204 relations: Abolitionism, Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Peña, Affirmative action, Alexander Bickel, Alien (law), All-white jury, American Civil War, Anti-miscegenation laws in the United States, Antonin Scalia, Appellate court, Arlington Heights, Illinois, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, Baker v. Carr, Black Codes (United States), Board of education, Board of Trustees of the University of Alabama v. Garrett, Bolling v. Sharpe, Brown v. Board of Education, Bush v. Gore, Caste, Charles Hamilton Houston, Charles Sumner, Chicago, Chief Justice of the United States, City of Boerne v. Flores, City of Cleburne v. Cleburne Living Center, Inc., City of Richmond v. J.A. Croson Co., Civil and political rights, Civil Rights Act of 1866, Civil Rights Act of 1875, Civil Rights Act of 1964, Civil Rights Cases, Clarence Thomas, Colorado, Common carrier, Confederate States of America, Congressional power of enforcement, Constitutional colorblindness, Contract, Convention (norm), Corporate personhood, Craig v. Boren, David Souter, De facto, Defense of Marriage Act, Desegregation busing, Developmental disability, Dictum, Dred Scott v. Sandford, Due process, ..., Due Process Clause, Earl Warren, Egalitarianism, Equal consideration of interests, Equal justice under law, Equal opportunity, Equal Rights Amendment, Equality before the law, Equality feminism, Equality of autonomy, Equality of outcome, Equality of sacrifice, Eric Foner, Erwin Chemerinsky, Evidence, Federalism, Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Florida, Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Fred M. Vinson, Fricke v. Lynch, Fundamental rights, Gilded Age, Gratz v. Bollinger, Green v. County School Board of New Kent County, Grutter v. Bollinger, Harlan F. Stone, Harvard Law Review, Harvard Law School, Headnote, Henry Billings Brown, Historically black colleges and universities, Homosexuality, Howard University, Hugo Black, Independent contractor, Intermediate scrutiny, Jacob M. Howard, Jim Crow laws, John Bingham, John Marshall Harlan, John Marshall Harlan II, John Paul Stevens, Jurisdiction, Korematsu v. United States, Law school, Lawrence v. Texas, Lewis F. Powell Jr., Lincoln University (Missouri), Lloyd L. Gaines, Louisiana, Loving v. Virginia, Martha Minow, Massive resistance, McCleskey v. Kemp, McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents, Michael W. McConnell, Milliken v. Bradley, Missouri, Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada, Morrison Waite, NAACP, New Deal, Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Nixon v. Herndon, Obergefell v. Hodges, Ohio, Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1, Personal property, Personhood, Pierce v. Society of Sisters, Plessy v. Ferguson, Property, Public university, Race (human categorization), Racial equality, Racial integration, Racial quota, Racial segregation, Racial segregation in the United States, Radical Republican, Rail transport, Rational basis review, Real estate, Real property, Reconstruction era, Reed v. Reed, Regents of the Univ. of Cal. v. Bakke, Reporter of Decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States, Republican Party (United States), Residential segregation in the United States, Ricci v. DeStefano, Richard Nixon, Robert H. Jackson, Robert S. Hale, Romer v. Evans, Rump legislature, San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez, Sandra Day O'Connor, Scalawag, School district, Separate but equal, Sexism, Sexual orientation, Shelley v. Kraemer, Skinner v. Oklahoma, Slavery, Social equality, Sodomy, Solicitor General of the United States, Southern United States, Stanford Law Review, State actor, State legislature (United States), Statute, Stephen Breyer, Strauder v. West Virginia, Strict scrutiny, Suffrage, Supreme Court of Alabama, Suspect classification, Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, Sweatt v. Painter, Tennessee, Thaddeus Stevens, The National Law Journal, Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Thurgood Marshall, U.S. state, United States, United States Constitution, United States district court, United States presidential election, 2000, United States v. Carolene Products Co., United States v. Morrison, United States v. Virginia, United States v. Windsor, University and college admission, University of Michigan Law School, University of Missouri, University of Oklahoma, Victoria Woodhull, Village of Arlington Heights v. Metropolitan Housing Development Corp., Washington v. Davis, West Virginia, William J. Brennan Jr., William O. Douglas, Women's suffrage in the United States, World War II, Yale Law Journal, Yick Wo v. Hopkins, Zoning, 39th United States Congress. Expand index (154 more) » « Shrink index
Abolitionism is a general term which describes the movement to end slavery.
Adarand Constructors, Inc.
Affirmative action, also known as reservation in India and Nepal, positive action in the UK, and employment equity (in a narrower context) in Canada and South Africa, is the policy of protecting members of groups that are known to have previously suffered from discrimination.
Alexander Mordecai Bickel (December 17, 1924 – November 8, 1974) was an American law professor and expert on the United States Constitution.
In law, an alien is a person who is not a national of a given country, though definitions and terminology differ to some degree.
An all-white jury is a sworn body composed only of white people convened to render an impartial verdict in a legal proceeding.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
In the United States, anti-miscegenation laws (also known as miscegenation laws) were state laws passed by individual states to prohibit miscegenation, nowadays more commonly referred to as interracial marriage and interracial sex.
Antonin Gregory Scalia (March 11, 1936 – February 13, 2016) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1986 until his death in 2016.
An appellate court, commonly called an appeals court, court of appeals (American English), appeal court (British English), court of second instance or second instance court, is any court of law that is empowered to hear an appeal of a trial court or other lower tribunal.
Arlington Heights is a village in Cook County in the U.S. state of Illinois.
Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States are the members of the Supreme Court of the United States other than the Chief Justice of the United States.
Baker v. Carr,, was a landmark United States Supreme Court case that decided that redistricting (attempts to change the way voting districts are delineated) issues present justiciable questions, thus enabling federal courts to intervene in and to decide redistricting cases.
The Black Codes were laws passed by Southern states in 1865 and 1866 in the United States after the American Civil War with the intent and the effect of restricting African Americans' freedom, and of compelling them to work in a labor economy based on low wages or debt.
A board of education, school committee or school board is the board of directors or board of trustees of a school, local school district or higher administrative level.
Board of Trustees of the University of Alabama v. Garrett, 531 U.S. 356 (2001), was a United States Supreme Court case about Congress's enforcement powers under the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution.
Bolling v. Sharpe, 347 U.S. 497 (1954), is a landmark United States Supreme Court case which deals with civil rights, specifically, segregation in the District of Columbia's public schools.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
Bush v. Gore,, was a decision of the United States Supreme Court that settled a recount dispute in Florida's 2000 presidential election.
Caste is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of a lifestyle which often includes an occupation, status in a hierarchy, customary social interaction, and exclusion.
Charles Hamilton Houston (September 3, 1895 – April 22, 1950) was a prominent African-American lawyer, Dean of Howard University Law School, and NAACP first special counsel, or Litigation Director.
Charles Sumner (January 6, 1811 – March 11, 1874) was an American politician and United States Senator from Massachusetts.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
The Chief Justice of the United States is the chief judge of the Supreme Court of the United States and thus the head of the United States federal court system, which functions as the judicial branch of the nation's federal government.
City of Boerne v. Flores,, was a US Supreme Court case concerning the scope of Congress's enforcement power under Section 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment.
City of Cleburne v. Cleburne Living Center, Inc., 473 U.S. 432 (1985), was a U.S. Supreme Court case involving discrimination against the intellectually disabled.
City of Richmond v. J.A. Croson Co., 488 U.S. 469 (1989) was a case in which the United States Supreme Court held that the city of Richmond's minority set-aside program, which gave preference to minority business enterprises (MBE) in the awarding of municipal contracts, was unconstitutional under the Equal Protection Clause.
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.
The Civil Rights Act of 1866,, enacted April 9, 1866, was the first United States federal law to define citizenship and affirm that all citizens are equally protected by the law.
The Civil Rights Act of 1875 (–337), sometimes called Enforcement Act or Force Act, was a United States federal law enacted during the Reconstruction Era in response to civil rights violations to African Americans, "to protect all citizens in their civil and legal rights", giving them equal treatment in public accommodations, public transportation, and to prohibit exclusion from jury service.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is a landmark civil rights and US labor law in the United States that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
The Civil Rights Cases,,. were a group of five US Supreme Court constitutional law cases.
Clarence Thomas (born June 23, 1948) is an American judge, lawyer, and government official who currently serves as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
Colorado is a state of the United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.
A common carrier in common law countries (corresponding to a public carrier in civil law systems,Encyclopædia Britannica CD 2000 "Civil-law public carrier" from "carriage of goods" usually called simply a carrier) is a person or company that transports goods or people for any person or company and that is responsible for any possible loss of the goods during transport.
The Confederate States of America (CSA or C.S.), commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865.
A Congressional power of enforcement is included in a number of amendments to the United States Constitution.
Constitutional colorblindness is an aspect of United States Supreme Court case evaluation that began with Justice Harlan's dissent in Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896.
A contract is a promise or set of promises that are legally enforceable and, if violated, allow the injured party access to legal remedies.
A convention is a set of agreed, stipulated, or generally accepted standards, norms, social norms, or criteria, often taking the form of a custom.
Corporate personhood is the legal notion that a corporation, separately from its associated human beings (like owners, managers, or employees), has at least some of the legal rights and responsibilities enjoyed by natural persons (physical humans).
Craig v. Boren,, was the first case in which a majority of the United States Supreme Court determined that statutory or administrative sex classifications were subject to intermediate scrutiny under the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection Clause.
David Hackett Souter (born September 17, 1939) is a retired Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
The Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) (and) was a United States federal law that, prior to being ruled unconstitutional, defined marriage for federal purposes as the union of one man and one woman, and allowed states to refuse to recognize same-sex marriages granted under the laws of other states.
Desegregation busing in the United States (also known as forced busing or simply busing) is the practice of assigning and transporting students to schools so as to redress prior racial segregation of schools, or to overcome the effects of residential segregation on local school demographics.
Developmental disability is a diverse group of chronic conditions that are due to mental or physical impairments that arise before adulthood.
In general usage, a dictum (from Latin, "something that has been said"; plural dicta) is an authoritative or dogmatic statement.
Dred Scott v. Sandford,, also known as the Dred Scott case, was a landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court on US labor law and constitutional law.
Due process is the legal requirement that the state must respect all legal rights that are owed to a person.
The Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution each contain a due process clause.
Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was an American jurist and politician who served as the 30th Governor of California (1943–1953) and later the 14th Chief Justice of the United States (1953–1969).
Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.
"Equal consideration of interests" is a moral principle that states that one should both include all affected interests when calculating the rightness of an action and weigh those interests equally.
Equal justice under law is a phrase engraved on the front of the United States Supreme Court building in Washington D.C. It is also a societal ideal that has influenced the American legal system.
Equal opportunity arises from the similar treatment of all people, unhampered by artificial barriers or prejudices or preferences, except when particular distinctions can be explicitly justified.
The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) is a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution designed to guarantee equal legal rights for all American citizens regardless of sex; it seeks to end the legal distinctions between men and women in terms of divorce, property, employment, and other matters.
Equality before the law, also known as: equality under the law, equality in the eyes of the law, or legal equality, is the principle that each independent being must be treated equally by the law (principle of isonomy) and that all are subject to the same laws of justice (due process).
Equality feminism is a subset of the overall feminism movement that focuses on the basic similarities between men and women, and whose ultimate goal is the equality of the sexes in all domains.
Equality of autonomy is a political philosophy concept of Amartya Sen that argues "that the ability and means to choose our life course should be spread as equally as possible across society"—i.e., an equal chance at autonomy or empowerment.
Equality of outcome, equality of condition, or equality of results is a political concept which is central to some political ideologies and is used regularly in political discourse, often in contrast to the term equality of opportunity.
Equality of sacrifice is a term used in political theory and political philosophy to refer to the perceived fairness of a coercive policy.
Eric Foner (born February 7, 1943) is an American historian.
Erwin Chemerinsky (born May 14, 1953) is an American lawyer and scholar known for his studies in United States constitutional law and federal civil procedure.
Evidence, broadly construed, is anything presented in support of an assertion.
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.
The Fifteenth Amendment (Amendment XV) to the United States Constitution prohibits the federal and state governments from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude".
The Fifth Amendment (Amendment V) to the United States Constitution is part of the Bill of Rights and, among other things, protects individuals from being compelled to be witnesses against themselves in criminal cases.
Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.
The Fourteenth Amendment (Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments.
Frederick "Fred" Moore Vinson (January 22, 1890 – September 8, 1953) was an American Democratic politician who served the United States in all three branches of government.
Fricke v. Lynch, 491 F.Supp.
Some universally recognized rights that are seen as fundamental, i.e., contained in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the U.N. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, or the U.N. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, include the following.
The Gilded Age in United States history is the late 19th century, from the 1870s to about 1900.
Gratz v. Bollinger, was a United States Supreme Court case regarding the University of Michigan undergraduate affirmative action admissions policy.
Green v. County School Board of New Kent County, 391 U.S. 430 (1968) was an important United States Supreme Court case dealing with the freedom of choice plans created to avoid compliance with the Court's mandate in Brown II.
Grutter v. Bollinger,, was a landmark case in which the United States Supreme Court upheld the affirmative action admissions policy of the University of Michigan Law School.
Harlan Fiske Stone (October 11, 1872 – April 22, 1946) was an American political figure, lawyer, and jurist.
The Harvard Law Review is a law review published by an independent student group at Harvard Law School.
Harvard Law School (also known as Harvard Law or HLS) is one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University located in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
A headnote is a brief summary of a particular point of law that is added to the text of a court decision to aid readers in locating discussion of a legal issue in an opinion.
Henry Billings Brown (March 2 1836 – September 4 1913) was an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 29 December 1890 to 28 May 1906.
Historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) are institutions of higher education in the United States that were established before the Civil Rights Act of 1964 with the intention of primarily serving the African-American community.
Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.
Howard University (HU or simply Howard) is a federally chartered, private, coeducational, nonsectarian, historically black university (HBCU) in Washington, D.C. It is categorized by the Carnegie Foundation as a research university with higher research activity and is accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education.
Hugo Lafayette Black (February 27, 1886 – September 25, 1971) was an American politician and jurist who served in the United States Senate from 1927 to 1937, and as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1937 to 1971.
An independent contractor is a natural person, business, or corporation that provides goods or services to another entity under terms specified in a contract or within a verbal agreement.
Intermediate scrutiny, in U.S. constitutional law, is the second level of deciding issues using judicial review.
Jacob Merritt Howard (July 10, 1805April 2, 1871) was a U.S. Representative and U.S. Senator from the state of Michigan during and after the American Civil War.
Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States.
John Armor Bingham (January 21, 1815 – March 19, 1900) was an American Republican Representative from Ohio, an assistant to Judge Advocate General in the trial of the Abraham Lincoln assassination, and a prosecutor in the impeachment trials of Andrew Johnson.
John Marshall Harlan (June 1, 1833October 14, 1911) was an American lawyer and politician who served as an associate justice on the U.S. Supreme Court.
John Marshall Harlan (May 20, 1899 – December 29, 1971) was an American jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court from 1955 to 1971.
John Paul Stevens (born April 20, 1920) is an American lawyer and jurist who served as an associate justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1975 until his retirement in 2010.
Jurisdiction (from the Latin ius, iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak") is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined field of responsibility, e.g., Michigan tax law.
Korematsu v. United States,, was a landmark United States Supreme Court case concerning the constitutionality of Executive Order 9066, which ordered Japanese Americans into internment camps during World War II regardless of citizenship.
A law school (also known as a law centre or college of law) is an institution specializing in legal education, usually involved as part of a process for becoming a lawyer within a given jurisdiction.
Lawrence v. Texas,.
Lewis Franklin Powell Jr. (September 19, 1907 – August 25, 1998) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, serving from 1971 to 1987.
Lincoln University is a historically black public land-grant university in Jefferson City, Missouri.
Lloyd Lionel Gaines (1911, Water Valley, Mississippi – disappeared March 19, 1939, Chicago) was the plaintiff in Gaines v. Canada (1938), one of the most important court cases in the U.S. civil rights movement in the 1930s.
Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Loving v. Virginia, is a landmark civil rights decision of the United States Supreme Court, which invalidated laws prohibiting interracial marriage.
Martha Louise Minow (born December 6, 1954) is the Carter Professor of General Jurisprudence at Harvard Law School and Distinguished Service Professor at Harvard University.
Massive resistance was a strategy declared by U.S. Senator Harry F. Byrd, Sr. of Virginia along with his brother-in-law as the leader in the Virginia General Assembly, Democrat Delegate James M. Thomson of Alexandria, to unite white politicians and leaders in Virginia in a campaign of new state laws and policies to prevent public school desegregation, particularly after the Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision in 1954.
McCleskey v. Kemp,,. was a United States Supreme Court case, in which the death penalty sentencing of Warren McCleskey for armed robbery and murder was upheld.
McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents, 339 U.S. 637 (1950), was a United States Supreme Court case that reversed a lower court decision upholding the efforts of the state-supported University of Oklahoma to adhere to the state law requiring African-Americans to be provided graduate or professional education on a segregated basis.
Michael William McConnell (born May 18, 1955 in Louisville, Kentucky) is a constitutional law scholar who served as a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit from 2002 until 2009.
Milliken v. Bradley, 418 U.S. 717 (1974), was a significant United States Supreme Court case dealing with the planned desegregation busing of public school students across district lines among 53 school districts in metropolitan Detroit.
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States.
Missouri ex rel.
Morrison Remick "Mott" Waite (November 29, 1816 – March 23, 1888) was an attorney, judge, and politician from Ohio.
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is a civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909 as a bi-racial organization to advance justice for African Americans by a group, including, W. E. B. Du Bois, Mary White Ovington and Moorfield Storey.
The New Deal was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms and regulations enacted in the United States 1933-36, in response to the Great Depression.
The Nineteenth Amendment (Amendment XIX) to the United States Constitution prohibits the states and the federal government from denying the right to vote to citizens of the United States on the basis of sex.
Nixon v. Herndon,, was a United States Supreme Court decision which struck down a 1923 Texas law forbidding blacks from voting in the Texas Democratic Party primary.
Obergefell v. Hodges,, is a landmark civil rights case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled in a 5–4 decision that the fundamental right to marry is guaranteed to same-sex couples by both the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States.
Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No.
Personal property is generally considered property that is movable, as opposed to real property or real estate.
Personhood is the status of being a person.
Pierce, Governor of Oregon, et al.
Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896),.
Property, in the abstract, is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing.
A public university is a university that is predominantly funded by public means through a national or subnational government, as opposed to private universities.
A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.
Racial equality occurs when institutions give equal opportunity to people of all races.
Racial integration, or simply integration, includes desegregation (the process of ending systematic racial segregation).
Racial quotas in employment and education are numerical requirements for hiring, promoting, admitting and/or graduating members of a particular racial group.
Racial segregation is the separation of people into racial or other ethnic groups in daily life.
Racial segregation in the United States, as a general term, includes the segregation or separation of access to facilities, services, and opportunities such as housing, medical care, education, employment, and transportation along racial lines.
The Radical Republicans were a faction of American politicians within the Republican Party of the United States from around 1854 (before the American Civil War) until the end of Reconstruction in 1877.
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.
Rational basis review, in U.S. constitutional law, refers to the default standard of review that courts apply when considering constitutional questions, including due process or equal protection questions under the Fifth Amendment or Fourteenth Amendment.
Real estate is "property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) an item of real property, (more generally) buildings or housing in general.
In English common law, real property, real estate, realty, or immovable property is land which is the property of some person and all structures (also called improvements or fixtures) integrated with or affixed to the land, including crops, buildings, machinery, wells, dams, ponds, mines, canals, and roads, among other things.
The Reconstruction era was the period from 1863 (the Presidential Proclamation of December 8, 1863) to 1877.
Reed v. Reed,, was an Equal Protection case in the United States in which the Supreme Court ruled that the administrators of estates cannot be named in a way that discriminates between sexes.
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke,, was a landmark decision by the Supreme Court of the United States.
The Reporter of Decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States is the official charged with editing and publishing the opinions of the Supreme Court of the United States, both when announced and when they are published in permanent bound volumes of the United States Reports. The Reporter of Decisions is responsible for only the contents of the United States Reports issued by the Government Printing Office, first in preliminary prints and later in the final bound volumes.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
Residential segregation in the United States is the physical separation of two or more groups into different neighborhoods, or a form of segregation that "sorts population groups into various neighborhood contexts and shapes the living environment at the neighborhood level".
Ricci v. DeStefano, is a US labor law case of the United States Supreme Court on unlawful discrimination through disparate impact under the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
Robert Houghwout Jackson (February 13, 1892 – October 9, 1954) was an American attorney and judge who served as an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court.
Robert Safford Hale (September 24, 1822 – December 14, 1881) was a U.S. Representative from New York.
Romer v. Evans, 517 U.S. 620 (1996),.
A rump legislature is a legislature formed of part, usually a minority, of the legislators originally elected or appointed to office.
San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez,, was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that San Antonio Independent School District's financing system, which was based on local property taxes, was not an unconstitutional violation of the Fourteenth Amendment's equal protection clause. The majority opinion, reversing the District Court, stated that the appellees did not sufficiently prove a textual basis, within the US Constitution, supporting the principle that education is a fundamental right. Urging that the school financing system led to wealth-based discrimination, the plaintiffs had argued that the fundamental right to education should be applied to the States, through the Fourteenth Amendment. The Court found that there was no such fundamental right and that the unequal school financing system was not subject to strict scrutiny.
Sandra Day O'Connor (born March 26, 1930) is a retired Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, having served from her appointment in 1981 by Ronald Reagan until 2006.
In United States history, scalawags were white Southerners who supported Reconstruction and the Republican Party, after the American Civil War.
A school district is a special-purpose district that operates local public primary and secondary schools in various nations.
Separate but equal was a legal doctrine in United States constitutional law according to which racial segregation did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, adopted during the Reconstruction Era, which guaranteed "equal protection" under the law to all citizens.
Sexism is prejudice or discrimination based on a person's sex or gender.
Sexual orientation is an enduring pattern of romantic or sexual attraction (or a combination of these) to persons of the opposite sex or gender, the same sex or gender, or to both sexes or more than one gender.
Shelley v. Kraemer, (1948) is a landmark United States Supreme Court case holding that the State-Action Doctrine includes the enforcement of private contracts, the Equal Protection Clause prohibits racially restrictive housing covenants, and that such covenants are unenforceable in court.
Skinner v. State of Oklahoma, ex rel. Williamson,,. was the United States Supreme Court ruling that held that laws permitting the compulsory sterilization of criminals are unconstitutional if the sterilization law treats similar crimes differently.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Social equality is a state of affairs in which all people within a specific society or isolated group have the same status in certain respects, including civil rights, freedom of speech, property rights and equal access to certain social goods and services.
Sodomy is generally anal or oral sex between people or sexual activity between a person and a non-human animal (bestiality), but it may also mean any non-procreative sexual activity.
The United States Solicitor General is the fourth-highest-ranking official in the U.S. Department of Justice.
The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.
The Stanford Law Review (SLR) is a legal journal produced independently by Stanford Law School students.
In United States law, a state actor is a person who is acting on behalf of a governmental body, and is therefore subject to regulation under the United States Bill of Rights, including the First, Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments, which prohibit the federal and state governments from violating certain rights and freedoms.
A state legislature in the United States is the legislative body of any of the 50 U.S. states.
A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a city, state, or country.
Stephen Gerald Breyer (born August 15, 1938) is an American lawyer, professor, and jurist who serves as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
Strauder v. West Virginia,, was a United States Supreme Court case about racial discrimination.
Strict scrutiny is the most stringent standard of judicial review used by United States courts.
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).
The Supreme Court of Alabama is the highest court in the state of Alabama.
In American jurisprudence, a suspect classification is any classification of groups meeting a series of criteria suggesting they are likely the subject of discrimination.
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, was a landmark United States Supreme Court case dealing with the busing of students to promote integration in public schools.
Sweatt v. Painter, 339 U.S. 629 (1950), was a U.S. Supreme Court case that successfully challenged the "separate but equal" doctrine of racial segregation established by the 1896 case Plessy v. Ferguson.
Tennessee (translit) is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States.
Thaddeus Stevens (April 4, 1792 – August 11, 1868) was a member of the United States House of Representatives from Pennsylvania and one of the leaders of the Radical Republican faction of the Republican Party during the 1860s.
The National Law Journal, a U.S. periodical founded in 1978 by Jerry Finkelstein, as a "sibling newspaper" of the New York Law Journal, that itself was founded in 1888.
The Thirteenth Amendment (Amendment XIII) to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime.
Thurgood Marshall (July 2, 1908January 24, 1993) was an American lawyer, serving as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from October 1967 until October 1991.
A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system.
The United States presidential election of 2000 was the 54th quadrennial presidential election.
United States v. Carolene Products Company,, was an April 25, 1938 decision by the United States Supreme Court.
United States v. Morrison,, is a United States Supreme Court decision which held that parts of the Violence Against Women Act of 1994 were unconstitutional because they exceeded congressional power under the Commerce Clause and under section 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution.
United States v. Virginia,, is a landmark case in which the Supreme Court of the United States struck down the long-standing male-only admission policy of the Virginia Military Institute (VMI) in a 7–1 decision. (Justice Clarence Thomas, whose son was enrolled at VMI at the time, recused himself.).
United States v. Windsor, (Docket No.), is a landmark civil rights case in which the United States Supreme Court held that restricting U.S. federal interpretation of "marriage" and "spouse" to apply only to opposite-sex unions, by Section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), is unconstitutional under the Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment.
University admission or college admission is the process through which students enter tertiary education at universities and colleges.
The University of Michigan Law School (Michigan Law) is the law school of the University of Michigan, in Ann Arbor.
The University of Missouri (also, Mizzou, or MU) is a public, land-grant research university in Columbia, Missouri.
The University of Oklahoma (OU) is a coeducational public research university in Norman, Oklahoma.
Victoria Claflin Woodhull, later Victoria Woodhull Martin (September 23, 1838 – June 9, 1927), was an American leader of the women's suffrage movement.
Village of Arlington Heights v. Metropolitan Housing Development Corp, 429 U.S. 252 (1977), was a case heard by the Supreme Court of the United States dealing with a zoning ordinance that in a practical way barred families of various socio-economic, and ethno-racial backgrounds from residing in a neighborhood.
Washington v. Davis,, was a United States Supreme Court case that established that laws that have a racially discriminatory effect but were not adopted to advance a racially discriminatory purpose are valid under the U.S. Constitution.
West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region of the Southern United States.
William Joseph Brennan Jr. (April 25, 1906 – July 24, 1997) was an American judge who served as an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1956 to 1990.
William Orville Douglas (October 16, 1898January 19, 1980) was an American jurist and politician who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
Women's suffrage in the United States of America, the legal right of women to vote, was established over the course of several decades, first in various states and localities, sometimes on a limited basis, and then nationally in 1920.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Yale Law Journal is a student-run law review affiliated with the Yale Law School.
Yick Wo v. Hopkins, 118 U.S. 356 (1886),.
Zoning is the process of dividing land in a municipality into zones (e.g. residential, industrial) in which certain land uses are permitted or prohibited.
The Thirty-ninth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives.
Equal Protection, Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, Equal Protection Clause of the United States Constitution, Equal Protection clause, Equal Protections Clause, Equal protection, Equal protection clause, Equal protection in law, Equal protection of the law, Equal protection of the laws, Equal protection under the law, Equal treatment clause, Equal-protection.