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Index Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures. [1]

244 relations: Absence seizure, Acupuncture, Adenosine, Airway management, Akkadian language, Alcohol withdrawal syndrome, Altered level of consciousness, Alzheimer's disease, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Ancient history, Ancient Rome, Angelman syndrome, Anticonvulsant, Anxiety disorder, Aplastic anemia, Apuleius, Artemis, Atonic seizure, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Aura (symptom), Autism spectrum, Autoimmune encephalitis, Automatism (medicine), Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, Ayurveda, Babylonia, Benzodiazepine, Birth defect, Blood sugar level, Blood test, Blood–brain barrier, Bone fracture, Brain injury, Brain tumor, Breath-holding spell, Bromide, Cannabidiol, Carbamazepine, Central nervous system, Central nervous system cavernous hemangioma, Cerebral arteriovenous malformation, Cerebral cortex, Cerebral hemisphere, Cerebral palsy, Charaka Samhita, CHD2, Childhood absence epilepsy, Clinical Medicine, Clonus, ..., Code of Hammurabi, Coeliac disease, Concussion, Contagious disease, Convulsion, Corpus callosotomy, CT scan, Cuneiform script, Curse, Deep brain stimulation, Developing country, Developmental disorder, Diazepam, DNM1, Down syndrome, Dravet syndrome, Drop attack, Drug prohibition law, Edwin Smith Papyrus, Electrocardiography, Electroencephalography, Electrolyte, Electrolyte imbalance, Enzyme, Epilepsy Foundation, Epilepsy in children, Epilepsy surgery, Epilepsy syndromes, Epileptic seizure, Epileptic spasms, Epileptogenesis, Esagil-kin-apli, Ethosuximide, Evidence-based medicine, Excitatory synapse, Exorcism, Fat, Fatty acid synthase, Federal Aviation Administration, Focal seizure, G protein–coupled receptor, GABA receptor, GABBR2, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Gene, Gene expression, Gene therapy for epilepsy, Generalised tonic-clonic seizure, Generalized epilepsy, Genetic disorder, Gliosis, Gluten-free diet, Hercules, Heredity, Herpesviral encephalitis, Hippocampal sclerosis, Hippocampus, Hippocrates, Hyperventilation syndrome, Ictal, Ictal headache, Idiopathic disease, Imepitoin, Immunoglobulin therapy, Infection, Inheritance, Intensive care unit, International Bureau for Epilepsy, International League Against Epilepsy, Ion, Ion channel, Jean-Martin Charcot, Jet (lignite), Julius Caesar, Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, Ketogenic diet, Kindling model, Lamotrigine, Lennox–Gastaut syndrome, Levetiracetam, List of infections of the central nervous system, Long-term video-EEG monitoring, Lorazepam, Low-carbohydrate diet, Magnetic resonance imaging, Major depressive disorder, Major trauma, Malaria, Malnutrition, Management of drug-resistant epilepsy, Medical diagnosis, Medical emergency, Medication, Melatonin, Meningitis, Mesopotamia, Metabolic disorder, Midazolam, Migraine, Model organism, Modified-release dosage, Multiple sclerosis, Mutation, Myoclonus, Narcolepsy, Nasopharyngeal airway, National Private Pilot Licence, Neocortex, Neurocysticercosis, Neuroglia, Neuroimaging, Neurological disorder, Neurology, Neuron, Neurostimulation, Neurosurgery, Neurotransmitter, Night terror, Nocturnal enuresis, Non-celiac gluten sensitivity, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, On the Sacred Disease, Panic attack, Parasomnia, Paroxysmal depolarizing shift, Paroxysmal dyskinesia, Phenobarbital, Phenytoin, Photosensitive epilepsy, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Postictal state, Potter's wheel, Pregnancy, Professional practice of behavior analysis, Prolactin, Propofol, Protein (nutrient), Psychogenic non-epileptic seizure, Psychological intervention, Psychosis, Receptor (biochemistry), Recovery position, Reflex seizure, Responsive neurostimulation device, Rolandic epilepsy, RYR3, Seizure response dog, Seizure threshold, Seizure types, Selene, Self-care, Side effect, Sleep, Social stigma, Sodium thiopental, Spastic hemiplegia, Spastic quadriplegia, Spike-and-wave, Spinal precautions, Status epilepticus, Stereotactic surgery, Stimulus (physiology), Stroke, Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy, Suicide, Suppository, Surgery, Synaptic plasticity, Syncope (medicine), SYNGAP1, Syphilis, Taenia solium, Tanzania, Temporal lobe, Temporal lobe epilepsy, Tic, Todd's paresis, Torticollis, Toxocariasis, Toxoplasmosis, Traffic collision, Traumatic brain injury, Tuberous sclerosis, Twin, Uganda, Unit of alcohol, United States Department of Health and Human Services, Vagus nerve stimulation, Valproate, Vitamin, Vomiting, Wilson–Cowan model, World Health Organization, Yoga. Expand index (194 more) »

Absence seizure

Absence seizures are one of several kinds of generalized seizures.

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Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine in which thin needles are inserted into the body.

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Adenosine is both a chemical found in many living systems and a medication.

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Airway management

Airway management includes a set of maneuvers and medical procedures performed to prevent and relieve airway obstruction.

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Akkadian language

Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.

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Alcohol withdrawal syndrome

Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a set of symptoms that can occur following a reduction in alcohol use after a period of excessive use.

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Altered level of consciousness

An altered level of consciousness is any measure of arousal other than normal.

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Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Ancient history

Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Angelman syndrome

Angelman syndrome (AS) is a genetic disorder that mainly affects the nervous system.

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Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.

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Anxiety disorder

Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.

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Aplastic anemia

Aplastic anaemia is a rare disease in which the bone marrow and the hematopoietic stem cells that reside there are damaged.

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Apuleius (also called Lucius Apuleius Madaurensis; c. 124 – c. 170 AD) was a Latin-language prose writer, Platonist philosopher and rhetorician.

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Artemis (Ἄρτεμις Artemis) was one of the most widely venerated of the Ancient Greek deities.

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Atonic seizure

An atonic seizure (also called drop seizure, akinetic seizure or drop attack), is a type of seizure that consists of partial or complete loss of muscle tone that is caused by temporary alterations in brain function.

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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.

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Aura (symptom)

An aura is a perceptual disturbance experienced by some with migraines or seizures before either the headache or seizure begins.

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Autism spectrum

Autism spectrum, also known as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is a range of conditions classified as neurodevelopmental disorders.

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Autoimmune encephalitis

Autoimmune encephalitis is a type of encephalitis that can result from a number of autoimmune diseases including.

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Automatism (medicine)

In medicine, automatism refers to a set of brief unconscious behaviors.

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Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy

Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) is an epileptic disorder that causes frequent violent seizures during sleep.

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Ayurveda is a system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent.

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Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).

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Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.

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Birth defect

A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.

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Blood sugar level

The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.

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Blood test

A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.

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Blood–brain barrier

The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).

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Bone fracture

A bone fracture (sometimes abbreviated FRX or Fx, Fx, or #) is a medical condition in which there is a partial or complete break in the continuity of the bone.

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Brain injury

A brain injury is an injury to the brain of a living organism, and can be categorized by many properties.

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Brain tumor

A brain tumor occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.

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Breath-holding spell

Breath-holding spells (BHS) are the occurrence of episodic apnea in children, possibly associated with loss of consciousness, and changes in postural tone.

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A bromide is a chemical compound containing a bromide ion or ligand.

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Cannabidiol (CBD) is a naturally occurring cannabinoid constituent of cannabis.

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Carbamazepine (CBZ), sold under the tradename Tegretol, among others, is a medication used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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Central nervous system cavernous hemangioma

Central nervous system cavernous hemangioma is a cavernous hemangioma that arises in the central nervous system (CNS).

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Cerebral arteriovenous malformation

A cerebral arteriovenous malformation (cerebral AVM, CAVM, cAVM) is an abnormal connection between the arteries and veins in the brain—specifically, an arteriovenous malformation in the cerebrum.

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Cerebral cortex

The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.

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Cerebral hemisphere

The vertebrate cerebrum (brain) is formed by two cerebral hemispheres that are separated by a groove, the longitudinal fissure.

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Cerebral palsy

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood.

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Charaka Samhita

The Charaka Saṃhitā or Compendium of Charaka (Sanskrit चरक संहिता IAST: caraka-saṃhitā) is a Sanskrit text on Ayurveda (Indian traditional medicine).

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Chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CHD2 gene.

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Childhood absence epilepsy

Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), also known as pyknolepsy, is an idiopathic generalized epilepsy which occurs in otherwise normal children.

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Clinical Medicine

Clinical Medicine is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Royal College of Physicians.

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Clonus (from the Greek for "violent, confused motion") is a series of involuntary, rhythmic, muscular contractions and relaxations.

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Code of Hammurabi

The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian code of law of ancient Mesopotamia, dated back to about 1754 BC (Middle Chronology).

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Coeliac disease

Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.

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Concussion, also known as mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is typically defined as a head injury that temporarily affects brain functioning.

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Contagious disease

A contagious disease is a subset category of transmissible diseases, which are transmitted to other persons, either by physical contact with the person suffering the disease, or by casual contact with their secretions or objects touched by them or airborne route among other routes.

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A convulsion is a medical condition where body muscles contract and relax rapidly and repeatedly, resulting in an uncontrolled shaking of the body.

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Corpus callosotomy

Corpus callosotomy is a palliative surgical procedure for the treatment of medically refractory epilepsy.

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CT scan

A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.

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Cuneiform script

Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.

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A curse (also called an imprecation, malediction, execration, malison, anathema, or commination) is any expressed wish that some form of adversity or misfortune will befall or attach to some other entity: one or more persons, a place, or an object.

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Deep brain stimulation

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical procedure involving the implantation of a medical device called a neurostimulator (sometimes referred to as a 'brain pacemaker'), which sends electrical impulses, through implanted electrodes, to specific targets in the brain (brain nuclei) for the treatment of movement and neuropsychiatric disorders.

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Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Developmental disorder

Developmental disorders comprise a group of psychiatric conditions originating in childhood that involve serious impairment in different areas.

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Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medicine of the benzodiazepine family that typically produces a calming effect.

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Dynamin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DNM1 gene.

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Down syndrome

Down syndrome (DS or DNS), also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21.

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Dravet syndrome

Dravet syndrome, previously known as severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI), is a type of epilepsy with seizures that are often triggered by hot temperatures or fever.

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Drop attack

A drop attack is a sudden fall without loss of consciousness.

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Drug prohibition law

Drug prohibition law is prohibition-based law by which governments prohibit, except under licence, the production, supply, and possession of many, but not all, substances which are recognized as drugs, and which corresponds to international treaty commitments in the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs 1961, the Convention on Psychotropic Substances 1971, and the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances 1988.

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Edwin Smith Papyrus

The Edwin Smith Papyrus is an ancient Egyptian medical text, named after the dealer who bought it in 1862, and the oldest known surgical treatise on trauma.

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Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin.

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Electroencephalography (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain.

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An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.

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Electrolyte imbalance

Electrolyte imbalance is an abnormality in the concentration of electrolytes in the body.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Epilepsy Foundation

The Epilepsy Foundation, also Epilepsy Foundation of America (EFA), is a non-profit national foundation, headquartered in Landover, Maryland, dedicated to the welfare of people with epilepsy and seizure disorders.

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Epilepsy in children

Epilepsy affects all ages groups.

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Epilepsy surgery

Epilepsy surgery involves a neurosurgical procedure where an area of the brain involved in seizures is either resected, disconnected or stimulated.

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Epilepsy syndromes

Cases of epilepsy may be organized into epilepsy syndromes by the specific features that are present.

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Epileptic seizure

An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.

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Epileptic spasms

Epileptic spasms, also known as infantile spasms, juvenile spasms, or West syndrome is an uncommon-to-rare epileptic disorder in infants, children and adults.

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Epileptogenesis is the gradual process by which a normal brain develops epilepsy.

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Esagil-kin-apli was the ummânū, or chief scholar, of Babylonian king Adad-apla-iddina, 1067–1046 BC, as he appears on the Uruk List of Sages and ScholarsW 20030,7 the Seleucid List of Sages and Scholars,” obverse line 16, recovered from Anu’s Bīt Rēš temple during the 1959/60 excavation.

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Ethosuximide, sold under the brand name Zarontin among others, is a medication used to treat absence seizures.

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Evidence-based medicine

Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is an approach to medical practice intended to optimize decision-making by emphasizing the use of evidence from well-designed and well-conducted research.

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Excitatory synapse

An excitatory synapse is a synapse in which an action potential in a presynaptic neuron increases the probability of an action potential occurring in a postsynaptic cell.

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Exorcism (from Greek εξορκισμός, exorkismós "binding by oath") is the religious or spiritual practice of evicting demons or other spiritual entities from a person, or an area, that are believed to be possessed.

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Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.

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Fatty acid synthase

Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FASN gene.

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Federal Aviation Administration

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) of the United States is a national authority with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation.

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Focal seizure

Focal seizures (also called partial seizures and localized seizures) are seizures which affect initially only one hemisphere of the brain.

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G protein–coupled receptor

G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.

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GABA receptor

The GABA receptors are a class of receptors that respond to the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the chief inhibitory compound in the mature vertebrate central nervous system.

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Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 2 (GABAB2) is a G-protein coupled receptor subunit encoded by the GABBR2 gene in humans.

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Gastroesophageal reflux disease

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), also known as acid reflux, is a long-term condition where stomach contents come back up into the esophagus resulting in either symptoms or complications.

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In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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Gene expression

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.

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Gene therapy for epilepsy

Gene therapy is being studied for some forms of epilepsy.

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Generalised tonic-clonic seizure

A generalized tonic–clonic seizure (formerly known as a grand mal seizure) is a type of generalized seizure that affects the entire brain.

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Generalized epilepsy

Generalized epilepsy, also known as primary generalized epilepsy or idiopathic epilepsy, is a form of epilepsy characterised by generalised seizures with no apparent cause.

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Genetic disorder

A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.

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Gliosis is a nonspecific reactive change of glial cells in response to damage to the central nervous system (CNS).

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Gluten-free diet

A gluten-free diet (GFD) is a diet that strictly excludes gluten, a mixture of proteins found in wheat and related grains, including barley, rye, oat, and all their species and hybrids (such as spelt, kamut, and triticale).

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Hercules is a Roman hero and god.

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Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.

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Herpesviral encephalitis

Herpesviral encephalitis is encephalitis due to herpes simplex virus.

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Hippocampal sclerosis

Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is a neuropathological condition with severe neuronal cell loss and gliosis in the hippocampus, specifically in the CA-1 (Cornu Ammonis area 1) and subiculum of the hippocampus.

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The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.

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Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.

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Hyperventilation syndrome

Hyperventilation syndrome (HVS); also chronic hyperventilation syndrome (CHVS) and dysfunctional breathing hyperventilation syndrome is a respiratory disorder, psychologically or physiologically based, involving breathing too deeply or too rapidly (hyperventilation).

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Ictal refers to a physiologic state or event such as a seizure, stroke, or headache.

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Ictal headache

Ictal headaches are headaches associated with seizure activity.

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Idiopathic disease

An idiopathic disease is any disease with an unknown cause or mechanism of apparently spontaneous origin.

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Imepitoin, sold under the brand name Pexion, is an anticonvulsant which is used in veterinary medicine in Europe to treat epilepsy in dogs.

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Immunoglobulin therapy

Immunoglobulin therapy, also known as normal human immunoglobulin (NHIG), is the use of a mixture of antibodies (immunoglobulins) to treat a number of health conditions.

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Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.

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Inheritance is the practice of passing on property, titles, debts, rights, and obligations upon the death of an individual.

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Intensive care unit

Intensive care unit An intensive care unit (ICU), also known as an intensive therapy unit or intensive treatment unit (ITU) or critical care unit (CCU), is a special department of a hospital or health care facility that provides intensive treatment medicine.

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International Bureau for Epilepsy

The International Bureau for Epilepsy is a non-for-profit started in 1961.

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International League Against Epilepsy

The International League Against Epilepsy was started in 1909.

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An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Ion channel

Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.

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Jean-Martin Charcot

Jean-Martin Charcot (29 November 1825 – 16 August 1893) was a French neurologist and professor of anatomical pathology.

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Jet (lignite)

Pendant in Jet, Magdalenian, Marsoulas MHNT Jet is a type of lignite, a precursor to coal, and is a gemstone.

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Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.

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Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy

Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), also known as Janz syndrome, is a fairly common form of idiopathic generalized epilepsy, representing 5-10% of all epilepsy cases.

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Ketogenic diet

The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, adequate-protein, low-carbohydrate diet that in medicine is used primarily to treat difficult-to-control (refractory) epilepsy in children.

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Kindling model

Kindling is a commonly used model for the development of seizures and epilepsy in which the duration and behavioral involvement of induced seizures increases after seizures are induced repeatedly.

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Lamotrigine, sold as the brand name Lamictal among others, is an anticonvulsant medication used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder.

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Lennox–Gastaut syndrome

Lennox–Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is a childhood-onset epilepsy that most often appears between the second and sixth year of life.

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Levetiracetam, marketed under the trade names Keppra among others, is a medication used to treat epilepsy.

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List of infections of the central nervous system

There are five main causes of infections of the central nervous system (CNS): bacterial, viral, fungal, protozoal, and prionic.

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Long-term video-EEG monitoring

Long-term or "continuous" video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring is a diagnostic technique commonly used in patients with epilepsy.

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Lorazepam, sold under the brand name Ativan among others, is a benzodiazepine medication.

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Low-carbohydrate diet

Low-carbohydrate diets or low-carb diets are dietary programs that restrict carbohydrate consumption.

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Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.

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Major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.

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Major trauma

Major trauma is any injury that has the potential to cause prolonged disability or death.

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Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.

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Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.

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Management of drug-resistant epilepsy

Drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE), also known as refractory epilepsy or pharmacoresistant epilepsy, is defined as failure of adequate trials of two tolerated and appropriately chosen and used antiepileptic drugs (AED schedules) (whether as monotherapies or in combination) to achieve sustained seizure freedom.

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Medical diagnosis

Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs.

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Medical emergency

A medical emergency is an acute injury or illness that poses an immediate risk to a person's life or long-term health.

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A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine, is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals and regulates sleep and wakefulness.

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Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.

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Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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Metabolic disorder

A metabolic disorder can happen when abnormal chemical reactions in the body alter the normal metabolic process.

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Midazolam, marketed under the trade name Versed, among others, is a medication used for anesthesia, procedural sedation, trouble sleeping, and severe agitation.

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A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.

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Model organism

A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.

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Modified-release dosage

Modified-release dosage is a mechanism that (in contrast to immediate-release dosage) delivers a drug with a delay after its administration (delayed-release dosage) or for a prolonged period of time (extended-release dosage) or to a specific target in the body (targeted-release dosage).

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Multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.

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In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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Myoclonus is a brief, involuntary twitching of a muscle or a group of muscles.

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Narcolepsy is a long-term neurological disorder that involves a decreased ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles.

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Nasopharyngeal airway

In medicine, a nasopharyngeal airway, also known as an NPA, nasal trumpet (because of its flared end), or nose hose, is a type of airway adjunct, is a tube that is designed to be inserted into the nasal passageway to secure an open airway.

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National Private Pilot Licence

The National Private Pilot Licence is a licence to fly UK registered aircraft within the UK.

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The neocortex, also called the neopallium and isocortex, is the part of the mammalian brain involved in higher-order brain functions such as sensory perception, cognition, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning and language.

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Neurocysticercosis is a specific form of the infectious parasitic disease cysticercosis which is caused by infection with Taenia solium, a tapeworm found in pigs.

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Neuroglia, also called glial cells or simply glia, are non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system.

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Neuroimaging or brain imaging is the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function/pharmacology of the nervous system.

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Neurological disorder

A neurological disorder is any disorder of the nervous system.

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Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.

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A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.

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Neurostimulation is the purposeful modulation of the nervous system's activity using invasive (e.g. microelectrodes) or non-invasive means (e.g. transcranial magnetic stimulation or transcranial electric stimulation, tES, such as tDCS or transcranial alternating current stimulation, tACS).

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Neurosurgery, or neurological surgery, is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system.

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Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.

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Night terror

Night terror, also known as sleep terror, is a sleep disorder, causing feelings of terror or dread, and typically occurs during the first hours of stage 3–4 non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep.

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Nocturnal enuresis

Nocturnal enuresis, also called bedwetting, is involuntary urination while asleep after the age at which bladder control usually occurs.

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Non-celiac gluten sensitivity

Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or gluten sensitivity is defined as "a clinical entity induced by the ingestion of gluten leading to intestinal and/or extraintestinal symptoms that improve once the gluten-containing foodstuff is removed from the diet, and celiac disease and wheat allergy have been excluded".

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Obsessive–compulsive disorder

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called "rituals"), or have certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions").

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On the Sacred Disease

On the Sacred Disease is a work of the Hippocratic Corpus, written in 400 BCE.

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Panic attack

Panic attacks are sudden periods of intense fear that may include palpitations, sweating, shaking, shortness of breath, numbness, or a feeling that something bad is going to happen.

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Parasomnias are a category of sleep disorders that involve abnormal movements, behaviors, emotions, perceptions, and dreams that occur while falling asleep, sleeping, between sleep stages, or during arousal from sleep.

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Paroxysmal depolarizing shift

A paroxysmal depolarizing shift (PDS) or depolarizing shift is a hallmark of cellular manifestation of epilepsy.

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Paroxysmal dyskinesia

The paroxysmal dyskinesias (PD) are a group of movement disorders characterized by attacks of hyperkinesia with intact consciousness.

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Phenobarbital, also known as phenobarbitone or phenobarb, is a medication recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of certain types of epilepsy in developing countries.

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Phenytoin (PHT), sold under the brand name Dilantin among others, is an anti-seizure medication.

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Photosensitive epilepsy

Photosensitive epilepsy (PSE) is a form of epilepsy in which seizures are triggered by visual stimuli that form patterns in time or space, such as flashing lights; bold, regular patterns; or regular moving patterns.

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Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital

The Hôpital universitaire Pitié-Salpêtrière is a celebrated teaching hospital in the 13th arrondissement of Paris.

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Postictal state

The postictal state is the altered state of consciousness after an epileptic seizure.

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Potter's wheel

In pottery, a potter's wheel is a machine used in the shaping (known as throwing) of round ceramic ware.

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Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.

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Professional practice of behavior analysis

The professional practice of behavior analysis is one domain of behavior analysis: the others being radical behaviorism, experimental analysis of behavior and applied behavior analysis.

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Prolactin (PRL), also known as luteotropic hormone or luteotropin, is a protein that is best known for its role in enabling mammals, usually females, to produce milk.

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Propofol, marketed as Diprivan among others, is a short-acting medication that results in a decreased level of consciousness and lack of memory for events.

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Protein (nutrient)

Proteins are essential nutrients for the human body.

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Psychogenic non-epileptic seizure

Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are events resembling an epileptic seizure, but without the characteristic electrical discharges associated with epilepsy.

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Psychological intervention

In applied psychology, interventions are actions performed to bring about change in people.

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Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.

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Receptor (biochemistry)

In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.

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Recovery position

The recovery position refers to one of a series of variations on a lateral recumbent or three-quarters prone position of the body, in to which an unconscious but breathing casualty can be placed as part of first aid treatment.

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Reflex seizure

Reflex seizures are epileptic seizures that are consistently induced by a specific stimulus or trigger making them distinct from normal eplipetic seizures, which are usually unprovoked.

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Responsive neurostimulation device

Responsive neurostimulation device or RNS system is the first and only brain-responsive neurostimulation system designed to prevent epileptic seizures at their source.

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Rolandic epilepsy

Benign Rolandic epilepsy or benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BCECTS) is the most common epilepsy syndrome in childhood.

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Ryanodine receptor 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RYR3 gene.

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Seizure response dog

A seizure response dog (SRD) (also known as seizure dog) is a dog demonstrating specific assisting behaviour during or immediately after a person's epileptic seizure or other seizure.

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Seizure threshold

The term seizure threshold is used to describe the balance between excitatory and inhibitory forces in the brain which affect how susceptible a person is to seizures.

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Seizure types

Seizure types most commonly follow the classification proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) in 1981.

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In Greek mythology, Selene ("Moon") is the goddess of the moon.

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In health care, self-care is any necessary human regulatory function which is under individual control, deliberate and self-initiated.

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Side effect

In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug.

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Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.

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Social stigma

Social stigma is disapproval of (or discontent with) a person based on socially characteristic grounds that are perceived.

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Sodium thiopental

Sodium thiopental, also known as Sodium Pentothal (a trademark of Abbott Laboratories, not to be confused with pentobarbital), thiopental, thiopentone, or Trapanal (also a trademark), is a rapid-onset short-acting barbiturate general anesthetic that is an analogue of thiobarbital.

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Spastic hemiplegia

Spastic hemiplegia is a neuromuscular condition of spasticity that results in the muscles on one side of the body being in a constant state of contraction.

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Spastic quadriplegia

Spastic quadriplegia, also known as spastic tetraplegia, is a subset of spastic cerebral palsy that affects all four limbs (both arms and legs).

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Spike-and-wave is a pattern of the electroencephalogram (EEG) typically observed during epileptic seizures.

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Spinal precautions

Spinal precautions, also known as spinal immobilization and spinal motion restriction, are efforts to prevent movement of the spine in those with a risk of a spine injury.

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Status epilepticus

Status epilepticus (SE) is a single epileptic seizure lasting more than five minutes or two or more seizures within a five-minute period without the person returning to normal between them.

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Stereotactic surgery

Stereotactic surgery or stereotaxy is a minimally invasive form of surgical intervention which makes use of a three-dimensional coordinate system to locate small targets inside the body and to perform on them some action such as ablation, biopsy, lesion, injection, stimulation, implantation, radiosurgery (SRS), etc.

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Stimulus (physiology)

In physiology, a stimulus (plural stimuli) is a detectable change in the internal or external environment.

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A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.

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Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy

Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a fatal complication of epilepsy.

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Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.

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A suppository is a solid dosage form that is inserted into the rectum (rectal suppository), vagina (vaginal suppository), or urethra (urethral suppository), where it dissolves or melts and exerts local or systemic effects.

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Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.

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Synaptic plasticity

In neuroscience, synaptic plasticity is the ability of synapses to strengthen or weaken over time, in response to increases or decreases in their activity.

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Syncope (medicine)

Syncope, also known as fainting, is a loss of consciousness and muscle strength characterized by a fast onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery.

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Synaptic Ras GTPase-activating protein 1, also known as synaptic Ras-GAP 1 or SYNGAP1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SYNGAP1 gene.

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Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.

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Taenia solium

Taenia solium is the pork tapeworm belonging to cyclophyllid cestodes in the family Taeniidae.

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Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.

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Temporal lobe

The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.

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Temporal lobe epilepsy

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a chronic disorder of the nervous system characterized by recurrent, unprovoked focal seizures that originate in the temporal lobe of the brain and last about one or two minutes.

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A tic is a sudden, repetitive, nonrhythmic motor movement or vocalization involving discrete muscle groups.

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Todd's paresis

Todd's paresis, Todd's paralysis, or Todd's palsy (or postictal paresis/paralysis, "after seizure") is focal weakness in a part of the body after a seizure.

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Torticollis, also known as wry neck, is a dystonic condition defined by an abnormal, asymmetrical head or neck position, which may be due to a variety of causes.

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Toxocariasis is an illness of humans caused by larvae (immature worms) of either the dog roundworm (Toxocara canis), the cat roundworm (Toxocara cati) or the fox roundworm (Toxocara canis).

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Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii.

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Traffic collision

A traffic collision, also called a motor vehicle collision (MVC) among other terms, occurs when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, pedestrian, animal, road debris, or other stationary obstruction, such as a tree, pole or building.

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Traumatic brain injury

Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force injures the brain.

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Tuberous sclerosis

Tuberous sclerosis, or tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), or epiloia (acronym of "epilepsy, low intelligence, adenoma sebaceum"), is a rare multisystem genetic disease that causes benign tumors to grow in the brain and on other vital organs such as the kidneys, heart, liver, eyes, lungs, and skin.

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Twins are two offspring produced by the same pregnancy.

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Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.

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Unit of alcohol

Units of alcohol are used in the United Kingdom (UK) as a measure to quantify the actual alcoholic content within a given volume of an alcoholic beverage, in order to provide guidance on total alcohol consumption.

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United States Department of Health and Human Services

The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.

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Vagus nerve stimulation

Vagus nerve stimulation or vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) is a medical treatment that involves delivering electrical impulses to the vagus nerve.

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Valproate (VPA), and its valproic acid, sodium valproate, and valproate semisodium forms, are medications primarily used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder and to prevent migraine headaches.

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A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.

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Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.

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Wilson–Cowan model

In computational neuroscience, the Wilson–Cowan model describes the dynamics of interactions between populations of very simple excitatory and inhibitory model neurons.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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Yoga (Sanskrit, योगः) is a group of physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epilepsy

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