine is a vasodilator and a β adrenoreceptor agonist.
Panic is a sudden sensation of fear, which is so strong as to dominate or prevent reason and logical thinking, replacing it with overwhelming feelings of anxiety and frantic agitation consistent with an animalistic fight-or-flight reaction.
Paranoia is an instinct or thought process believed to be heavily influenced by anxiety or fear, often to the point of delusion and irrationality.
The USA PATRIOT Act is an Act of Congress signed into law by US President George W. Bush on October 26, 2001.
Phenethylamine (PEA) is an organic compound, natural monoamine alkaloid, and trace amine which acts as a central nervous system stimulant in humans.
Phenylpropanolamine (PPA) is a sympathomimetic agent which is used as a decongestant and appetite suppressant.
Pheochromocytoma (PCC) is a neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands (originating in the chromaffin cells), or extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue that failed to involute after birth, that secretes high amounts of catecholamines, mostly norepinephrine, plus epinephrine to a lesser extent.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
In chemical nomenclature, a preferred IUPAC name (PIN) is a unique name, assigned to a chemical substance and preferred among the possible names generated by IUPAC nomenclature.
Pseudoephedrine (PSE) is a sympathomimetic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes.
Psychomotor agitation is a set of signs and symptoms that stem from mental tension and anxiety.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
Saquinavir, sold under the brand names Invirase and Fortovase, is an antiretroviral drug used together with other medications to treat or prevent HIV/AIDS.
Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.
Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.
In typography, small capitals (usually abbreviated small caps) are lowercase characters typeset with glyphs that resemble uppercase letters ("capitals") but reduced in height and weight, close to the surrounding lowercase (small) letters or text figures, for example:.
Spinal anaesthesia (or spinal anesthesia), also called spinal block, subarachnoid block, intradural block and intrathecal block, is a form of regional anaesthesia involving the injection of a local anaesthetic into the subarachnoid space, generally through a fine needle, usually long.
The Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) is an Australian legislative instrument produced by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA).
Stereochemistry, a subdiscipline of chemistry, involves the study of the relative spatial arrangement of atoms that form the structure of molecules and their manipulation.
In stereochemistry, stereoisomers are isomeric molecules that have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms (constitution), but differ in the three-dimensional orientations of their atoms in space.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
A structural analog, also known as a chemical analog or simply an analog, is a compound having a structure similar to that of another compound, but differing from it in respect to a certain component.
A subcutaneous injection is administered as a bolus into the subcutis, the layer of skin directly below the dermis and epidermis, collectively referred to as the cutis.
The substantia nigra (SN) is a basal ganglia structure located in the midbrain that plays an important role in reward and movement.
Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based upon the amphetamine structure; it includes all derivative compounds which are formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the amphetamine core structure with substituents.
Substituted phenethylamines (or simply phenethylamines) are a chemical class of organic compounds that are based upon the phenethylamine structure; the class is composed of all the derivative compounds of phenethylamine which can be formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the phenethylamine core structure with substituents.
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
Sympathomimetic drugs (also known as adrenergic drugs and adrenergic amines) are stimulant compounds which mimic the effects of endogenous agonists of the sympathetic nervous system.
Synephrine, or, more specifically, p-synephrine, is an alkaloid, occurring naturally in some plants and animals, and also in approved drugs products as its m-substituted analog known as neo-synephrine.
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
Theophylline, also known as 1,3-dimethylxanthine, is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma under a variety of brand names.
Thermogenesis is the process of heat production in organisms.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a style of traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine.
The United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988 is one of three major drug control treaties currently in force.
The United States Attorney General (A.G.) is the head of the United States Department of Justice per, concerned with all legal affairs, and is the chief lawyer of the United States government.
The Code of Laws of the United States of America (variously abbreviated to Code of Laws of the United States, United States Code, U.S. Code, U.S.C., or USC) is the official compilation and codification of the general and permanent federal statutes of the United States.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit (in case citations, 10th Cir.) is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts.
The United States District Court for the District of Utah (in case citations, D. Utah) is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction is the state of Utah.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.
Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.
The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system.
The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA; Agence mondiale antidopage, AMA) is a foundation initiated by the International Olympic Committee based in Canada to promote, coordinate and monitor the fight against drugs in sports.
Xanthine (or; archaically xanthic acid) (3,7-dihydropurine-2,6-dione), is a purine base found in most human body tissues and fluids and in other organisms.
ATC code C01CA26, ATC code R01AA03, ATC code R01AB05, ATC code R03CA02, ATC code S01FB02, ATCvet code QC01CA26, ATCvet code QG04BX90, ATCvet code QR01AA03, ATCvet code QR01AB05, ATCvet code QR03CA02, ATCvet code QS01FB02, Bronkaid, Bronkaid Mist, Efedren, Efedrin, Efedrine, Effedrin, Ephadrine, Ephedrin, Ephedrine HCL, Ephedrine hydrochloride, Ephidrine, Epitonin, Mini Thin, Mini ephedrine, Mini thin, Mini thins, Minithin, Racephedrine, Β-Hydroxy-N-methylamphetamine, Β-hydroxy-N-methylamphetamine.