127 relations: Abnormal posturing, Abscess, Absence seizure, Adenosine, Altered level of consciousness, Anticonvulsant, Antidepressant, Antipsychotic, Antipyretic, Arteriovenous malformation, Atonic seizure, Aura (symptom), Automatism (medicine), Barbiturate, Benzodiazepine, Blood sugar level, Blood test, Blood–brain barrier, Brain, Brain tumor, Bromide, Cannabis (drug), Cavernous hemangioma, Central nervous system, Cerebral cortex, Cerebral hemisphere, Cerebral hypoxia, Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, Cerebrovascular disease, Clonus, Cocaine, Coeliac disease, Convulsion, Craniotomy, CT scan, Dehydration, Delirium tremens, Dementia, Developing country, Drug overdose, Drug withdrawal, Dystonia, Eclampsia, Electrocardiography, Electroconvulsive therapy, Electroencephalography, Embolism, Encephalitis, Epilepsy, Epileptic spasms, ..., Epileptogenesis, Excitatory synapse, Febrile seizure, Focal seizure, Generalised tonic-clonic seizure, Generalized epilepsy, Gliosis, Greek language, Headache, Henri Gastaut, Hepatic encephalopathy, Hippocampus, Hippocrates, Hormone, Hypernatremia, Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, Hypertension, Hypertensive encephalopathy, Hyperthermia, Hypocalcaemia, Hypoglycemia, Hyponatremia, Hypoxia (medical), Infection, Insulin, Ion channel, Ketogenic diet, Lidocaine, Local anesthetic, Lorazepam, Lumbar puncture, Magnetic resonance imaging, Meningitis, Metabolic disorder, Migraine, Multiple sclerosis, Myoclonus, Neonatal encephalopathy, Neonatal seizure, Neoplasm, Neural oscillation, Neurocysticercosis, Neurology, Neuron, Non-epileptic seizure, Olfaction, Paroxysmal depolarizing shift, Phenytoin, Porphyria, Post-traumatic epilepsy, Post-traumatic seizure, Postictal state, Pre-eclampsia, Prolactin, Propofol, Psychogenic non-epileptic seizure, Psychosis, Pyridoxine, Recovery position, Sedative, Seizure response dog, Seizure types, Service dog, Shunt (medical), Status epilepticus, Stroke, Subarachnoid hemorrhage, Subdural hematoma, Synapse, Syncope (medicine), Taenia solium, Tetanus, Tilt table test, Traumatic brain injury, Tremor, Uremia, World Health Organization. Expand index (77 more) » « Shrink index
Abnormal posturing is an involuntary flexion or extension of the arms and legs, indicating severe brain injury.
An abscess is a collection of pus that has built up within the tissue of the body.
Absence seizures are one of several kinds of generalized seizures.
Adenosine is both a chemical found in many living systems and a medication.
An altered level of consciousness is any measure of arousal other than normal.
Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Antipyretics (from anti- 'against' and 'feverish') are substances that reduce fever.
Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an abnormal connection between arteries and veins, bypassing the capillary system.
An atonic seizure (also called drop seizure, akinetic seizure or drop attack), is a type of seizure that consists of partial or complete loss of muscle tone that is caused by temporary alterations in brain function.
An aura is a perceptual disturbance experienced by some with migraines or seizures before either the headache or seizure begins.
In medicine, automatism refers to a set of brief unconscious behaviors.
A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.
A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
A brain tumor occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.
A bromide is a chemical compound containing a bromide ion or ligand.
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.
Cavernous hemangioma, also called cavernous angioma, cavernoma, or cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) (when referring to presence in the brain) is a type of blood vessel malformation or hemangioma, where a collection of dilated blood vessels form a benign tumor.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
The vertebrate cerebrum (brain) is formed by two cerebral hemispheres that are separated by a groove, the longitudinal fissure.
Cerebral hypoxia is a form of hypoxia (reduced supply of oxygen), specifically involving the brain; when the brain is completely deprived of oxygen, it is called cerebral anoxia.
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is the presence of a blood clot in the dural venous sinuses, which drain blood from the brain.
Cerebrovascular disease includes a variety of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels of the brain and the cerebral circulation.
Clonus (from the Greek for "violent, confused motion") is a series of involuntary, rhythmic, muscular contractions and relaxations.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.
A convulsion is a medical condition where body muscles contract and relax rapidly and repeatedly, resulting in an uncontrolled shaking of the body.
A craniotomy is a surgical operation in which a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to access the brain.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.
Delirium tremens (DTs) is a rapid onset of confusion usually caused by withdrawal from alcohol.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
The term drug overdose (or simply overdose or OD) describes the ingestion or application of a drug or other substance in quantities greater than are recommended or generally practiced.
Drug withdrawal is the group of symptoms that occur upon the abrupt discontinuation or decrease in intake of medications or recreational drugs.
Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder syndrome in which sustained or repetitive muscle contractions result in twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal fixed postures.
Eclampsia is the onset of seizures (convulsions) in a woman with pre-eclampsia.
Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), formerly known as electroshock therapy, and often referred to as shock treatment, is a psychiatric treatment in which seizures are electrically induced in patients to provide relief from mental disorders.
Electroencephalography (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain.
An embolism is the lodging of an embolus, a blockage-causing piece of material, inside a blood vessel.
Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
Epileptic spasms, also known as infantile spasms, juvenile spasms, or West syndrome is an uncommon-to-rare epileptic disorder in infants, children and adults.
Epileptogenesis is the gradual process by which a normal brain develops epilepsy.
An excitatory synapse is a synapse in which an action potential in a presynaptic neuron increases the probability of an action potential occurring in a postsynaptic cell.
A febrile seizure, also known as a fever fit or febrile convulsion, is a seizure associated with a high body temperature but without any serious underlying health issue.
Focal seizures (also called partial seizures and localized seizures) are seizures which affect initially only one hemisphere of the brain.
A generalized tonic–clonic seizure (formerly known as a grand mal seizure) is a type of generalized seizure that affects the entire brain.
Generalized epilepsy, also known as primary generalized epilepsy or idiopathic epilepsy, is a form of epilepsy characterised by generalised seizures with no apparent cause.
Gliosis is a nonspecific reactive change of glial cells in response to damage to the central nervous system (CNS).
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
Henri Jean Pascal Gastaut (April 15, 1915, Monaco – July 14, 1995 Marseille) was a French neurologist and epileptologist.
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is an altered level of consciousness as a result of liver failure.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Hypernatremia, also spelled hypernatraemia, is a high concentration of sodium in the blood.
Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) is a complication of diabetes mellitus in which high blood sugar results in high osmolarity without significant ketoacidosis.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hypertensive encephalopathy (HE) is general brain dysfunction due to significantly high blood pressure.
Hyperthermia is elevated body temperature due to failed thermoregulation that occurs when a body produces or absorbs more heat than it dissipates.
Hypocalcaemia, also spelled hypocalcemia, is low calcium levels in the blood serum.
Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal levels.
Hyponatremia is a low sodium level in the blood.
Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.
The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, adequate-protein, low-carbohydrate diet that in medicine is used primarily to treat difficult-to-control (refractory) epilepsy in children.
Lidocaine, also known as xylocaine and lignocaine, is a medication used to numb tissue in a specific area.
A local anesthetic (LA) is a medication that causes reversible absence of pain sensation, although other senses are often affected, as well.
Lorazepam, sold under the brand name Ativan among others, is a benzodiazepine medication.
Lumbar puncture (LP), also known as a spinal tap, is a medical procedure in which a needle is inserted into the spinal canal, most commonly to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for diagnostic testing.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.
A metabolic disorder can happen when abnormal chemical reactions in the body alter the normal metabolic process.
A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.
Myoclonus is a brief, involuntary twitching of a muscle or a group of muscles.
Neonatal encephalopathy (NE), also known as neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (neonatal HIE or NHIE), is defined by signs and symptoms of abnormal neurological function in the first few days of life in an infant born at term.
Neonatal seizure or Seizures in neonates indicates the seizures that are observed in newborns.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
Neural oscillations, or brainwaves, are rhythmic or repetitive patterns of neural activity in the central nervous system.
Neurocysticercosis is a specific form of the infectious parasitic disease cysticercosis which is caused by infection with Taenia solium, a tapeworm found in pigs.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Non-epileptic seizures are paroxysmal events that mimic an epileptic seizure but do not involve abnormal, rhythmic discharges of cortical neurons.
Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.
A paroxysmal depolarizing shift (PDS) or depolarizing shift is a hallmark of cellular manifestation of epilepsy.
Phenytoin (PHT), sold under the brand name Dilantin among others, is an anti-seizure medication.
Porphyria is a group of diseases in which substances called porphyrins build up, negatively affecting the skin or nervous system.
Post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) is a form of epilepsy that results from brain damage caused by physical trauma to the brain (traumatic brain injury, abbreviated TBI).
Post-traumatic seizures (PTS) are seizures that result from traumatic brain injury (TBI), brain damage caused by physical trauma.
The postictal state is the altered state of consciousness after an epileptic seizure.
Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a disorder of pregnancy characterized by the onset of high blood pressure and often a significant amount of protein in the urine.
Prolactin (PRL), also known as luteotropic hormone or luteotropin, is a protein that is best known for its role in enabling mammals, usually females, to produce milk.
Propofol, marketed as Diprivan among others, is a short-acting medication that results in a decreased level of consciousness and lack of memory for events.
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are events resembling an epileptic seizure, but without the characteristic electrical discharges associated with epilepsy.
Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.
Pyridoxine, also known as vitamin B6, is a form of vitamin B6 found commonly in food and used as dietary supplement.
The recovery position refers to one of a series of variations on a lateral recumbent or three-quarters prone position of the body, in to which an unconscious but breathing casualty can be placed as part of first aid treatment.
A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.
A seizure response dog (SRD) (also known as seizure dog) is a dog demonstrating specific assisting behaviour during or immediately after a person's epileptic seizure or other seizure.
Seizure types most commonly follow the classification proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) in 1981.
A service dog is a type of assistance dog specifically trained to help people who have disabilities, such as visual impairment, hearing impairments, mental disorders (such as post traumatic stress disorder), seizures, mobility impairment, and diabetes.
In medicine, a shunt is a hole or a small passage which moves, or allows movement of, fluid from one part of the body to another.
Status epilepticus (SE) is a single epileptic seizure lasting more than five minutes or two or more seizures within a five-minute period without the person returning to normal between them.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is bleeding into the subarachnoid space—the area between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater surrounding the brain.
A subdural hematoma (SDH), is a type of hematoma, usually associated with traumatic brain injury.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
Syncope, also known as fainting, is a loss of consciousness and muscle strength characterized by a fast onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery.
Taenia solium is the pork tapeworm belonging to cyclophyllid cestodes in the family Taeniidae.
Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is an infection characterized by muscle spasms.
A tilt table test (TTT), occasionally called upright tilt testing (UTT), is a medical procedure often used to diagnose dysautonomia or syncope.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force injures the brain.
A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation involving oscillations or twitching movements of one or more body parts.
Uremia is the condition of having "urea in the blood".
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Acute symptomatic seizure, Brain seizure, Cortical seizure, Epileptic Seizure, Epileptic fit, Epileptic seizures, Medical seizure, Multifocal seizure, Seisure, Seizure, Seizure (medicine), Seizure-related disorders, Seizures, Seizures., Siezure, Temporal lobe seizure.