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Index Epidemiology

Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations. [1]

154 relations: Accuracy and precision, Age adjustment, Anderson Gray McKendrick, Antiseptic, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Austin Bradford Hill, Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, Basic research, Biology, Biomarker, Biomonitoring, Bradford Hill criteria, British Doctors Study, Broadwick Street, Caerphilly Heart Disease Study, Cancer, Case-control study, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, Chemical compound, Clinical research, Clinical trial, Cohort study, Compartmental models in epidemiology, Confounding, Correlation does not imply causation, Critical community size, David Clayton, Death, Diagnosis, Disease, Disease diffusion mapping, Disease surveillance, Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Nursing Practice, Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine, Doctor of Pharmacy, Doctor of Philosophy, Doctor of Physical Therapy, Doctor of Public Health, Doctor of Science, Doctor of Social Work, Endemic (epidemiology), Engineering, Epidemic, Epidemiological method, Epidemiological transition, Epidemiology, Epidemiology (journal), Epizootiology, ..., Etiology, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Evidence-based practice, Evolution, Experimental epidemiology, Exposome, Exposure assessment, External validity, Forensic epidemiology, Galen, Genetic epidemiology, Genome-wide association study, Germ theory of disease, Girolamo Fracastoro, Great Plague of London, Haberdasher, Health informatics, Health Protection Agency, Hippocrates, Hispanic paradox, Humorism, Hungary, Hygiene, Iceland, Ignaz Semmelweis, Incidence (epidemiology), Infection, Inference, Information bias (epidemiology), Internal validity, International Society for Pharmacoepidemiology, Janet Lane-Claypon, John Graunt, John Snow, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Joseph Lister, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, Life table, Logos, London, Louis Pasteur, Lung cancer, Master of Science, Mathematical modelling of infectious disease, Médecins Sans Frontières, Medical microbiology, Medicine, Mendelian randomization, Methodology, Miasma theory, Miquel Porta, Molecular epidemiology, Molecular pathological epidemiology, Molecular pathology, National Center for Biotechnology Information, Neonatal tetanus, Obesity, Occupational epidemiology, Odds ratio, Outbreak, Oxford University Press, Pathogenesis, Peer review, Plant disease epidemiology, Podiatrist, Population, Precision medicine, Preventive healthcare, Probability, Professional degrees of public health, Public health, Public Health Agency of Canada, Publicly funded health care, Pulse oximetry, Race and health, Recall bias, Relative risk, Richard Doll, Risk factor, Ronald Ross, Sampling error, Sander Greenland, Screening (medicine), Selection bias, Smallpox, Social science, Society for Occupational Health Psychology, Statistics, Stress (biology), Study of Health in Pomerania, Syndemic, Systematic review, Targeted immunization strategies, The BMJ, Thomas Sydenham, Tobacco smoking, Transmission (medicine), University, Verona, Vestmannaeyjar, Veterinary physician, Whitehall Study, World Health Organization. Expand index (104 more) »

Accuracy and precision

Precision is a description of random errors, a measure of statistical variability.

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Age adjustment

In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.

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Anderson Gray McKendrick

Lt Col Anderson Gray McKendrick DSc FRSE (8 September 1876 – 30 May 1943) was a Scottish military physician and epidemiologist pioneered the use of mathematical methods in epidemiology.

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Antiseptics (from Greek ἀντί anti, "against" and σηπτικός sēptikos, "putrefactive") are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction.

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Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek FRS (24 October 1632 – 26 August 1723) was a Dutch businessman and scientist in the Golden Age of Dutch science and technology.

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Austin Bradford Hill

Sir Austin Bradford Hill FRS (8 July 1897 – 18 April 1991), English epidemiologist and statistician, pioneered the randomized clinical trial and, together with Richard Doll, demonstrated the connection between cigarette smoking and lung cancer.

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Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery

Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, or in '''Medicinae Baccalaureus, Baccalaureus Chirurgiae'''. (abbreviated in many ways, e.g. MBBS, MB ChB, MB BCh, MB BChir (Cantab), BM BCh (Oxon), BMBS), are the two first professional degrees in medicine and surgery awarded upon graduation from medical school by universities in countries that follow the tradition of the United Kingdom.

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Basic research

Basic research, also called pure research or fundamental research, has the scientific research aim to improve scientific theories for improved understanding or prediction of natural or other phenomena.

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Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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A biomarker, or biological marker, generally refers to a measurable indicator of some biological state or condition.

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In analytical chemistry, biomonitoring is the measurement of the body burden of toxic chemical compounds, elements, or their metabolites, in biological substances.

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Bradford Hill criteria

The Bradford Hill criteria, otherwise known as Hill's criteria for causation, are a group of 9 principles, established in 1965 by the English epidemiologist Sir Austin Bradford Hill.

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British Doctors Study

The British Doctors' Study was a prospective cohort study which ran from 1951 to 2001, and in 1956 provided convincing statistical proof that tobacco smoking increased the risk of lung cancer.

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Broadwick Street

Broadwick Street (formerly Broad Street) is a street in Soho, City of Westminster, London.

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Caerphilly Heart Disease Study

The Caerphilly Heart Disease Study, also known as the Caerphilly Prospective Study (CaPS), is an epidemiological prospective cohort, set up in 1979 in a representative population sample drawn from Caerphilly, a typical small town in South Wales, UK.

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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Case-control study

A case-control study is a type of observational study in which two existing groups differing in outcome are identified and compared on the basis of some supposed causal attribute.

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.

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Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters

The Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) is a research unit of the Université catholique de Louvain (UCL).

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Chemical compound

A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.

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Clinical research

Clinical research is a branch of healthcare science that determines the safety and effectiveness (efficacy) of medications, devices, diagnostic products and treatment regimens intended for human use.

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Clinical trial

Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.

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Cohort study

A cohort study is a particular form of longitudinal study that sample a cohort (a group of people who share a defining characteristic, typically those who experienced a common event in a selected period, such as birth or graduation), performing a cross-section at intervals through time.

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Compartmental models in epidemiology

Compartmental models are a technique used to simplify the mathematical modelling of infectious disease.

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In statistics, a confounder (also confounding variable, confounding factor or lurking variable) is a variable that influences both the dependent variable and independent variable causing a spurious association.

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Correlation does not imply causation

In statistics, many statistical tests calculate correlations between variables and when two variables are found to be correlated, it is tempting to assume that this shows that one variable causes the other.

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Critical community size

The critical community size (CCS) is the minimum size of a closed population within which a human-to-human, non-zoonotic pathogen can persist indefinitely.

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David Clayton

David George Clayton, born 13 June 1944, is a British statistician and epidemiologist.

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Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.

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Diagnosis is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon.

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A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.

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Disease diffusion mapping

Disease diffusion occurs when a disease is transmitted to a new location.

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Disease surveillance

Disease surveillance is an epidemiological practice by which the spread of disease is monitored in order to establish patterns of progression.

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Doctor of Medicine

A Doctor of Medicine (MD from Latin Medicinae Doctor) is a medical degree, the meaning of which varies between different jurisdictions.

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Doctor of Nursing Practice

The Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) is a terminal professional degree in nursing.

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Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine

Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) is a professional doctoral degree for physicians and surgeons offered by medical schools in the United States.

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Doctor of Pharmacy

A Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.; New Latin Pharmaciae Doctor) is a professional doctorate in pharmacy.

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Doctor of Philosophy

A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD or Ph.D.; Latin Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries.

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Doctor of Physical Therapy

In the United States a Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) degree is a post-baccalaureate degree that takes 3 years to complete following completion of a Bachelor's degree.

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Doctor of Public Health

The Doctor of Public Health (abbr. DrPH or DPH; Latin Publica Sanitas Doctor) is a doctoral degree awarded in the field of Public Health.

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Doctor of Science

Doctor of Science (Latin: Scientiae Doctor), usually abbreviated Sc.D., D.Sc., S.D., or D.S., is an academic research degree awarded in a number of countries throughout the world.

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Doctor of Social Work

While the master of social work (MSW) degree is widely accepted as a terminal professional degree in the field, the doctor of social work (DSW) is a professional doctorate in social work, most often offering advanced training in a professional area of practice.

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Endemic (epidemiology)

In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic (from Greek ἐν en "in, within" and δῆμος demos "people") in a population when that infection is constantly maintained at a baseline level in a geographic area without external inputs.

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Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.

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An epidemic (from Greek ἐπί epi "upon or above" and δῆμος demos "people") is the rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time, usually two weeks or less.

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Epidemiological method

The science of epidemiology has matured significantly from the times of Hippocrates, Semmelweis and John Snow.

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Epidemiological transition

In demography and medical geography, epidemiological transition is a phase of development witnessed by a sudden and stark increase in population growth rates brought by improved food security and innovations in public health and medicine, followed by a re-leveling of population growth due to subsequent declines in fertility rates.

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Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.

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Epidemiology (journal)

Epidemiology is a bi-monthly, peer-reviewed journal for epidemiologic research, published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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Epizootiology, epizoology, or veterinary epidemiology is the study of disease patterns within animal populations.

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Etiology (alternatively aetiology or ætiology) is the study of causation, or origination.

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European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control

The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) is an independent agency of the European Union (EU) whose mission is to strengthen Europe's defences against infectious diseases.

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Evidence-based practice

Evidence-based practice (EBP) is an interdisciplinary approach to clinical practice that has been gaining ground following its formal introduction in 1992.

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Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Experimental epidemiology

Experimental epidemiology is a type of epidemiological investigation that uses an experimental model to confirm a causal relationship suggested by observational studies.

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The exposome encompasses the totality of human environmental (i.e. non-genetic) exposures from conception onwards, complementing the genome, first proposed in 2005 by a cancer epidemiologist.

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Exposure assessment

Exposure assessment is a branch of environmental science and occupational hygiene that focuses on the processes that take place at the interface between the environment containing the contaminant(s) of interest and the organism(s) being considered.

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External validity

External validity is the validity of generalized (causal) inferences in scientific research, usually based on experiments as experimental validity.

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Forensic epidemiology

The discipline of forensic epidemiology (FE) is a hybrid of principles and practices common to both forensic medicine and epidemiology.

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Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.

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Genetic epidemiology

Genetic epidemiology is the study of the role of genetic factors in determining health and disease in families and in populations, and the interplay of such genetic factors with environmental factors.

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Genome-wide association study

In genetics, a genome-wide association study (GWA study, or GWAS), also known as whole genome association study (WGA study, or WGAS), is an observational study of a genome-wide set of genetic variants in different individuals to see if any variant is associated with a trait.

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Germ theory of disease

The germ theory of disease is the currently accepted scientific theory of disease.

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Girolamo Fracastoro

Girolamo Fracastoro (Hieronymus Fracastorius; c. 1476/86 August 1553) was an Italian physician, poet, and scholar in mathematics, geography and astronomy.

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Great Plague of London

The Great Plague, lasting from 1665 to 1666, was the last major epidemic of the bubonic plague to occur in England.

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A haberdasher is a person who sells small articles for sewing, such as buttons, ribbons and zippers (in the United Kingdom), or a men's outfitter (American English).

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Health informatics

Health informatics (also called health care informatics, healthcare informatics, medical informatics, nursing informatics, clinical informatics, or biomedical informatics) is information engineering applied to the field of health care, essentially the management and use of patient healthcare information.

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Health Protection Agency

The Health Protection Agency (HPA) was a non-departmental public body in the United Kingdom.

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Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.

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Hispanic paradox

The Hispanic paradox, or Latino paradox, also known as the "epidemiologic paradox," refers to the epidemiological finding that Hispanic and Latino Americans tend to have health outcomes that "paradoxically" are comparable to, or in some cases better than, those of their U.S. non-Hispanic White counterparts, even though Hispanics have lower average income and education.

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Humorism, or humoralism, was a system of medicine detailing the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers, positing that an excess or deficiency of any of four distinct bodily fluids in a person—known as humors or humours—directly influences their temperament and health.

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Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.

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Hygiene is a set of practices performed to preserve health.

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Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.

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Ignaz Semmelweis

Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis (Semmelweis Ignác Fülöp; 1 July 1818 – 13 August 1865) was a Hungarian physician of ethnic-German ancestry, now known as an early pioneer of antiseptic procedures.

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Incidence (epidemiology)

Incidence in epidemiology is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time.

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Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.

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Inferences are steps in reasoning, moving from premises to logical consequences.

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Information bias (epidemiology)

In epidemiology, Information bias refers to bias arising from measurement error.

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Internal validity

In scientific research, internal validity is the extent to which a causal conclusion based on a study is warranted, which is determined by the degree to which a study minimizes systematic error (or 'bias').

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International Society for Pharmacoepidemiology

The International Society for Pharmacoepidemiology (ISPE) was launched officially by Stanley A. Edlavitch, David E. Lilienfeld, and Hugh A. Tilson in 1989 during the Fifth International Conference on Pharmacoepidemiology (ICPE) in Minneapolis.

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Janet Lane-Claypon

Janet Elizabeth Lane-Claypon, Lady Forber (3 February 1877 – 17 July 1967) was an English physician.

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John Graunt

John Graunt (24 April 1620 – 18 April 1674) was one of the first demographers, though by profession he was a haberdasher.

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John Snow

John Snow (15 March 1813 – 16 June 1858) was an English physician and a leader in the adoption of anesthesia and medical hygiene.

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Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (JHSPH) is part of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, United States.

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Johns Hopkins University

Johns Hopkins University is an American private research university in Baltimore, Maryland.

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Joseph Lister

Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister, (5 April 182710 February 1912), known between 1883 and 1897 as Sir Joseph Lister, Bt., was a British surgeon and a pioneer of antiseptic surgery.

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Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine

The Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine is an open peer-reviewed medical journal.

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Life table

In actuarial science and demography, a life table (also called a mortality table or actuarial table) is a table which shows, for each age, what the probability is that a person of that age will die before his or her next birthday ("probability of death").

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Logos (lógos; from λέγω) is a term in Western philosophy, psychology, rhetoric, and religion derived from a Greek word variously meaning "ground", "plea", "opinion", "expectation", "word", "speech", "account", "reason", "proportion", and "discourse",Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott,: logos, 1889.

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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Louis Pasteur

Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.

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Lung cancer

Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.

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Master of Science

A Master of Science (Magister Scientiae; abbreviated MS, M.S., MSc, M.Sc., SM, S.M., ScM, or Sc.M.) is a master's degree in the field of science awarded by universities in many countries, or a person holding such a degree.

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Mathematical modelling of infectious disease

Mathematical models can project how infectious diseases progress to show the likely outcome of an epidemic and help inform public health interventions.

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Médecins Sans Frontières

Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF; pronounced), also known in English as Doctors Without Borders, is an international humanitarian medical non-governmental organisation (NGO) of French origin best known for its projects in conflict zones and in countries affected by endemic diseases.

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Medical microbiology

Medical microbiology, the large subset of microbiology that is applied to medicine, is a branch of medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases.

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Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

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Mendelian randomization

In epidemiology, Mendelian randomization is a method of using measured variation in genes of known function to examine the causal effect of a modifiable exposure on disease in observational studies.

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Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study.

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Miasma theory

The miasma theory (also called the miasmatic theory) is an obsolete medical theory that held that diseases—such as cholera, chlamydia, or the Black Death—were caused by a miasma (μίασμα, ancient Greek: "pollution"), a noxious form of "bad air", also known as night air.

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Miquel Porta

Miquel Porta (Barcelona, 1957) is a Catalan physician, epidemiologist and scholar.

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Molecular epidemiology

Molecular epidemiology is a branch of epidemiology and medical science that focuses on the contribution of potential genetic and environmental risk factors, identified at the molecular level, to the etiology, distribution and prevention of disease within families and across populations.

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Molecular pathological epidemiology

Molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE, also molecular pathologic epidemiology) is a discipline combining epidemiology and pathology.

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Molecular pathology

Molecular pathology is an emerging discipline within pathology which is focused in the study and diagnosis of disease through the examination of molecules within organs, tissues or bodily fluids.

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National Center for Biotechnology Information

The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), a branch of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

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Neonatal tetanus

Neonatal tetanus is a form of generalised tetanus that occurs in newborns.

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Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.

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Occupational epidemiology

Occupational epidemiology is a subdiscipline of epidemiology that focuses on investigations of workers and the workplace.

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Odds ratio

In statistics, the odds ratio (OR) is one of three main ways to quantify how strongly the presence or absence of property A is associated with the presence or absence of property B in a given population.

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In epidemiology, an outbreak is a sudden increase in occurrences of a disease in a particular time and place.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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The pathogenesis of a disease is the biological mechanism (or mechanisms) that leads to the diseased state.

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Peer review

Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people of similar competence to the producers of the work (peers).

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Plant disease epidemiology

Plant disease epidemiology is the study of disease in plant populations.

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A podiatrist, also known as a podiatric physician (/poʊˈdaɪətrɪst/ poh-dye-eh-trist) or "foot and ankle surgeon", is a medical doctor devoted to the study and medical treatment of disorders of the foot, ankle and lower extremity.

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In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.

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Precision medicine

Precision medicine (PM) is a medical model that proposes the customization of healthcare, with medical decisions, treatments, practices, or products being tailored to the individual patient.

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Preventive healthcare

Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.

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Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.

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Professional degrees of public health

The Master of Public Health (M.P.H.), Master of Science in Public Health (MSPH), Master of Medical Science in Public Health (MMSPH) and the Doctor of Public Health (Dr.P.H.), International Masters for Health Leadership (IMHL) are multi-disciplinary professional degrees awarded for studies in areas related to public health.

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Public health

Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".

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Public Health Agency of Canada

The Public Health Agency of Canada (French: Agence de la santé publique du Canada) is an agency of the Government of Canada that is responsible for public health, emergency preparedness, and response and infectious and chronic disease control and prevention.

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Publicly funded health care

Publicly funded healthcare is a form of health care financing designed to meet the cost of all or most healthcare needs from a publicly managed fund.

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Pulse oximetry

Pulse oximetry is a noninvasive method for monitoring a person's oxygen saturation (SO2).

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Race and health

Race and health refers to the relationship between individual health and one's race and ethnicity.

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Recall bias

In epidemiological research, recall bias is a systematic error caused by differences in the accuracy or completeness of the recollections retrieved ("recalled") by study participants regarding events or experiences from the past.

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Relative risk

In statistics and epidemiology, relative risk or risk ratio (RR) is the ratio of the probability of an event occurring (for example, developing a disease, being injured) in an exposed group to the probability of the event occurring in a comparison, non-exposed group.

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Richard Doll

Sir William Richard Shaboe Doll (28 October 1912 – 24 July 2005) was a British physiologist who became an epidemiologist in the 20th century, turning the subject into a rigorous science.

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Risk factor

In epidemiology, a risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection.

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Ronald Ross

Sir Ronald Ross (13 May 1857 – 16 September 1932), was a British medical doctor who received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1902 for his work on the transmission of malaria, becoming the first British Nobel laureate, and the first born outside Europe.

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Sampling error

In statistics, sampling error is incurred when the statistical characteristics of a population are estimated from a subset, or sample, of that population.

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Sander Greenland

Sander Greenland (born January 16, 1951) is an American statistician and epidemiologist known for his contributions to epidemiologic methods, meta-analysis, Bayesian inference and causal inference, among other topics.

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Screening (medicine)

Screening, in medicine, is a strategy used in a population to identify the possible presence of an as-yet-undiagnosed disease in individuals without signs or symptoms.

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Selection bias

Selection bias is the bias introduced by the selection of individuals, groups or data for analysis in such a way that proper randomization is not achieved, thereby ensuring that the sample obtained is not representative of the population intended to be analyzed.

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Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.

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Social science

Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.

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Society for Occupational Health Psychology

The Society for Occupational Health Psychology (SOHP) is the first organization in the United States to be devoted to occupational health psychology.

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Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.

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Stress (biology)

Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.

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Study of Health in Pomerania

The Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) is a population-based epidemiological study consisting of two independent cohorts (SHIP and SHIP-TREND).

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A syndemic or synergistic epidemic is the aggregation of two or more concurrent or sequential epidemics or disease clusters in a population with biological interactions, which exacerbate the prognosis and burden of disease.

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Systematic review

Systematic reviews are a type of literature review that uses systematic methods to collect secondary data, critically appraise research studies, and synthesize studies.

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Targeted immunization strategies

Targeted immunization strategies are approaches designed to increase the immunization level of populations and decrease the chances of epidemic outbreaks.

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The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.

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Thomas Sydenham

Thomas Sydenham (10 September 1624 – 29 December 1689) was an English physician.

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Tobacco smoking

Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).

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Transmission (medicine)

In medicine, public health, and biology, transmission is the passing of a pathogen causing communicable disease from an infected host individual or group to a particular individual or group, regardless of whether the other individual was previously infected.

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A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.

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Verona (Venetian: Verona or Veròna) is a city on the Adige river in Veneto, Italy, with approximately 257,000 inhabitants and one of the seven provincial capitals of the region.

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Vestmannaeyjar (sometimes anglicized as Westman Islands) is a town and archipelago off the south coast of Iceland.

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Veterinary physician

A veterinary physician, usually called a vet, which is shortened from veterinarian (American English) or veterinary surgeon (British English), is a professional who practices veterinary medicine by treating diseases, disorders, and injuries in animals.

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Whitehall Study

The Whitehall Studies investigated social determinants of health, specifically the cardiovascular disease prevalence and mortality rates among British civil servants.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epidemiology

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