125 relations: Adaptive immune system, Africa, Alpha-synuclein, Antibody, Antigen processing, Autoimmune disease, Autoimmunity Reviews, B cell, B-cell receptor, Bacterial artificial chromosome, Base pair, Bert Achong, Bone marrow, Burkitt's lymphoma, BZLF1, Caister Academic Press, Cancer, Capsid, Cell nucleus, Central nervous system, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Complement receptor 1, Complement receptor 2, Dementia with Lewy bodies, Denis Parsons Burkitt, Dermatomyositis, DNA, DNA polymerase, Doctor of Philosophy, Dose–response relationship, Electron microscope, Epigallocatechin gallate, Epithelium, Epstein–Barr virus infection, Epstein–Barr virus latent membrane protein 1, Epstein–Barr virus latent membrane protein 2, Epstein–Barr virus nuclear antigen 1, Epstein–Barr virus nuclear antigen 2, Epstein–Barr virus nuclear antigen 3, Epstein–Barr virus small nucleolar RNA 1, Epstein–Barr virus stable intronic-sequence RNAs, Epstein–Barr virus vaccine, Epstein–Barr virus viral-capsid antigen, Epstein–Barr virus-encoded small RNAs, Erythema multiforme, Fatigue, Fever, Gammaherpesvirinae, Gel electrophoresis, Gene, ..., Gene expression, Genetic code, Genome, Gianotti–Crosti syndrome, Glycoprotein, Green tea, Hairy leukoplakia, Hepatomegaly, Herpesvirales, Herpesviridae, HIV, Hodgkin's lymphoma, Human leukocyte antigen, Immunity (medical), In vitro, Infectious mononucleosis, Integrin, James Corson Niederman, Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, Lipid, Lipid bilayer fusion, Lymph node, Lymphadenopathy, Lymphoblast, Lymphocryptovirus, Lymphoma, Lymphomatoid granulomatosis, Lytic cycle, MAPK/ERK pathway, Memory B cell, MHC class II, Michael A. Epstein, Middlesex Hospital, Multiple sclerosis, Multiple system atrophy, Naive B cell, Nanometre, Nasopharynx cancer, Non-coding RNA, Organ transplantation, Parkinson's disease, Pathologica, Pathology, Pharyngitis, Phosphoinositide 3-kinase, Plasmid, Protein, RBPJ, Restriction enzyme, Rheumatoid arthritis, RNA, Saliva, Serology, Sjögren syndrome, Sodium butyrate, Splenomegaly, Stomach cancer, Systemic lupus erythematosus, The Lancet, The New England Journal of Medicine, Tissue tropism, Transactivation, Transmembrane protein, Tyrosine kinase, Uganda, University of Bristol, University of London, Viral envelope, Viral tegument, Virus, Virus latency, Werner and Gertrude Henle, Yvonne Barr, 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. Expand index (75 more) » « Shrink index
The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Alpha-synuclein is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the SNCA gene.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
Antigen processing is an immunological process that prepares antigens for presentation to special cells of the immune system called T lymphocytes.
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.
Autoimmunity Reviews is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal publishing review articles pertaining to autoimmunity.
B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype.
The B-cell receptor or BCR is composed of immunoglobulin molecules that form a type 1 transmembrane receptor protein usually located on the outer surface of a lymphocyte type known as B cells.
A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) is a DNA construct, based on a functional fertility plasmid (or F-plasmid), used for transforming and cloning in bacteria, usually E. coli.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
Bert Geoffrey Achong (6 December 1928 - 20 November 1996) was a Trinidadian pathologist.
Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.
Burkitt lymphoma is a cancer of the lymphatic system, particularly B lymphocytes found in the germinal center.
BZLF1 (also known as Zta, EB1) is an immediate-early viral gene of the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) of the Herpes Virus Family, which induces cancers and infects primarily the B-cells of 95% of the human population.
Caister Academic Press is an independent academic publishing company that produces books and ebooks on microbiology, and molecular biology.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
A capsid is the protein shell of a virus.
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) is a children's hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, with its primary campus located in the University City neighborhood of West Philadelphia next to the campus of the University of Pennsylvania.
Complement receptor type 1 (CR1) also known as C3b/C4b receptor or CD35 (cluster of differentiation 35) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CR1 gene.
Complement receptor type 2 (CR2), also known as complement C3d receptor, Epstein-Barr virus receptor, and CD21 (cluster of differentiation 21), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CR2 gene.
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a type of dementia accompanied by changes in behavior, cognition and movement.
Denis Parsons Burkitt FRS (28 February 1911 – 23 March 1993), surgeon, was born in Enniskillen, County Fermanagh, Ireland.
Dermatomyositis (DM) is a long term inflammatory disorder which affects muscles.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA polymerases are enzymes that synthesize DNA molecules from deoxyribonucleotides, the building blocks of DNA.
A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD or Ph.D.; Latin Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries.
The dose–response relationship, or exposure–response relationship, describes the change in effect on an organism caused by differing levels of exposure (or doses) to a stressor (usually a chemical) after a certain exposure time, or to a food.
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), also known as epigallocatechin-3-gallate, is the ester of epigallocatechin and gallic acid, and is a type of catechin.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
There are several forms of Epstein–Barr virus infection.
Epstein–Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is an Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) protein that regulates its own expression and the expression of human genes.
Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 2 (LMP2) are two viral proteins of the Epstein–Barr virus.
Epstein–Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is a multifunctional, dimeric viral protein associated with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV).
The Epstein–Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA-2) is one of the six EBV viral nuclear proteins expressed in latently infected B lymphocytes is a transactivator protein.
The Epstein–Barr virus nuclear antigen 3 (EBNA-3) is a family of viral proteins associated with the Epstein–Barr virus.
V-snoRNA1 is a box CD-snoRNA identified in B lymphocytes infected with the Epstein–Barr virus (human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4)).
Epstein–Barr virus stable intronic-sequence RNAs (ebv-sisRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs generated by repeat introns in the Epstein–Barr virus.
A vaccine against Epstein–Barr virus is not yet available.
The Epstein–Barr virus viral-capsid antigen (EBV-VCA) is the viral protein that forms the viral capsid of the Epstein–Barr virus.
The Epstein–Barr virus-encoded small RNAs (EBERs) are small non-coding RNAs localized in the nucleus of human cells infected with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV).
Erythema multiforme (EM) is a skin condition of unknown cause; it is a type of erythema possibly mediated by deposition of immune complexes (mostly IgM-bound complexes) in the superficial microvasculature of the skin and oral mucous membrane that usually follows an infection or drug exposure.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
Gammaherpesvirinae is a subfamily of viruses in the order Herpesvirales, in the family Herpesviridae.
Gel electrophoresis is a method for separation and analysis of macromolecules (DNA, RNA and proteins) and their fragments, based on their size and charge.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
Gianotti–Crosti syndrome, also known as infantile papular acrodermatitis, papular acrodermatitis of childhood, and papulovesicular acrolocated syndrome, is a reaction of the skin to a viral infection.
Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.
Green tea is a type of tea that is made from Camellia sinensis leaves that have not undergone the same withering and oxidation process used to make oolong teas and black teas.
Hairy leukoplakia (also known as oral hairy leukoplakia, OHL, or HIV-associated hairy leukoplakia), is a white patch on the side of the tongue with a corrugated or hairy appearance.
Hepatomegaly is the condition of having an enlarged liver.
The Herpesvirales is an order of dsDNA viruses with eukaryotic hosts and enveloped virions, characterized by a common morphology.
Herpesviridae is a large family of DNA viruses that cause diseases in animals, including humans.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is a type of lymphoma which is generally believed to result from white blood cells of the lymphocyte kind.
The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system or complex is a gene complex encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins in humans.
In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Infectious mononucleosis (IM, mono), also known as glandular fever, is an infection usually caused by the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV).
Integrins are transmembrane receptors that facilitate cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion.
James Corson Niederman (born November 27, 1924) is an American epidemiologist whose research identified the Epstein-Barr virus as the cause of infectious mononucleosis in a study published in 1968.
The Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on the intersection of immunology, pharmacology, and neuroscience as they relate to each other.
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the ninth known human herpesvirus; its formal name according to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) is HHV-8.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
In membrane biology, fusion is the process by which two initially distinct lipid bilayers merge their hydrophobic cores, resulting in one interconnected structure.
A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.
Lymphadenopathy or adenopathy is disease of the lymph nodes, in which they are abnormal in size, number, or consistency.
A lymphoblast is a modified naive lymphocyte that also looks completely different.
Lymphocryptovirus is a genus of viruses in the order Herpesvirales, in the family Herpesviridae, in the subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae.
Lymphoma is a group of blood cancers that develop from lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).
Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG or LG) is a very rare lymphoproliferative disorder first characterized in 1972 with lymphomatoid meaning lymphoma-like and granulomatosis denoting one of its microscopic characteristics, polymorphic lymphoid infiltrates and focal necrosis within it.
The lytic cycle is one of the two cycles of viral reproduction (referring to bacterial viruses or bacteriophages), the other being the lysogenic cycle.
The MAPK/ERK pathway (also known as the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK pathway) is a chain of proteins in the cell that communicates a signal from a receptor on the surface of the cell to the DNA in the nucleus of the cell.
Memory B cells are a B cell sub-type that are formed within germinal centers following primary infection and are important in generating an accelerated and more robust antibody-mediated immune response in the case of re-infection (also known as a secondary immune response).
MHC class II molecules are a class of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules normally found only on antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells, mononuclear phagocytes, some endothelial cells, thymic epithelial cells, and B cells.
Sir Michael Anthony Epstein, CBE, FRS, FMedSci (born 18 May 1921) is a British pathologist and academic.
Middlesex Hospital was a teaching hospital located in the Fitzrovia area of London, England.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.
Multiple system atrophy (MSA), also known as Shy–Drager syndrome, is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremors, slow movement, muscle rigidity, and postural instability (collectively known as parkinsonism) due to dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, and ataxia.
A naïve B cell is a B cell that has not been exposed to an antigen.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
Nasopharynx cancer or nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the most common cancer originating in the nasopharynx, most commonly in the postero-lateral nasopharynx or pharyngeal recess or 'Fossa of Rosenmüller' accounting for 50% cases.
A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is an RNA molecule that is not translated into a protein.
Organ transplantation is a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Pathologica is an academic journal which covers the field of general and human pathology, including studies of pathological processes using immunocytochemistry and molecular biology.
Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.
Pharyngitis is inflammation of the back of the throat, known as the pharynx.
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (also called phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases, PI 3-kinases, PI(3)Ks, PI-3Ks or by the HUGO official stem symbol for the gene family, PI3K(s)) are a family of enzymes involved in cellular functions such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, motility, survival and intracellular trafficking, which in turn are involved in cancer.
A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Recombining binding protein suppressor of hairless is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBPJ gene.
A restriction enzyme or restriction endonuclease is an enzyme that cleaves DNA into fragments at or near specific recognition sites within the molecule known as restriction sites.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
Saliva is a watery substance formed in the mouths of animals, secreted by the salivary glands.
Serology is the scientific study of serum and other bodily fluids.
Sjögren syndrome (SjS, SS) is a long-term autoimmune disease in which the moisture-producing glands of the body are affected.
Sodium butyrate is a compound with formula Na(C3H7COO).
Splenomegaly is an enlargement of the spleen.
Stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, is cancer developing from the lining of the stomach.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), also known simply as lupus, is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in many parts of the body.
The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.
The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a weekly medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society.
Tissue tropism is the cells and tissues of a host that support growth of a particular virus or bacterium.
In the context of gene regulation: transactivation is the increased rate of gene expression triggered either by biological processes or by artificial means, through the expression of an intermediate transactivator protein.
A transmembrane protein (TP) is a type of integral membrane protein that spans the entirety of the biological membrane to which it is permanently attached.
A tyrosine kinase is an enzyme that can transfer a phosphate group from ATP to a protein in a cell.
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.
The University of Bristol (simply referred to as Bristol University and abbreviated as Bris. in post-nominal letters, or UoB) is a red brick research university located in Bristol, United Kingdom.
The University of London (abbreviated as Lond. or more rarely Londin. in post-nominals) is a collegiate and a federal research university located in London, England.
Some viruses (e.g. HIV and many animal viruses) have viral envelopes covering their protective protein capsids.
A viral tegument or tegument, more commonly known as a viral matrix, is a cluster of proteins that lines the space between the envelope and nucleocapsid of all herpesviruses.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Virus latency (or viral latency) is the ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant (latent) within a cell, denoted as the lysogenic part of the viral life cycle.
Werner Henle (August 27, 1910 – July 6, 1987) and Gertrude Henle (April 3, 1912 – September 1, 2006) were a husband and wife team of virologists known for their work in flu vaccines and viral diagnostics.
Yvonne Barr (11 March 1932 – 13 February 2016) was a virologist.
12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), also commonly known as tetradecanoylphorbol acetate, tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate, and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), is a diester of phorbol and a potent tumor promoter often employed in biomedical research to activate the signal transduction enzyme protein kinase C (PKC).
Burkitt's lymphoma virus, E-B Virus, E.B. Virus, EB Virus, EB virus, EBNA, EBV nuclear antigen, EBV virus, EPV, Eb Virus, Eppstein-Barr, Epstein Barr, Epstein Barr Syndrome, Epstein Barr Virus, Epstein Barr virus, Epstein bar, Epstein barr virus, Epstein-Barr, Epstein-Barr Syndrome, Epstein-Barr Virus, Epstein-Barr syndrome, Epstein-Barr virus, Epstein-barr, Epstein-barr virus, Epstein-barr virus infections, Epstein-barr virus nuclear antigens, Epstein–Barr, Epstein–barr virus, HHV-4, Herpesvirus 4, human, Human herpesvirus 4, Human herpesvirus 4 group, Kiss Disease.