189 relations: A Causal Theory of Knowing, A priori and a posteriori, A. J. Ayer, Adam Morton, Afrikan Spir, Agrippa the Skeptic, Ajñana, Alfred Korzybski, Allegory of the Cave, Alvin Goldman, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Andragogy, Anekantavada, Aranyaka, Argument from ignorance, Ayn Rand, Émile Meyerson, Śūnyatā, Barn, Baruch Spinoza, Belief, Bernard Bolzano, Bertrand Russell, Bicycle, Bimal Krishna Matilal, Brain in a vat, Buddhist philosophy, Cambridge University Press, Causal chain, Charles Kay Ogden, Charles Sanders Peirce, Charvaka, Cogito, ergo sum, Coherentism, Common sense, Constructivist epistemology, Correspondence theory of truth, Counterexample, Critique of Pure Reason, Daemonologie, David Malet Armstrong, Defeasibility, Descriptive knowledge, Dharmakirti, Dignāga, Discourse, Edgar Morin, Edmund Gettier, Empirical evidence, Empiricism, ..., Episteme, Epistemic democracy, Epistemological rupture, Ernest Sosa, Errol Harris, Evil demon, Evolutionary psychology, Fallibilism, Feminist epistemology, Fictionalism, Fideism, Foundationalism, Foundherentism, Frank P. Ramsey, Gangesha Upadhyaya, Gaston Bachelard, Gödel's incompleteness theorems, George Santayana, Giambattista Vico, Gilbert Ryle, Gnosiology, Gorgias, Henry E. Kyburg Jr., Idealism, Ilkka Niiniluoto, Immanuel Kant, Indian philosophy, Infallibilism, Infinite regress, Infinitism, Innatism, Intuition, Jain philosophy, James Frederick Ferrier, James VI and I, Jean Paul, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, John Dewey, John Greco (philosopher), John Locke, Jonathan Dancy, Jonathan Kvanvig, Karl Popper, Know-how, Knowledge, Knowledge and Its Limits, Knowledge by acquaintance, Language, Truth, and Logic, Linda Trinkaus Zagzebski, Logic, Logical positivism, Logical truth, Logos, Luc Bovens, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Madhyamaka, Mathematics, Münchhausen trilemma, Meditations on First Philosophy, Meno, Merriam-Webster, Methodology, Methods of obtaining knowledge, Michael Polanyi, Mind, Monopolies of knowledge, Naturalized epistemology, Navya-Nyāya, Noology, Nyaya, Nyāya Sūtras, Objectivity (philosophy), Ontology, Panayot Butchvarov, Paradigm, Participatory theory, Pedagogy, Perception, Perspectivism, Peter D. Klein, Philosophical analysis, Philosophical Explanations, Philosophical Fragments, Philosophical realism, Philosophical skepticism, Philosophy, Philosophy of science, Philosophy of space and time, Physics, Plato, Positivism, Pragmatism, Proposition, Reformed epistemology, Reliabilism, René Descartes, Richard Kirkham, Richard Rorty, Richard Swinburne, Robert Nozick, Sanjaya Belatthiputta, Søren Kierkegaard, Scepticism and Animal Faith, Scientific method, Scots language, Self-evidence, Semiotics, Sense, Sense data, Simon Blackburn, Skepticism, Slippery slope, Sociobiology: The New Synthesis, Sociology of knowledge, Socrates, Stephan Hartmann, Sui generis, Susan Haack, Tabula rasa, The Concept of Mind, Theaetetus (dialogue), Theory of forms, Theory of justification, Thomas Kuhn, Thought experiment, Timothy Williamson, Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, Transcendental idealism, Truth, Truth-bearer, Two Dogmas of Empiricism, Uncertainty principle, University of Minnesota Press, Vedas, Vincent F. Hendricks, Virtue epistemology, Wiley-Blackwell, Willard Van Orman Quine, William James. Expand index (139 more) » « Shrink index
"A Causal Theory of Knowing" is a philosophical essay written by Alvin Goldman in 1967, published in The Journal of Philosophy.
The Latin phrases a priori ("from the earlier") and a posteriori ("from the latter") are philosophical terms of art popularized by Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (first published in 1781, second edition in 1787), one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy.
Sir Alfred Jules "Freddie" Ayer, FBA (29 October 1910 – 27 June 1989), usually cited as A. J. Ayer, was a British philosopher known for his promotion of logical positivism, particularly in his books Language, Truth, and Logic (1936) and The Problem of Knowledge (1956).
Adam Morton, (born John Garibian 1945) is a Canadian philosopher and author.
Afrikan Aleksandrovich Spir (Russian: Африка́н Алекса́ндрович Спир; German: Afrikan (von) Spir, French: African (de) Spir, Italian: Africano Spir) (15 November 1837 – 26 March 1890) was a Russian Neo-Kantian philosopher of Greek-German descent who wrote primarily in German.
Agrippa (Ἀγρίππας) was a Pyrrhonist philosopher who probably lived towards the end of the 1st century CE.
Ajñana was one of the ''nāstika'' or "heterodox" schools of ancient Indian philosophy, and the ancient school of radical Indian skepticism.
Alfred Habdank Skarbek Korzybski (July 3, 1879 – March 1, 1950) was a Polish-American independent scholar who developed a field called general semantics, which he viewed as both distinct from, and more encompassing than, the field of semantics.
The Allegory of the Cave, or Plato's Cave, was presented by the Greek philosopher Plato in his work Republic (514a–520a) to compare "the effect of education (παιδεία) and the lack of it on our nature".
Alvin Ira Goldman (born 1938) is an American philosopher who is Board of Governors Professor of Philosophy and Cognitive Science at Rutgers University in New Jersey and a leading figure in epistemology.
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding is a work by John Locke concerning the foundation of human knowledge and understanding.
Andragogy refers to methods and principles used in adult education.
(अनेकान्तवाद, "many-sidedness") refers to the Jain doctrine about metaphysical truths that emerged in ancient India.
The Aranyakas (Sanskrit: आरण्यक) constitutes the philosophy behind ritual sacrifice of the ancient Indian sacred texts, the Vedas.
Argument from ignorance (from argumentum ad ignorantiam), also known as appeal to ignorance (in which ignorance represents "a lack of contrary evidence") is a fallacy in informal logic.
Ayn Rand (born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum; – March 6, 1982) was a Russian-American writer and philosopher.
Émile Meyerson (12 February 1859 – 2 December 1933) was a Polish-born French epistemologist, chemist, and philosopher of science.
Śūnyatā (Sanskrit; Pali: suññatā), pronounced ‘shoonyataa’, translated into English most often as emptiness and sometimes voidness, is a Buddhist concept which has multiple meanings depending on its doctrinal context.
A barn is an agricultural building usually on farms and used for various purposes.
Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa,; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.
Belief is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case with or without there being empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with factual certainty.
Bernard Bolzano (born Bernardus Placidus Johann Nepomuk Bolzano; 5 October 1781 – 18 December 1848) was a Bohemian mathematician, logician, philosopher, theologian and Catholic priest of Italian extraction, also known for his antimilitarist views.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.
A bicycle, also called a cycle or bike, is a human-powered, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle, having two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other.
Bimal Krishna Matilal (1935–1991) was an Indian philosopher whose influential writings present the Indian philosophical tradition as a comprehensive system of logic incorporating most issues addressed by themes in Western philosophy.
In philosophy, the brain in a vat (alternately known as brain in a jar) is a scenario used in a variety of thought experiments intended to draw out certain features of human conceptions of knowledge, reality, truth, mind, consciousness and meaning.
Buddhist philosophy refers to the philosophical investigations and systems of inquiry that developed among various Buddhist schools in India following the death of the Buddha and later spread throughout Asia.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
In philosophy, a causal chain is an ordered sequence of events in which any one event in the chain causes the next.
Charles Kay Ogden (1 June 1889 – 20 March 1957) was an English linguist, philosopher, and writer.
Charles Sanders Peirce ("purse"; 10 September 1839 – 19 April 1914) was an American philosopher, logician, mathematician, and scientist who is sometimes known as "the father of pragmatism".
Charvaka (IAST: Cārvāka), originally known as Lokāyata and Bṛhaspatya, is the ancient school of Indian materialism.
Cogito, ergo sum is a Latin philosophical proposition by René Descartes usually translated into English as "I think, therefore I am".
Coherentism is the name given to a few philosophical theories in modern epistemology.
Common sense is sound practical judgment concerning everyday matters, or a basic ability to perceive, understand, and judge that is shared by ("common to") nearly all people.
Constructivist epistemology is a branch in philosophy of science maintaining that scientific knowledge is constructed by the scientific community, who seek to measure and construct models of the natural world.
The correspondence theory of truth states that the truth or falsity of a statement is determined only by how it relates to the world and whether it accurately describes (i.e., corresponds with) that world.
In logic, and especially in its applications to mathematics and philosophy, a counterexample is an exception to a proposed general rule or law.
The Critique of Pure Reason (Kritik der reinen Vernunft, KrV) (1781, Riga; second edition 1787) is a book by Immanuel Kant that has exerted an enduring influence on Western philosophy.
Daemonologie—in full Daemonologie, In Forme of a Dialogue, Divided into three Books: By the High and Mighty Prince, James &c.—was written and published in 1597 by King James VI of Scotland (later also James I of England) as a philosophical dissertation on contemporary necromancy and the historical relationships between the various methods of divination used from ancient black magic.
David Malet Armstrong (8 July 1926 – 13 May 2014), often D. M. Armstrong, was an Australian philosopher.
Defeasibility is the property of something – such as a contract, a proposition or an understanding – that can be annulled, invalidated, or similarly "defeated".
Descriptive knowledge, also declarative knowledge or propositional knowledge, is the type of knowledge that is, by its very nature, expressed in declarative sentences or indicative propositions.
Dharmakīrti (fl. c. 6th or 7th century) was an influential Indian Buddhist philosopher who worked at Nālandā.
Dignāga (a.k.a. Diṅnāga, c. 480 – c. 540 CE) was an Indian Buddhist scholar and one of the Buddhist founders of Indian logic (hetu vidyā).
Discourse (from Latin discursus, "running to and from") denotes written and spoken communications.
Edgar Morin (born Edgar Nahoum on 8 July 1921) is a French philosopher and sociologist who has been internationally recognized for his work on complexity and "complex thought" (pensée complexe), and for his scholarly contributions to such diverse fields as media studies, politics, sociology, visual anthropology, ecology, education, and systems biology.
Edmund L. Gettier III (born October 31, 1927) is an American philosopher and Professor Emeritus at the University of Massachusetts Amherst.
Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
"Episteme" is a philosophical term derived from the Ancient Greek word ἐπιστήμη epistēmē, which can refer to knowledge, science or understanding, and which comes from the verb ἐπίστασθαι, meaning "to know, to understand, or to be acquainted with".
Epistemic democracy is the "doctrine of the wisdom of the multitude.".
Epistemological rupture (epistemological break or epistemological obstacle; obstacle épistémologique, rupture épistémologique), is a notion introduced in 1938 by French philosopher Gaston Bachelard, and later used by Louis Althusser.
Ernest Sosa (born June 17, 1940) is an American philosopher primarily interested in epistemology.
Errol Eustace Harris (19 February 1908 – 21 June 2009), sometimes cited as E. E. Harris, was a contemporary South African philosopher.
The evil demon, also known as malicious demon and evil genius, is a concept in Cartesian philosophy.
Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective.
Broadly speaking, fallibilism (from Medieval Latin: fallibilis, "liable to err") is the philosophical claim that no belief can have justification which guarantees the truth of the belief.
Feminist epistemology is an examination of the subject matter of epistemology from a feminist standpoint.
Fictionalism is the view in philosophy according to which statements that appear to be descriptions of the world should not be construed as such, but should instead be understood as cases of "make believe", of pretending to treat something as literally true (a "useful fiction").
Fideism is an epistemological theory which maintains that faith is independent of reason, or that reason and faith are hostile to each other and faith is superior at arriving at particular truths (see natural theology).
Foundationalism concerns philosophical theories of knowledge resting upon justified belief, or some secure foundation of certainty such as a conclusion inferred from a basis of sound premises.
In epistemology, foundherentism is a theory of justification that combines elements from the two rival theories addressing infinite regress, foundationalism prone to arbitrariness, and coherentism prone to circularity (problems raised by the Münchhausen trilemma).
Frank Plumpton Ramsey (22 February 1903 – 19 January 1930) was a British philosopher, mathematician and economist who made fundamental contributions to abstract algebra before his death at the age of 26.
Gangesha Upadhyaya (गंगेश उपाध्याय, Gaṅgeśa Upādhyāya) (late 12th century) was an Indian mathematician and philosopher from the kingdom of Mithila.
Gaston Bachelard (27 June 1884 – 16 October 1962) was a French philosopher.
Gödel's incompleteness theorems are two theorems of mathematical logic that demonstrate the inherent limitations of every formal axiomatic system containing basic arithmetic.
Jorge Agustín Nicolás Ruiz de Santayana y Borrás, known in English as George Santayana (December 16, 1863September 26, 1952), was a philosopher, essayist, poet, and novelist.
Giambattista Vico (B. Giovan Battista Vico, 23 June 1668 – 23 January 1744) was an Italian political philosopher and rhetorician, historian and jurist, of the Age of Enlightenment.
Gilbert Ryle (19 August 1900 – 6 October 1976) was a British philosopher.
Gnosiology ("study of knowledge"), a term of 18th century aesthetics, is "the philosophy of knowledge and cognition".
Gorgias (Γοργίας; c. 485 – c. 380 BC) was a Greek sophist, Siceliote, pre-Socratic philosopher and rhetorician who was a native of Leontini in Sicily.
Henry E. Kyburg Jr. (1928–2007) was Gideon Burbank Professor of Moral Philosophy and Professor of Computer Science at the University of Rochester, New York, and Pace Eminent Scholar at the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition, Pensacola, Florida.
In philosophy, idealism is the group of metaphysical philosophies that assert that reality, or reality as humans can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial.
Ilkka Maunu Olavi Niiniluoto (born March 12, 1946) is a Finnish philosopher and mathematician, serving as a professor of philosophy at the University of Helsinki since 1981.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
Indian philosophy refers to ancient philosophical traditions of the Indian subcontinent.
Infallibilism, in epistemology, is the idea that propositional knowledge is incompatible with a chance of being wrong, where this is typically understood as one's evidence or justification providing one's belief with such strong grounds that it must be true and perhaps cannot be rationally doubted.
An infinite regress in a series of propositions arises if the truth of proposition P1 requires the support of proposition P2, the truth of proposition P2 requires the support of proposition P3,...
Infinitism is the view that knowledge may be justified by an infinite chain of reasons.
Innatism is a philosophical and epistemological doctrine that holds that the mind is born with ideas/knowledge, and that therefore the mind is not a "blank slate" at birth, as early empiricists such as John Locke claimed.
Intuition is the ability to acquire knowledge without proof, evidence, or conscious reasoning, or without understanding how the knowledge was acquired.
Jain philosophy is the oldest Indian philosophy that separates body (matter) from the soul (consciousness) completely.
James Frederick Ferrier (16 June 1808, Edinburgh – 11 June 1864, St Andrews) was a Scottish metaphysical writer.
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
Jean Paul (born Johann Paul Friedrich Richter, 21 March 1763 – 14 November 1825) was a German Romantic writer, best known for his humorous novels and stories.
Johann Gottlieb Fichte (May 19, 1762 – January 27, 1814), was a German philosopher who became a founding figure of the philosophical movement known as German idealism, which developed from the theoretical and ethical writings of Immanuel Kant.
John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, Georgist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform.
John Greco is an American philosopher.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
Jonathan Peter Dancy, FBA (born 8 May 1946) is a British philosopher, who has written on ethics and epistemology.
Jonathan Lee Kvanvig (born December 7, 1954) is Professor of Philosophy at Washington University in St. Louis.
Sir Karl Raimund Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor.
Know-how (or knowhow) is a term for practical knowledge on how to accomplish something, as opposed to "know-what" (facts), "know-why" (science), or "know-who" (communication).
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.
Knowledge and its Limits, a 2000 book by philosopher Timothy Williamson, argues that the concept of knowledge cannot be analyzed into a set of other concepts; instead, it is sui generis.
In philosophy, a distinction is often made between two different kinds of knowledge: knowledge by acquaintance and knowledge by description.
Language, Truth, and Logic is a 1936 work of philosophy by Alfred Jules Ayer.
Linda Trinkaus Zagzebski (born 1946) is an American philosopher.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
Logical positivism and logical empiricism, which together formed neopositivism, was a movement in Western philosophy whose central thesis was verificationism, a theory of knowledge which asserted that only statements verifiable through empirical observation are cognitively meaningful.
Logical truth is one of the most fundamental concepts in logic, and there are different theories on its nature.
Logos (lógos; from λέγω) is a term in Western philosophy, psychology, rhetoric, and religion derived from a Greek word variously meaning "ground", "plea", "opinion", "expectation", "word", "speech", "account", "reason", "proportion", and "discourse",Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott,: logos, 1889.
Luc Bovens is a Belgian professor of philosophy at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.
Madhyamaka (Madhyamaka,; also known as Śūnyavāda) refers primarily to the later schools of Buddhist philosophy founded by Nagarjuna (150 CE to 250 CE).
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
In epistemology, the Münchhausen trilemma is a thought experiment used to demonstrate the impossibility of proving any truth, even in the fields of logic and mathematics.
Meditations on First Philosophy —The original Meditations, translated, in its entirety.
Meno (Μένων) is a Socratic dialogue written by Plato.
Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.
Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study.
Knowledge may originate or be derived from the following origins or methods.
Michael Polanyi, (11 March 1891 – 22 February 1976) was a Hungarian-British polymath, who made important theoretical contributions to physical chemistry, economics, and philosophy.
The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory.
Monopolies of knowledge arise when the ruling class maintains political power through control of key communications technologies.
Naturalized epistemology, coined by W. V. O. Quine, is a collection of philosophic views concerned with the theory of knowledge that emphasize the role of natural scientific methods.
The Navya-Nyāya or Neo-Logical darśana (view, system, or school) of Indian logic and Indian philosophy was founded in the 13th century CE by the philosopher Gangeśa Upādhyāya of Mithila and continued by Raghunatha Siromani.
Noology derives from the ancient Greek words νοῦς, nous or "mind" and λόγος, logos.
(Sanskrit: न्याय, ny-āyá), literally means "rules", "method" or "judgment".
The Nyāya Sūtras is an ancient Indian Sanskrit text composed by, and the foundational text of the Nyaya school of Hindu philosophy.
Objectivity is a central philosophical concept, objective means being independent of the perceptions thus objectivity means the property of being independent from the perceptions, which has been variously defined by sources.
Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
Panayot Butchvarov (Bulgarian: Панайот Бъчваров; born April 2, 1933, in Sofia, Bulgaria) is Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at the University of Iowa.
In science and philosophy, a paradigm is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitutes legitimate contributions to a field.
Participatory theory, vision or framework is a conceptual framework which attempts to bridge the subject–object distinction.
Pedagogy is the discipline that deals with the theory and practice of teaching and how these influence student learning.
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
Perspectivism (Perspektivismus) is the philosophical view (touched upon as far back as Plato's rendition of Protagoras) that all ideations take place from particular perspectives, and that there are many possible conceptual schemes, or perspectives in which judgment of truth or value can be made.
Peter David Klein (born September 17, 1940) is a philosopher specializing in issues in epistemology.
Philosophical analysis (from Φιλοσοφική ανάλυση) is a general term for techniques typically used by philosophers in the analytic tradition that involve "breaking down" (i.e. analyzing) philosophical issues.
Philosophical Explanations is a 1981 metaphysical, epistemological, and ethical treatise by the philosopher Robert Nozick.
Philosophical Fragments (Danish title: Philosophiske Smuler eller En Smule Philosophi) is a Christian philosophical work written by Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard in 1844.
Realism (in philosophy) about a given object is the view that this object exists in reality independently of our conceptual scheme.
Philosophical skepticism (UK spelling: scepticism; from Greek σκέψις skepsis, "inquiry") is a philosophical school of thought that questions the possibility of certainty in knowledge.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.
Philosophy of space and time is the branch of philosophy concerned with the issues surrounding the ontology, epistemology, and character of space and time.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain ("positive") knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations.
Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870.
The term proposition has a broad use in contemporary analytic philosophy.
In the philosophy of religion, Reformed epistemology is a school of philosophical thought concerning the nature of knowledge (epistemology) as it applies to religious beliefs.
Reliabilism, a category of theories in the philosophical discipline of epistemology, has been advanced as a theory both of justification and of knowledge.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
Richard Ladd Kirkham (born June 18, 1955) is an American philosopher.
Richard McKay Rorty (October 4, 1931 – June 8, 2007) was an American philosopher.
Richard G. Swinburne (born 26 December 1934) is a British philosopher.
Robert Nozick (November 16, 1938 – January 23, 2002) was an American philosopher.
Sanjaya Belatthiputta (literally, "Sanjaya of the Belattha clan"), also referred as Sanjaya Vairatiputra was an Indian ascetic teacher who lived around the 6th century BCE in the region of Magadha.
Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher.
Scepticism and Animal Faith (1923) is a later work by Spanish-born American philosopher George Santayana.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots).
In epistemology (theory of knowledge), a self-evident proposition is a proposition that is known to be true by understanding its meaning without proof, and/or by ordinary human reason.
Semiotics (also called semiotic studies) is the study of meaning-making, the study of sign process (semiosis) and meaningful communication.
A sense is a physiological capacity of organisms that provides data for perception.
In the philosophy of perception, the theory of sense data was a popular view held in the early 20th century by philosophers such as Bertrand Russell, C. D. Broad, H. H. Price, A. J. Ayer, and G. E. Moore.
Simon Blackburn (born 12 July 1944) is an English academic philosopher known for his work in metaethics, where he defends quasi-realism, and in the philosophy of language; more recently, he has gained a large general audience from his efforts to popularise philosophy.
Skepticism (American English) or scepticism (British English, Australian English) is generally any questioning attitude or doubt towards one or more items of putative knowledge or belief.
A slippery slope argument (SSA), in logic, critical thinking, political rhetoric, and caselaw, is a consequentialist logical device in which a party asserts that a relatively small first step leads to a chain of related events culminating in some significant (usually negative) effect.
Sociobiology: The New Synthesis (1975; 25th anniversary edition 2000) is a book by the biologist E. O. Wilson.
The sociology of knowledge is the study of the relationship between human thought and the social context within which it arises, and of the effects prevailing ideas have on societies.
Socrates (Sōkrátēs,; – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.
Stephan Hartmann (born 1 March 1968) is a German philosopher and Professor of Philosophy of Science at Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, known for his contributions to formal epistemology.
Sui generis is a Latin phrase that means "of its (his, her, their) own kind; in a class by itself; unique." A number of disciplines use the term to refer to unique entities.
Susan Haack (born 1945) is Distinguished Professor in the Humanities, Cooper Senior Scholar in Arts and Sciences, Professor of Philosophy, and Professor of Law at the University of Miami.
Tabula rasa refers to the epistemological idea that individuals are born without built-in mental content and that therefore all knowledge comes from experience or perception.
The Concept of Mind is a 1949 book by philosopher Gilbert Ryle, in which the author argues that "mind" is "a philosophical illusion hailing chiefly from René Descartes and sustained by logical errors and 'category mistakes' which have become habitual." The work has been cited as having "put the final nail in the coffin of Cartesian dualism" and has been seen as a founding document in the philosophy of mind, which received professional recognition as a distinct and important branch of philosophy only after 1950.
The Theaetetus (Θεαίτητος) is one of Plato's dialogues concerning the nature of knowledge, written circa 369 BC.
The theory of Forms or theory of Ideas is Plato's argument that non-physical (but substantial) forms (or ideas) represent the most accurate reality.
Theory of justification is a part of epistemology that attempts to understand the justification of propositions and beliefs.
Thomas Samuel Kuhn (July 18, 1922 – June 17, 1996) was an American physicist, historian and philosopher of science whose controversial 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions was influential in both academic and popular circles, introducing the term paradigm shift, which has since become an English-language idiom.
A thought experiment (Gedankenexperiment, Gedanken-Experiment or Gedankenerfahrung) considers some hypothesis, theory, or principle for the purpose of thinking through its consequences.
Timothy Williamson, (born 6 August 1955) is a British philosopher whose main research interests are in philosophical logic, philosophy of language, epistemology and metaphysics.
The Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (TLP) (Latin for "Logico-Philosophical Treatise") is the only book-length philosophical work published by the Austrian philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein in his lifetime.
Transcendental idealism is a doctrine founded by German philosopher Immanuel Kant in the 18th century.
Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard.
A truth-bearer is an entity that is said to be either true or false and nothing else.
"Two Dogmas of Empiricism" is a paper by analytic philosopher Willard Van Orman Quine published in 1951.
In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle (also known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle) is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known.
The University of Minnesota Press is a university press that is part of the University of Minnesota.
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.
Vincent Fella Rune Møller Hendricks (born 6 March 1970), is a Danish philosopher and logician.
Virtue epistemology is a contemporary philosophical approach to epistemology that stresses the importance of intellectual, and specifically epistemic virtues.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
Willard Van Orman Quine (known to intimates as "Van"; June 25, 1908 – December 25, 2000) was an American philosopher and logician in the analytic tradition, recognized as "one of the most influential philosophers of the twentieth century." From 1930 until his death 70 years later, Quine was continually affiliated with Harvard University in one way or another, first as a student, then as a professor of philosophy and a teacher of logic and set theory, and finally as a professor emeritus who published or revised several books in retirement.
William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States.
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