240 relations: Acetophenone, Acetylation, Adam Rutherford, Addiction, Adenine, Adrian Bird, Agouti (gene), Alphaproteobacteria, Alternative splicing, Ancient Greek, Angelman syndrome, Anthocyanin, Arthur Riggs (geneticist), Attractor, Överkalix study, Bacterial small RNA, Baldwin effect, Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome, Behavioral epigenetics, Benzene, Bilberry, Bioinformatics, Biological effects of radiation on the epigenome, Bisulfite sequencing, Blood vessel, Bookmarking, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, Brainwashing, Brucella, C. H. Waddington, Canalisation (genetics), Cancer epigenetics, Carbon tetrachloride, Carcinogenesis, Cell (biology), Cell cycle, Cell division, Cell potency, Cellular differentiation, Chelation, ChIP-on-chip, ChIP-sequencing, Chromatin, Chromatin immunoprecipitation, Chromatin remodeling, Chromosome, Chromosome 15q partial deletion, Ciliate, Cloning, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, ..., Computational epigenetics, Contribution of epigenetic modifications to evolution, Covalent bond, CpG site, Cytosine, Cytosine deaminase, David Gorski, Demethylating agent, Denis Noble, Developmental psychology, Diabetes mellitus, Diffusion, Dioxygenase, DNA, DNA adenine methyltransferase identification, DNA damage (naturally occurring), DNA methylation, DNA methyltransferase, DNA repair, DNA replication, Embryo, Embryology, Endothelium, Energy homeostasis, Environment (biophysical), Epigenesis (biology), Epigenetic code, Epigenetic regulation of neurogenesis, Epigenetic therapy, Epigenetics in forensic science, Epigenetics of neurodegenerative diseases, Epigenomics, Epithelium, Erik Erikson, Erikson's stages of psychosocial development, Ernst Haeckel, Escherichia coli, Eukaryote, Eva Jablonka, Evolution, Evolutionary capacitance, Evolvability, Extended evolutionary synthesis, Fluorescence in situ hybridization, FTO gene, Fungal prion, Gammaproteobacteria, Gap junction, Gene, Gene expression, Gene map, Gene silencing, Genes & Development, Genetic assimilation, Genetic code, Genome, Genomic imprinting, Germ cell, Gilbert Gottlieb, Haemophilus, Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, Heterochromatin, Heterochromatin protein 1, Hfq binding sRNA, Histone, Histone code, Histone methylation, Hydroquinone, Immortalised cell line, Infection, Iron, Isoflavones, Journal of Theoretical Biology, Karl Ernst von Baer, Lamarckism, Local optimum, Lysine, Mammal, Marion J. Lamb, Massimo Pigliucci, Maternal effect, MECP2, Meiosis, Messenger RNA, Methylation, MicroRNA, Mitosis, MLH1, Modern synthesis (20th century), Molecular biology, Morphogen, Morphogenesis, Multicellular organism, Mutation, Myocyte, MyoD, N6-Methyladenosine, National Institutes of Health, Natural selection, Nature (journal), Nature Chemical Biology, Neuron, New Age, Non-coding RNA, Nonsense mutation, Nucleic acid sequence, Nucleosome, Nurse cell, Nutriepigenomics, Nymphalis antiopa, O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, Oogenesis, Oxford English Dictionary, P53, Paramecium, Paramutation, Parthenogenesis, Paul Wintrebert, Phenotype, Phenotypic trait, Phosphorylation, Physiology, Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, Pomace, Population genetics, Position effect, Position-effect variegation, Post-translational modification, Prader–Willi syndrome, Preformationism, Prion, Proliferating cell nuclear antigen, Promoter (genetics), Protamine, Protein, Pseudoscience, Quackery, Quinolone antibiotic, Randy Jirtle, Repressor, Reprogramming, Restriction enzyme, Rett syndrome, Reward system, RNA, RNA interference, Robert Winston, Robin Holliday, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Salmonella, Sensationalism, Signal transduction, Silencer (genetics), Single molecule real time sequencing, SIR proteins, Small interfering RNA, Somatic epitype, Stem cell, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Structural inheritance, Styrene, SUMO protein, SWI/SNF, Syncytium, Synthetic genetic array, System dynamics, Teratology, Tetrahymena, The Guardian, Thymidine, Transcription (biology), Transcription factor, Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, Transposable element, Transvection (genetics), Trichloroethylene, Ubiquitin, University of Leeds, Vaccinium myrtillus, Valentin Haecker, Vibrio, Virulence, Weismann barrier, X-inactivation, Yeast, Yersinia, Zygosity, Zygote, 5-Methylcytosine. Expand index (190 more) » « Shrink index
Acetophenone is the organic compound with the formula C6H5C(O)CH3 (also represented by the pseudoelement symbols PhAc or BzMe).
Acetylation (or in IUPAC nomenclature ethanoylation) describes a reaction that introduces an acetyl functional group into a chemical compound.
Adam David Rutherford (born 1975) is a British geneticist, author, and broadcaster.
Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.
Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).
Sir Adrian Peter Bird, is a British geneticist and Buchanan Professor of Genetics at the University of Edinburgh.
agouti is a gene that controls the distribution of the natural pigment, melanin, in the hair of mammals and helps determine their coat color patterns.
Alphaproteobacteria is a class of bacteria in the phylum Proteobacteria (See also bacterial taxonomy).
Alternative splicing, or differential splicing, is a regulated process during gene expression that results in a single gene coding for multiple proteins.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Angelman syndrome (AS) is a genetic disorder that mainly affects the nervous system.
Anthocyanins (also anthocyans; from Greek: ἄνθος (anthos) "flower" and κυάνεος/κυανοῦς kyaneos/kyanous "dark blue") are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that, depending on their pH, may appear red, purple, or blue.
In the mathematical field of dynamical systems, an attractor is a set of numerical values toward which a system tends to evolve, for a wide variety of starting conditions of the system.
The Överkalix study (Överkalixstudien) was a study conducted on the physiological effects of various environmental factors on transgenerational epigenetic inheritance.
Bacterial small RNAs (sRNA) are small RNAs produced by bacteria; they are 50- to 500-nucleotide non-coding RNA molecules, highly structured and containing several stem-loops.
In evolutionary biology, the Baldwin effect describes the effect of learned behavior on evolution.
Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome (abbreviated BWS) is an overgrowth disorder usually present at birth, characterized by an increased risk of childhood cancer and certain congenital features.
Behavioral epigenetics is the field of study examining the role of epigenetics in shaping animal (including human) behaviour.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
Bilberries are any of several primarily Eurasian species of low-growing shrubs in the genus Vaccinium (family Ericaceae), bearing edible, nearly black berries.
Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biological data.
Ionizing radiation can cause biological effects which are passed on to offspring through the epigenome.
Bisulfite sequencing (also known as bisulphite sequencing) is the use of bisulfite treatment of DNA to determine its pattern of methylation.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
Bookmarking (also "gene bookmarking" or "mitotic bookmarking") refers to a potential mechanism of transmission of gene expression programs through cell division.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.
Brainwashing (also known as mind control, menticide, coercive persuasion, thought control, thought reform, and re-education) is the concept that the human mind can be altered or controlled by certain psychological techniques.
Brucella is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, named after David Bruce (1855–1931).
Conrad Hal Waddington CBE FRS FRSE (8 November 1905 – 26 September 1975) was a British developmental biologist, paleontologist, geneticist, embryologist and philosopher who laid the foundations for systems biology, epigenetics, and evolutionary developmental biology.
Canalisation is a measure of the ability of a population to produce the same phenotype regardless of variability of its environment or genotype.
Cancer epigenetics is the study of epigenetic modifications to the DNA of cancer cells that do not involve a change in the nucleotide sequence.
Carbon tetrachloride, also known by many other names (the most notable being tetrachloromethane, also recognized by the IUPAC, carbon tet in the cleaning industry, Halon-104 in firefighting, and Refrigerant-10 in HVACR) is an organic compound with the chemical formula CCl4.
Carcinogenesis, also called oncogenesis or tumorigenesis, is the formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.
Cell potency is a cell's ability to differentiate into other cell types The more cell types a cell can differentiate into, the greater its potency.
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.
ChIP-on-chip (also known as ChIP-chip) is a technology that combines chromatin immunoprecipitation ('ChIP') with DNA microarray ("chip").
ChIP-sequencing, also known as ChIP-seq, is a method used to analyze protein interactions with DNA.
Chromatin is a complex of macromolecules found in cells, consisting of DNA, protein, and RNA.
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a type of immunoprecipitation experimental technique used to investigate the interaction between proteins and DNA in the cell.
Chromatin remodeling is the dynamic modification of chromatin architecture to allow access of condensed genomic DNA to the regulatory transcription machinery proteins, and thereby control gene expression.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
Chromosome 15q partial deletion is a rare human genetic disorder, caused by a chromosomal aberration in which the long ("q") arm of one copy of chromosome 15 is deleted, or partially deleted.
The ciliates are a group of protozoans characterized by the presence of hair-like organelles called cilia, which are identical in structure to eukaryotic flagella, but are in general shorter and present in much larger numbers, with a different undulating pattern than flagella.
Cloning is the process of producing genetically identical individuals of an organism either naturally or artificially.
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) is a private, non-profit institution with research programs focusing on cancer, neuroscience, plant genetics, genomics, and quantitative biology.
Computational epigenetics uses bioinformatic methods to complement experimental research in epigenetics.
Epigenetics is a broad term that refers to changes in gene expression that occur via mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and microRNA modification.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
The CpG sites or CG sites are regions of DNA where a cytosine nucleotide is followed by a guanine nucleotide in the linear sequence of bases along its 5' → 3' direction.
Cytosine (C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
In enzymology, a cytosine deaminase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are cytosine and H2O, whereas its two products are uracil and NH3.
David Henry Gorski is an American surgical oncologist, professor of surgery at Wayne State University School of Medicine, and a surgical oncologist at the Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, specializing in breast cancer surgery.
Demethylating agents are chemical substances that can inhibit methylation, resulting in the expression of the previously hypermethylated silenced genes (see Methylation#Cancer for more detail).
Denis Noble CBE FRS FRCP FMedSci (born 16 November 1936) is a British biologist who held the Burdon Sanderson Chair of Cardiovascular Physiology at the University of Oxford from 1984 to 2004 and was appointed Professor Emeritus and co-Director of Computational Physiology.
Developmental psychology is the scientific study of how and why human beings change over the course of their life.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.
Dioxygenases are oxidoreductase enzymes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DamID (DNA adenine methyltransferase identification) is a molecular biology protocol used to map the binding sites of DNA- and chromatin-binding proteins in eukaryotes.
DNA damage is distinctly different from mutation, although both are types of error in DNA.
DNA methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule.
In biochemistry, the DNA methyltransferase (DNA MTase) family of enzymes catalyze the transfer of a methyl group to DNA.
DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.
Embryology (from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses.
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
In biology, energy homeostasis, or the homeostatic control of energy balance, is a biological process that involves the coordinated homeostatic regulation of food intake (energy inflow) and energy expenditure (energy outflow).
A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution.
In biology, epigenesis (or, in contrast to preformationism, neoformationism) is the process by which plants, animals and fungi develop from a seed, spore or egg through a sequence of steps in which cells differentiate and organs form.
The epigenetic code is hypothesised to be a defining code in every eukaryotic cell consisting of the specific epigenetic modification in each cell.
Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression which do not result from modifications to the sequence of DNA.
Epigenetic therapy is the use of drugs or other epigenome-influencing techniques to treat medical conditions.
Epigenetics in forensic science is the application of epigenetics to solving crimes.
Para-sagittal MRI of the head in a patient with benign familial macrocephaly.Neurodegenerative diseases are a heterogenous group of complex disorders linked by the degeneration of neurons in either the peripheral nervous system or the central nervous system.
Epigenomics is the study of the complete set of epigenetic modifications on the genetic material of a cell, known as the epigenome.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
Erik Homberger Erikson (born Erik Salomonsen; 15 June 1902 – 12 May 1994) was a German-American developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on psychological development of human beings.
Erikson's stages of psychosocial development, as articulated in the second half of the 20th century by Erik Erikson, in collaboration with Joan Erikson, is a comprehensive psychoanalytic theory that identifies a series of eight stages, in which a healthy developing individual should pass through from infancy to late adulthood.
Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was a German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor, marine biologist, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology, including anthropogeny, ecology, phylum, phylogeny, and Protista. Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the influential but no longer widely held recapitulation theory ("ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny") claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Eva Jablonka (חווה יבלונקה) (born 1952) is an Israeli theorist and geneticist, known especially for her interest in epigenetic inheritance.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Evolutionary capacitance is the storage and release of variation, just as electric capacitors store and release charge.
Evolvability is defined as the capacity of a system for adaptive evolution.
The extended evolutionary synthesis consists of a set of theoretical concepts more comprehensive than the earlier modern synthesis of evolutionary biology that took place between 1918 and 1942.
Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is a molecular cytogenetic technique that uses fluorescent probes that bind to only those parts of the chromosome with a high degree of sequence complementarity.
Fat mass and obesity-associated protein also known as alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase FTO is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FTO gene located on chromosome 16.
A fungal prion is a prion that infects fungal hosts.
Gammaproteobacteria are a class of bacteria.
A gap junction may also be called a nexus or macula communicans.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
Gene maps help describe the spatial arrangement of genes on a chromosome.
Gene silencing is the regulation of gene expression in a cell to prevent the expression of a certain gene.
Genes & Development is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering molecular biology, molecular genetics, cell biology, and development.
Genetic assimilation is a process by which a phenotype originally produced in response to an environmental condition, such as exposure to a teratogen, later becomes genetically encoded via artificial selection or natural selection.
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon that causes genes to be expressed in a parent-of-origin-specific manner.
A germ cell is any biological cell that gives rise to the gametes of an organism that reproduces sexually.
Gilbert Gottlieb (22 October 1929 – 13 July 2006) was an American psychologist.
Haemophilus is a genus of Gram-negative, pleomorphic, coccobacilli bacteria belonging to the family Pasteurellaceae.
HNF4 (Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4) is a nuclear receptor protein mostly expressed in the liver, gut, kidney, and pancreatic beta cells that is critical for liver development.
Heterochromatin is a tightly packed form of DNA or condensed DNA, which comes in multiple varieties.
The family of heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) ("Chromobox Homolog", CBX) consists of highly conserved proteins, which have important functions in the cell nucleus.
An Hfq binding sRNA is an sRNA that binds the bacterial RNA binding protein called Hfq.
In biology, histones are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes.
The histone code is a hypothesis that the transcription of genetic information encoded in DNA is in part regulated by chemical modifications to histone proteins, primarily on their unstructured ends.
Histone methylation is a process by which methyl groups are transferred to amino acids of histone proteins that make up nucleosomes, which the DNA double helix wraps around to form chromosomes.
Hydroquinone, also benzene-1,4-diol or quinol, is an aromatic organic compound that is a type of phenol, a derivative of benzene, having the chemical formula C6H4(OH)2.
An immortalized cell line is a population of cells from a multicellular organism which would normally not proliferate indefinitely but, due to mutation, have evaded normal cellular senescence and instead can keep undergoing division.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Isoflavones are a type of naturally occurring isoflavonoids, many of which act as phytoestrogens in mammals.
The Journal of Theoretical Biology is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering theoretical biology, as well as mathematical and computational aspects of biology.
Karl Ernst Ritter von Baer, Edler von Huthorn (Карл Эрнст фон Бэр; –) was an Estonian scientist and explorer.
Lamarckism (or Lamarckian inheritance) is the hypothesis that an organism can pass on characteristics that it has acquired through use or disuse during its lifetime to its offspring.
In applied mathematics and computer science, a local optimum of an optimization problem is a solution that is optimal (either maximal or minimal) within a neighboring set of candidate solutions.
Lysine (symbol Lys or K) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Marion J. Lamb (born 29 July 1939) was Senior Lecturer at Birkbeck, University of London, before her retirement.
Massimo Pigliucci (born January 16, 1964) is Professor of Philosophy at CUNY-City College, formerly co-host of the Rationally Speaking Podcast, and formerly the editor in chief for the online magazine Scientia Salon.
A maternal effect is a situation where the phenotype of an organism is determined not only by the environment it experiences and its genotype, but also by the environment and genotype of its mother.
MECP2 (methyl CpG binding protein 2 (Rett syndrome)) is a gene that encodes the protein MECP2.
Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.
In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom (or group) by a methyl group.
A microRNA (abbreviated miRNA) is a small non-coding RNA molecule (containing about 22 nucleotides) found in plants, animals and some viruses, that functions in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression.
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.
MutL homolog 1, colon cancer, nonpolyposis type 2 (E. coli) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MLH1 gene located on Chromosome 3.
The modern synthesis was the early 20th-century synthesis reconciling Charles Darwin's theory of evolution and Gregor Mendel's ideas on heredity in a joint mathematical framework.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
A morphogen is a substance whose non-uniform distribution governs the pattern of tissue development in the process of morphogenesis or pattern formation, one of the core processes of developmental biology, establishing positions of the various specialized cell types within a tissue.
Morphogenesis (from the Greek morphê shape and genesis creation, literally, "beginning of the shape") is the biological process that causes an organism to develop its shape.
Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
A myocyte (also known as a muscle cell) is the type of cell found in muscle tissue.
MyoD is a protein that plays a major role in regulating muscle differentiation.
N6-Methyladenosine (m6A) is an abundant modification in mRNA and is found within some viruses, and most eukaryotes including mammals, insects, plants and yeast.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Nature Chemical Biology is a monthly, peer-reviewed, scientific journal, which is published by Nature Publishing Group.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
New Age is a term applied to a range of spiritual or religious beliefs and practices that developed in Western nations during the 1970s.
A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is an RNA molecule that is not translated into a protein.
In genetics, a point-nonsense mutation is a point mutation in a sequence of DNA that results in a premature stop codon, or a point-nonsense codon in the transcribed mRNA, and in a truncated, incomplete, and usually nonfunctional protein product.
A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.
A nucleosome is a basic unit of DNA packaging in eukaryotes, consisting of a segment of DNA wound in sequence around eight histone protein cores.
In general biology or reproductive physiology the term nurse cell is defined as a cell which provides food, helps other cells and provides stability to their neighboring cells.
Nutriepigenomics is the study of food nutrients and their effects on human health through epigenetic modifications.
Nymphalis antiopa, known as the mourning cloak in North America and the Camberwell beauty in Britain, is a large butterfly native to Eurasia and North America.
O6-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase (also known as AGT, MGMT or AGAT) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene.
Oogenesis, ovogenesis, or oögenesis is the differentiation of the ovum (egg cell) into a cell competent to further development when fertilized.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Tumor protein p53, also known as p53, cellular tumor antigen p53 (UniProt name), phosphoprotein p53, tumor suppressor p53, antigen NY-CO-13, or transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53), is any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms, such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice).
Paramecium (also Paramoecium) is a genus of unicellular ciliates, commonly studied as a representative of the ciliate group.
In epigenetics, a paramutation is an interaction between two alleles at a single locus, whereby one allele induces a heritable change in the other allele.
Parthenogenesis (from the Greek label + label) is a natural form of asexual reproduction in which growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization.
Paul Wintrebert (1867–1966) was a French embryologist and a theoretician of developmental biology.
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
A phenotypic trait, or simply trait, is a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism; it may be either inherited or determined environmentally, but typically occurs as a combination of the two.
In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a family of proteins involved in a number of cellular processes such as DNA repair, genomic stability, and programmed cell death.
Pomace, or marc (from French marc), is the solid remains of grapes, olives, or other fruit after pressing for juice or oil.
Population genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with genetic differences within and between populations, and is a part of evolutionary biology.
Position effect is the effect on the expression of a gene when its location in a chromosome is changed, often by translocation.
Position-effect variegation (PEV) is a variegation caused by the silencing of a gene in some cells through its abnormal juxtaposition with heterochromatin via rearrangement or transposition.
Post-translational modification (PTM) refers to the covalent and generally enzymatic modification of proteins following protein biosynthesis.
Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder due to loss of function of specific genes.
In the history of biology, preformationism (or preformism) is a formerly-popular theory that organisms develop from miniature versions of themselves.
Prions are misfolded proteins that are associated with several fatal neurodegenerative diseases in animals and humans.
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a DNA clamp that acts as a processivity factor for DNA polymerase δ in eukaryotic cells and is essential for replication.
In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.
Protamines are small, arginine-rich, nuclear proteins that replace histones late in the haploid phase of spermatogenesis and are believed essential for sperm head condensation and DNA stabilization.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual, but are incompatible with the scientific method.
Quackery or health fraud is the promotion of fraudulent or ignorant medical practices.
A quinolone antibiotic is any member of a large group of broad-spectrum bactericides that share a bicyclic core structure related to the compound 4-quinolone.
Randy Jirtle (born November 9, 1947) is an American biologist noted for his pioneering research in epigenetics, the branch of biology that deals with inherited information that does not reside in the nucleotide sequence of DNA.
In molecular genetics, a repressor is a DNA- or RNA-binding protein that inhibits the expression of one or more genes by binding to the operator or associated silencers.
In biology, reprogramming refers to erasure and remodeling of epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation, during mammalian development or in cell culture.
A restriction enzyme or restriction endonuclease is an enzyme that cleaves DNA into fragments at or near specific recognition sites within the molecule known as restriction sites.
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a genetic brain disorder which typically becomes apparent after 6 to 18 months of age in females.
The reward system is a group of neural structures responsible for incentive salience (i.e., motivation and "wanting", desire, or craving for a reward), associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning), and positive emotions, particularly ones which involve pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy).
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
RNA interference (RNAi) is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit gene expression or translation, by neutralizing targeted mRNA molecules.
Robert Maurice Lipson Winston, Baron Winston (born 15 July 1940) is a British professor, medical doctor, scientist, television presenter and Labour Party politician.
Robin Holliday (6 November 1932 – 9 April 2014) was a British molecular biologist.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast.
Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped (bacillus) Gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae.
Sensationalism is a type of editorial bias in mass media in which events and topics in news stories and pieces are overhyped to present biased impressions on events, which may cause a manipulation to the truth of a story.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
In genetics, a silencer is a DNA sequence capable of binding transcription regulation factors, called repressors.
Single molecule real time sequencing (SMRT) is a parallelized single molecule DNA sequencing method.
Silent Information Regulator (SIR) proteins are involved in regulating gene expression and some SIR family members are conserved from yeast to humans.
Small interfering RNA (siRNA), sometimes known as short interfering RNA or silencing RNA, is a class of double-stranded RNA molecules, 20-25 base pairs in length, similar to miRNA, and operating within the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway.
A somatic epitype is a non-heritable epigenetic alteration in a gene.
Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.
Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic (under aerobic conditions) or beta-hemolytic (under anaerobic conditions), facultative anaerobic member of the genus Streptococcus.
Structural inheritance or cortical inheritance is the transmission of an epigenetic trait in a living organism by a self-perpetuating spatial structures.
Styrene, also known as ethenylbenzene, vinylbenzene, and phenylethene, is an organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5CH.
Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (or SUMO) proteins are a family of small proteins that are covalently attached to and detached from other proteins in cells to modify their function.
In molecular biology, SWI/SNF (SWItch/Sucrose Non-Fermentable), is a nucleosome remodeling complex found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes.
A syncytium or symplasm (plural syncytia; from Greek: σύν (syn).
Synthetic genetic array analysis (SGA) is a high-throughput technique for exploring synthetic lethal and synthetic sick genetic interactions (SSL).
System dynamics (SD) is an approach to understanding the nonlinear behaviour of complex systems over time using stocks, flows, internal feedback loops, table functions and time delays.
Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.
Tetrahymena is a genus of free-living ciliates that can also switch from commensalistic to pathogenic modes of survival.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
Thymidine (deoxythymidine; other names deoxyribosylthymine, thymine deoxyriboside) is a pyrimidine deoxynucleoside.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance is the transmission of information from one generation of an organism to the next (i.e., parent–child transmission) that affects the traits of offspring without alteration of the primary structure of DNA (i.e., the sequence of nucleotides)—in other words, epigenetically.
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), also known as prion diseases, are a group of progressive, invariably fatal, conditions that affect the brain (encephalopathies) and nervous system of many animals, including humans.
A transposable element (TE or transposon) is a DNA sequence that can change its position within a genome, sometimes creating or reversing mutations and altering the cell's genetic identity and genome size.
Transvection is an epigenetic phenomenon that results from an interaction between an allele on one chromosome and the corresponding allele on the homologous chromosome.
The chemical compound trichloroethylene is a halocarbon commonly used as an industrial solvent.
Ubiquitin is a small (8.5 kDa) regulatory protein found in most tissues of eukaryotic organisms, i.e. it occurs ''ubiquitously''.
The University of Leeds is a Russell Group university in Leeds, West Yorkshire, England.
Vaccinium myrtillus is a species of shrub with edible fruit of blue color, commonly called "bilberry", "wimberry", "whortleberry", or European blueberry.
Ferdinand Carl Valentin Haecker (15 September 1864 – 19 December 1927) was a German zoologist, reader at Freiburg University from 1892.
Vibrio is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, possessing a curved-rod shape (comma shape), several species of which can cause foodborne infection, usually associated with eating undercooked seafood.
Virulence is a pathogen's or microbe's ability to infect or damage a host.
The Weismann barrier, proposed by August Weismann, is the strict distinction between the "immortal" germ cell lineages producing gametes and "disposable" somatic cells.
X-inactivation (also called lyonization) is a process by which one of the copies of the X chromosome present in female mammals is inactivated.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
Yersinia is a genus of bacteria in the family Yersiniaceae.
Zygosity is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a trait in an organism.
A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke") is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes.
5-Methylcytosine is a methylated form of the DNA base cytosine that may be involved in the regulation of gene transcription.
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