38 relations: Bract, Calamitaceae, Cambium, Cambridge University Press, Clade, Class (biology), Convergent evolution, Dehiscence (botany), Devonian, Elater, Equisetaceae, Equisetales, Equisetum, Equisetum telmateia, Evolutionary history of plants, Fern, Heterospory, Hygroscopy, Leaf, Leptosporangiate fern, Marattiidae, Microphyll, Molecular phylogenetics, Order (biology), Phloem, Phylogenetics, Phylum, Plant, Pseudobornia, Pteridophyte, Rhizome, Sphenophyllales, Sphenophyllum, Spore, Stele (biology), Vascular bundle, Vascular plant, Xylem.
In botany, a bract is a modified or specialized leaf, especially one associated with a reproductive structure such as a flower, inflorescence axis or cone scale.
Calamitaceae is an extinct family of plants related to the modern horsetails.
A cambium (plural cambia or cambiums), in botany, is a tissue layer that provides partially undifferentiated cells for plant growth.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".
In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.
Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.
Dehiscence is the splitting along a built-in line of weakness in a plant structure in order to release its contents, and is common among fruits, anthers and sporangia.
The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, Mya.
An elater is a cell (or structure attached to a cell) that is hygroscopic, and therefore will change shape in response to changes in moisture in the environment.
Equisetaceae, sometimes called the horsetail family, is the only extant family of the order Equisetales, with one surviving genus, Equisetum, which comprises about twenty species.
Equisetales is an order of Equisetopsida with only one living family, the Equisetaceae, containing the genus Equisetum (horsetails).
Equisetum (horsetail, snake grass, puzzlegrass) is the only living genus in Equisetaceae, a family of vascular plants that reproduce by spores rather than seeds.
Equisetum telmateia, the great horsetail or northern giant horsetail, is a species of Equisetum (horsetail) with an unusual distribution, with one subspecies native to Europe, western Asia and northwest Africa, and a second subspecies native to western North America.
The evolution of plants has resulted in a wide range of complexity, from the earliest algal mats, through multicellular marine and freshwater green algae, terrestrial bryophytes, lycopods and ferns, to the complex gymnosperms and angiosperms of today.
A fern is a member of a group of vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers.
Heterospory is the production of spores of two different sizes and sexes by the sporophytes of land plants.
Hygroscopy is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules from the surrounding environment, which is usually at normal or room temperature.
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.
Leptosporangiate ferns are the largest group of living ferns, including some 11000 species worldwide.
Marattiidae is a subclass of class Polypodiopsida (ferns).
In plant anatomy and evolution a microphyll is a type of plant leaf with one single, unbranched leaf vein.
Molecular phylogenetics is the branch of phylogeny that analyzes genetic, hereditary molecular differences, predominately in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships.
In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.
In vascular plants, phloem is the living tissue that transports the soluble organic compounds made during photosynthesis and known as photosynthates, in particular the sugar sucrose, to parts of the plant where needed.
In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.
In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Pseudobornia is a genus of plants known only from fossils found from the Upper Devonian.
A pteridophyte is a vascular plant (with xylem and phloem) that disperses spores (and lacks seeds).
In botany and dendrology, a rhizome (from script "mass of roots", from rhizóō "cause to strike root") is a modified subterranean stem of a plant that sends out roots and shoots from its nodes.
Sphenophyllales is an extinct order of articulate land plants and a sister group to the present-day Equisetales (horsetails).
Sphenophyllum is a genus in the order Sphenophyllales.
In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions.
In a vascular plant, the stele is the central part of the root or stem containing the tissues derived from the procambium.
A vascular bundle is a part of the transport system in vascular plants.
Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.
Xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue in vascular plants, phloem being the other.