149 relations: Aegean Sea, Alexander the Great, Amafinius, An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, Ancient Greek philosophy, Ancient philosophy, Apollodorus of Athens, Aponia, Aramaic language, Aristotle, Arthur Schopenhauer, Asclepiades of Bithynia, Ataraxia, Athens, Atom, Atomism, Attic calendar, Axial Age, Beyond Good and Evil, Bladder stone, Blame, Catius, Censorship, Charles Darwin, Cicero, Civil religion, Classical Athens, Clinamen, Colophon (city), Colotes, Dante Alighieri, David Hume, DC Comics, De rerum natura, Democritus, Determinism, Diogenes Laërtius, Egalitarianism, Ephebos, Epicurea, Epicureanism, Epicurus the Sage, Epikoros, Epistemology, Epistles (Horace), Epistulae Morales ad Lucilium, Eponymous archon, Ethics, Founding Fathers of the United States, Free will, ..., French Revolution, Friedrich Nietzsche, God in Judaism, Golden Rule, Greek hero cult, Hadrian, Han Ryner, Hedonism, Heinrich Köselitz, Herculaneum, Herculaneum papyri, Heresy, Heresy in Judaism, Hermann Usener, Hermarchus, Horace, Humanism, Hylozoism, Idomeneus of Lampsacus, Immanuel Kant, Indeterminism, Inferno (Dante), Jeremy Bentham, John Locke, John Stuart Mill, Karl Jaspers, Karl Marx, Kidney stone disease, Lactantius, Lampsacus, Leonteus of Lampsacus, Lesbos, Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers, Louvre, Lucretius, Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Materialism, Medieval Inquisition, Menander, Menoeceus, Metrodorus of Lampsacus (the younger), Michel Foucault, Michel Onfray, Monotheism, Mytilene, Natural and legal rights, Nausiphanes, Olympiad, On Nature (Epicurus), Outer space, Paul the Apostle, Perdiccas, Philodemus, Philosophy of happiness, Philosophy of science, Philostratus, Physics, Pierre Gassendi, Platonic Academy, Platonism, Pleasure principle (psychology), Plutarch, Polyaenus of Lampsacus, Praise, Problem of evil, Pyrrho, Robert Drew Hicks, Roman Empire, Root (linguistics), Sam Kieth, Samos, Satire, Science, Seneca the Younger, Separation of church and state, Sextus Empiricus, Sigmund Freud, Soter, Spanish Inquisition, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stoa Poikile, Stoicism, Suffering, Summum bonum, Talmud, The Gay Science, Themista of Lampsacus, Thesis, Thomas Hobbes, Thomas Jefferson, Trilemma, United States Declaration of Independence, Utilitarianism, Vatican Library, Vegetarianism, Villa of the Papyri, Western philosophy, William Messner-Loebs, William Wallace. Expand index (99 more) » « Shrink index
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Gaius Amafinius (or Amafanius) was one of the earliest Roman writers in favour of the Epicurean philosophy.
An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding is a book by the Scottish empiricist philosopher David Hume, published in English in 1748.
Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.
This page lists some links to ancient philosophy.
Apollodorus of Athens (Ἀπολλόδωρος ὁ Ἀθηναῖος, Apollodōros ho Athēnaios; c. 180 BC – after 120 BC) son of Asclepiades, was a Greek scholar, historian and grammarian.
"Aponia" (ἀπονία) means the absence of pain, and was regarded by the Epicureans to be the height of bodily pleasure.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Arthur Schopenhauer (22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher.
Asclepiades (Ἀσκληπιάδης; c. 124 or 129 – 40 BC), sometimes called Asclepiades of Bithynia or Asclepiades of Prusa, was a Greek physician born at Prusias-on-Sea in Bithynia in Asia Minor and who flourished at Rome, where he established Greek medicine near the end of the 2nd century BC.
Ataraxia (ἀταραξία, literally, "not perturbed", generally translated as "imperturbability", "equanimity", or "tranquillity") is a Greek philosophy term used to describe a lucid state of robust equanimity that was characterized by ongoing freedom from distress and worry.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
Atomism (from Greek ἄτομον, atomon, i.e. "uncuttable", "indivisible") is a natural philosophy that developed in several ancient traditions.
The Attic calendar or Athenian calendar is the calendar that was in use in ancient Attica, the ancestral territory of the Athenian polis.
Axial Age (also Axis Age, from Achsenzeit) is a term coined by German philosopher Karl Jaspers in the sense of a "pivotal age" characterizing the period of ancient history from about the 8th to the 3rd century BCE.
Beyond Good and Evil: Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future (Jenseits von Gut und Böse: Vorspiel einer Philosophie der Zukunft) is a book by philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche that expands the ideas of his previous work, Thus Spoke Zarathustra, with a more critical and polemical approach.
A bladder stone is a stone found in the urinary bladder.
Blame is the act of censuring, holding responsible, making negative statements about an individual or group that their action or actions are socially or morally irresponsible, the opposite of praise.
Catius (fl. c. 50s–40s BC) was an Epicurean philosopher, identified ethnically as an Insubrian Celt from Gallia Transpadana.
Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information, on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or "inconvenient" as determined by government authorities.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
Civil religion is a concept that originated in French political thought and became a major topic for American sociologists since its use by Robert Bellah in 1960.
The city of Athens (Ἀθῆναι, Athênai a.tʰɛ̂ː.nai̯; Modern Greek: Ἀθῆναι, Athínai) during the classical period of Ancient Greece (508–322 BC) was the major urban center of the notable polis (city-state) of the same name, located in Attica, Greece, leading the Delian League in the Peloponnesian War against Sparta and the Peloponnesian League.
Clinamen (plural clinamina, derived from clīnāre, to incline) is the Latin name Lucretius gave to the unpredictable swerve of atoms, in order to defend the atomistic doctrine of Epicurus.
Colophon (Κολοφών) was an ancient city in Ionia.
Colotes of Lampsacus (Κολώτης Λαμψακηνός, Kolōtēs Lampsakēnos; c. 320 – after 268 BC) was a pupil of Epicurus, and one of the most famous of his disciples.
Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
DC Comics, Inc. is an American comic book publisher.
De rerum natura (On the Nature of Things) is a first-century BC didactic poem by the Roman poet and philosopher Lucretius (c. 99 BC – c. 55 BC) with the goal of explaining Epicurean philosophy to a Roman audience.
Democritus (Δημόκριτος, Dēmókritos, meaning "chosen of the people") was an Ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosopher primarily remembered today for his formulation of an atomic theory of the universe.
Determinism is the philosophical theory that all events, including moral choices, are completely determined by previously existing causes.
Diogenes Laërtius (Διογένης Λαέρτιος, Diogenēs Laertios) was a biographer of the Greek philosophers.
Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.
Ephebos (ἔφηβος) (often in the plural epheboi), also anglicised as ephebe (plural: ephebes) or archaically ephebus (plural: ephebi), is a Greek term for a male adolescent, or for a social status reserved for that age, in Antiquity.
Epicurea is a collection of texts, fragments and testimonies by Epicurus composed by Hermann Usener in 1887.
Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus, founded around 307 BC.
Epicurus the Sage was a two-issue limited series graphic novel, written by William Messner-Loebs, with art by Sam Kieth.
Epikoros (or Apikoros or Apikores or Epicurus; Hebrew: אפיקורוס, lit. "Heretic", pl. Epicorsim) is a Jewish term cited in the Mishnah, referring to one who does not have a share in the world to come: The rabbinic literature uses the term Epikoros, without a specific reference to the Greek philosopher Epicurus, yet it is apparent that the term is derived from the Greek philosopher's name, a philosopher whose views contradicted Jewish scripture, the strictly monotheistic conception of God in Judaism and the Jewish belief in the world to come.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
The Epistles (or Letters) of Horace were published in two books, in 20 BCE and 14 BCE, respectively.
The Epistulae Morales ad Lucilium (Latin for "Moral Letters to Lucilius"), also known as the Moral Epistles, is a collection of 124 letters which were written by Seneca the Younger at the end of his life, during his retirement, and written after he had worked for the Emperor Nero for fifteen years.
In ancient Greece the chief magistrate in various Greek city states was called eponymous archon (ἐπώνυμος ἄρχων, epōnymos archōn).
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
The Founding Fathers of the United States led the American Revolution against the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.
In Judaism, God has been conceived in a variety of ways.
The Golden Rule (which can be considered a law of reciprocity in some religions) is the principle of treating others as one would wish to be treated.
Hero cults were one of the most distinctive features of ancient Greek religion.
Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138 AD) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138.
Jacques Élie Henri Ambroise Ner (7 December 1861 – 6 February 1938), also known by the pseudonym Han Ryner, was a French individualist anarchist philosopher and activist and a novelist.
Hedonism is a school of thought that argues that the pursuit of pleasure and intrinsic goods are the primary or most important goals of human life.
Johann Heinrich Köselitz (10 January 1854 – 15 August 1918) was a German author and composer.
Located in the shadow of Mount Vesuvius, Herculaneum (Italian: Ercolano) was an ancient Roman town destroyed by volcanic pyroclastic flows in 79 AD.
The Herculaneum papyri are more than 1,800 papyri found in the Herculaneum Villa of the Papyri, in the 18th century, carbonized by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79.
Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.
Jewish heretics (minim, from minuth, Hebrew for "heretic") are Jewish individuals (often historically, philosophers) whose works have, in part or in whole, been condemned as heretical by significant persons or groups in the larger Jewish community based on the classical teachings of Rabbinic Judaism and derived from halakha (Jewish religious law).
Hermann Karl Usener (23 October 1834 – 21 October 1905) was a German scholar in the fields of philology and comparative religion.
Hermarchus or Hermarch (Ἕρμαρχoς, Hermarkhos; c. 325-c. 250 BC), sometimes incorrectly written Hermachus (Ἕρμαχoς, Hermakhos), was an Epicurean philosopher.
Quintus Horatius Flaccus (December 8, 65 BC – November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus (also known as Octavian).
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.
Hylozoism is the philosophical point of view that matter is in some sense alive.
Idomeneus of Lampsacus (Idomeneus Lampsakēnos; c. 325 – c. 270 BC) was a friend and disciple of Epicurus.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
Indeterminism is the idea that events (certain events, or events of certain types) are not caused, or not caused deterministically.
Inferno (Italian for "Hell") is the first part of Dante Alighieri's 14th-century epic poem Divine Comedy.
Jeremy Bentham (15 February 1748 – 6 June 1832) was an English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.
Karl Theodor Jaspers (23 February 1883 – 26 February 1969) was a German-Swiss psychiatrist and philosopher who had a strong influence on modern theology, psychiatry, and philosophy.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Kidney stone disease, also known as urolithiasis, is when a solid piece of material (kidney stone) occurs in the urinary tract.
Lucius Caecilius Firmianus Lactantius (c. 250 – c. 325) was an early Christian author who became an advisor to the first Christian Roman emperor, Constantine I, guiding his religious policy as it developed, and a tutor to his son Crispus.
Lampsacus (translit) was an ancient Greek city strategically located on the eastern side of the Hellespont in the northern Troad.
Leonteus of Lampsacus (Λεοντεύς) was a pupil of Epicurus early in the 3rd century BCE.
Lesbos (Λέσβος), or Lezbolar in Turkish sometimes referred to as Mytilene after its capital, is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea.
Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers (Βίοι καὶ γνῶμαι τῶν ἐν φιλοσοφίᾳ εὐδοκιμησάντων) is a biography of the Greek philosophers by Diogenes Laërtius, written in Greek, perhaps in the first half of the third century AD.
The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France.
Titus Lucretius Carus (15 October 99 BC – c. 55 BC) was a Roman poet and philosopher.
Margaret Lucas Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (1623 – 15 December 1673) was an English aristocrat, philosopher, poet, scientist, fiction-writer, and playwright during the 17th century.
Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions.
The Medieval Inquisition was a series of Inquisitions (Catholic Church bodies charged with suppressing heresy) from around 1184, including the Episcopal Inquisition (1184–1230s) and later the Papal Inquisition (1230s).
Menander (Μένανδρος Menandros; c. 342/41 – c. 290 BC) was a Greek dramatist and the best-known representative of Athenian New Comedy.
In Greek mythology, Menoeceus (Greek: Μενοικεύς Menoikeús "strength of the house" derived from menos "strength" and oicos "house") was the name of two Theban characters.
Metrodorus of Lampsacus (Μητρόδωρος Λαμψακηνός, Mētrodōros Lampsakēnos; 331/0–278/7 BC) was a Greek philosopher of the Epicurean school.
Paul-Michel Foucault (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic.
Michel Onfray (born 1 January 1959) is a contemporary French writer and philosopher who promotes hedonism, atheism, and anarchism.
Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.
Mytilene (Μυτιλήνη) is a city founded in the 11th century BC.
Natural and legal rights are two types of rights.
Nausiphanes (Ναυσιφάνης; lived c. 325 BC), a native of Teos, was attached to the philosophy of Democritus, and was a pupil of Pyrrho.
An Olympiad (Ὀλυμπιάς, Olympiás) is a period of four years associated with the Olympic Games of the Ancient Greeks.
On Nature is the name of a philosophical treatise written by the Ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.
Perdiccas (Περδίκκας, Perdikkas; c. 355 BC – 321/320 BC) became a general in Alexander the Great's army and participated in Alexander's campaign against Persia.
Philodemus of Gadara (Φιλόδημος ὁ Γαδαρεύς, Philodēmos, "love of the people"; c. 110 – prob. c. 40 or 35 BC) was an Epicurean philosopher and poet.
The philosophy of happiness is the philosophical concern with the existence, nature, and attainment of happiness.
Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.
Philostratus or Lucius Flavius Philostratus (Φλάβιος Φιλόστρατος; c. 170/172 – 247/250), called "the Athenian", was a Greek sophist of the Roman imperial period.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Pierre Gassendi (also Pierre Gassend, Petrus Gassendi; 22 January 1592 – 24 October 1655) was a French philosopher, priest, astronomer, and mathematician.
The Academy (Ancient Greek: Ἀκαδημία) was founded by Plato (428/427 BC – 348/347 BC) in ca.
Platonism, rendered as a proper noun, is the philosophy of Plato or the name of other philosophical systems considered closely derived from it.
In Freudian psychoanalysis, the pleasure principle (Lustprinzip) is the instinctive seeking of pleasure and avoiding of pain in order to satisfy biological and psychological needs.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
Polyaenus of Lampsacus (Πoλύαινoς Λαμψακηνός, Polyainos Lampsakēnos; c. 340 – c. 285 BCE), also spelled Polyenus, was an ancient Greek mathematician and a friend of Epicurus.
Praise is a form of social interaction expressing recognition, reassurance or admiration.
The problem of evil refers to the question of how to reconcile the existence of evil with an omnibenevolent, omniscient, and omnipotent God (see theism).
Pyrrho of Elis (Pyrron ho Eleios) was a Greek philosopher of Classical antiquity and is credited as being the first Greek skeptic philosopher.
Robert Drew Hicks (29 June 1850 – 8 March 1929) was a classical scholar, and a fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
A root (or root word) is a word that does not have a prefix in front of the word or a suffix at the end of the word.
Sam Kieth (born January 11, 1963) is an American comics artist and writer, best known as the creator of The Maxx and Zero Girl.
Samos (Σάμος) is a Greek island in the eastern Aegean Sea, south of Chios, north of Patmos and the Dodecanese, and off the coast of Asia Minor, from which it is separated by the -wide Mycale Strait.
Satire is a genre of literature, and sometimes graphic and performing arts, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, corporations, government, or society itself into improvement.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Seneca the Younger AD65), fully Lucius Annaeus Seneca and also known simply as Seneca, was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and—in one work—satirist of the Silver Age of Latin literature.
The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state.
Sextus Empiricus (Σέξτος Ἐμπειρικός; c. 160 – c. 210 CE, n.b., dates uncertain), was a physician and philosopher, who likely lived in Alexandria, Rome, or Athens.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
Soter derives from the Greek epithet σωτήρ (sōtēr), meaning a saviour, a deliverer; initial capitalised Σωτήρ; fully capitalised ΣΩΤΗΡ; feminine Soteria (Σωτηρία).
The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition (Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición), commonly known as the Spanish Inquisition (Inquisición española), was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.
The Stoa Poikile (Ancient Greek: ἡ ποικίλη στοά) or Painted Porch, originally called the Porch of Peisianax (Ancient Greek: ἡ Πεισιανάκτειος στοά), was erected during the 5th century BC and was located on the north side of the Ancient Agora of Athens.
Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC.
Suffering, or pain in a broad sense, may be an experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with the perception of harm or threat of harm in an individual.
Summum bonum is a Latin expression meaning "the highest good", which was introduced by the Roman philosopher Cicero, to correspond to the Idea of the Good in ancient Greek philosophy.
The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.
The Gay Science (Die fröhliche Wissenschaft) or The Joyful Wisdom is a book by Friedrich Nietzsche, first published in 1882 and followed by a second edition, which was published after the completion of Thus Spoke Zarathustra and Beyond Good and Evil, in 1887.
Themista of Lampsacus (Θεμίστη), the wife of Leonteus, was a student of Epicurus, early in the 3rd century BC.
A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings.
Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.
A trilemma is a difficult choice from three options, each of which is (or appears) unacceptable or unfavourable.
The United States Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress meeting at the Pennsylvania State House (now known as Independence Hall) in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776.
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.
The Vatican Apostolic Library (Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana), more commonly called the Vatican Library or simply the Vat, is the library of the Holy See, located in Vatican City.
Vegetarianism is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat (red meat, poultry, seafood, and the flesh of any other animal), and may also include abstention from by-products of animal slaughter.
The Villa of the Papyri (Villa dei Papiri, also known as Villa dei Pisoni) is named after its unique library of papyri (or scrolls), but is also one of the most luxurious houses in all of Herculaneum and in the Roman world.
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
William Francis Messner-Loebs (born William Francis Loebs, Jr., February 19, 1949) is an American comics artist and writer from Michigan, also known as Bill Loebs and Bill Messner-Loebs.
Sir William Wallace (Scottish Gaelic: Uilleam Uallas; Norman French: William le Waleys; died 23 August 1305) was a Scottish knight who became one of the main leaders during the Wars of Scottish Independence.
Epicur, Epicurean paradox, Epicurean trilemma, Epicures, Epicureus, Epicurius, Epicuros, Epicurus of Samos, Epicurus' trilemma, Epikouros, Epikur, Epikuros, Garden of Epicurus, Kepos, Lathe biosas, Principle of Multiple Explanations, Λάθε βιώσας, Ἐπίκουρος.