118 relations: Adaptation, Adelbert von Chamisso, Agricultural lime, Alvah Augustus Eaton, André Michaux, Antarctica, Aquatic plant, Australia, B vitamins, Binomial nomenclature, Calamitaceae, Calamites, Callovian, Carboniferous, Carl Linnaeus, Carl Sigismund Kunth, Cell (biology), Charles Mohr, Christopher Nigel Page, Class (biology), Coal, Cosmopolitan distribution, Diederich Franz Leonhard von Schlechtendal, Edward Newman (entomologist), Elater, Equisetaceae, Equisetopsida, Equisetum arvense, Equisetum bogotense, Equisetum diffusum, Equisetum dimorphum, Equisetum fluviatile, Equisetum giganteum, Equisetum hyemale, Equisetum laevigatum, Equisetum myriochaetum, Equisetum palustre, Equisetum pratense, Equisetum ramosissimum, Equisetum scirpoides, Equisetum sylvaticum, Equisetum telmateia, Equisetum thermale, Equisetum variegatum, European Food Safety Authority, Evergreen, Family (biology), Florida International University, Flowering plant, Franz Josef Ruprecht, ..., Genus, Georg Heinrich Weber, German language, Graduation (instrument), Greek language, Health claim, Herbaceous plant, Herbicide, Hippuris, Holocene, Homology (biology), Horse, Hybrid (biology), Jakob Friedrich Ehrhart, Japan, John Napier, Juncus, Jurassic, Latin, Leaf, List of plants poisonous to equines, Living fossil, Logarithm, Lycopodiophyta, Microphyll, Millimetre, Mixed-linkage glucan, Mixed-linkage glucan : Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase, National Pest Plant Accord, New Zealand, Oregon, Pacific Northwest, Paleozoic, Parc floral de Paris, Perennial plant, PH, Photosynthesis, Plant stem, Poales, Poison, Polysaccharide, Prothallium, René Louiche Desfontaines, Rhizome, Sandpaper, Silicate, Spanish language, Spermatophyte, Sporangiophore, Sporangium, Spore, Strobilus, Subgenus, Thiaminase, Thiamine, Thiamine deficiency, Tin, Traditional medicine, Tree, Understory, United States Department of Agriculture, Vascular bundle, Vascular plant, Weed, Werner Rothmaler, Whorl (botany), Willard Nelson Clute, Woodworking. Expand index (68 more) » « Shrink index
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.
Adelbert von Chamisso (30 January 178121 August 1838) was a German poet and botanist, author of Peter Schlemihl, a famous story about a man who sold his shadow.
Agricultural lime, also called aglime, agricultural limestone, garden lime or liming, is a soil additive made from pulverized limestone or chalk.
Alvah Augustus Eaton (November 20, 1865 – September 29, 1908) was an American botanist who described many species of pteridophytes, orchids and grass.
André Michaux, also styled Andrew Michaud, (8 March 174613 November 1802) was a French botanist and explorer.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
Aquatic plants are plants that have adapted to living in aquatic environments (saltwater or freshwater).
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism.
Binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system") also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages.
Calamitaceae is an extinct family of plants related to the modern horsetails.
Calamites is a genus of extinct arborescent (tree-like) horsetails to which the modern horsetails (genus Equisetum) are closely related.
In the geologic timescale, the Callovian is an age or stage in the Middle Jurassic, lasting between 166.1 ± 4.0 Ma (million years ago) and 163.5 ± 4.0 Ma.
The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, Mya.
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
Carl Sigismund Kunth (18 June 1788 – 22 March 1850), also Karl Sigismund Kunth or anglicized as Charles Sigismund Kunth, was a German botanist.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Charles Theodor Mohr (Karl Theodor Mohr; December 28, 1824 – July 17, 1901) was a pharmacist and botanist of German descent who lived and worked in the United States.
Christopher Nigel Page (born 1942) is a Scottish botanist.
In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
In biogeography, a taxon is said to have a cosmopolitan distribution if its range extends across all or most of the world in appropriate habitats.
Diederich Franz Leonhard von Schlechtendal (27 November 1794, Xanten – 12 October 1866, Halle) was a German botanist.
Edward Newman (13 May 1801 – 12 June 1876) was an English entomologist, botanist and writer.
An elater is a cell (or structure attached to a cell) that is hygroscopic, and therefore will change shape in response to changes in moisture in the environment.
Equisetaceae, sometimes called the horsetail family, is the only extant family of the order Equisetales, with one surviving genus, Equisetum, which comprises about twenty species.
Equisetopsida, or Sphenopsida, is a class of vascular plants with a fossil record going back to the Devonian.
Equisetum arvense, the field horsetail or common horsetail, is an herbaceous perennial plant in the Equisetopsida (the horsetails), native throughout the arctic and temperate regions of the northern hemisphere.
The Andean horsetail (Equisetum bogotense) is a herbaceous perennial that reproduces through spores.
The Himalayan horsetail (Equisetum diffusum) is a perennial that averages at 10-25 inches.
Equisetum dimorphum is an extinct horsetail species of the Equisetaceae family, and one of the oldest records of the Equisetum genus.
Equisetum fluviatile, the water horsetail or swamp horsetail, is a vascular plant that commonly grows in dense colonies along freshwater shorelines or in shallow water in ponds, swamps, ditches, and other sluggish or still waters with mud bottoms.
Equisetum giganteum, with the common name southern giant horsetail, is a species of horsetail native to South America and Central America, from central Chile east to Brazil and north to southern Mexico.
Equisetum hyemale, commonly known as rough horsetail, scouring rush, scouringrush horsetail and in South Africa as snake grass, is a perennial herb in the fern Division Pteridophyta.
Equisetum laevigatum is a species of horsetail known by the common names smooth horsetail and smooth scouring rush.
Equisetum myriochaetum, also known as Mexican giant horsetail, is a species of horsetail that is native to Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru and Mexico.
Equisetum palustre, the marsh horsetail, is a plant species belonging to the division of horsetails (Equisetopsida).
Equisetum pratense, commonly known as meadow horsetail, shade horsetail or shady horsetail, is a plant species belonging to the division of horsetails (Equisetophyta).
Equisetum ramosissimum, known as branched horsetail, is a species of evergreen horsetail (genus Equisetum, subgenus Hippochaete).
Equisetum scirpoides (dwarf scouring rush or dwarf horsetail) Michx., Fl.
Equisetum sylvaticum, the wood horsetail, is a horsetail (family Equisetaceae) native to the Northern Hemisphere, occurring in North America and Eurasia.
Equisetum telmateia, the great horsetail or northern giant horsetail, is a species of Equisetum (horsetail) with an unusual distribution, with one subspecies native to Europe, western Asia and northwest Africa, and a second subspecies native to western North America.
Equisetum thermale is an extinct horsetail species in the family Equisetaceae described from a group of whole plant fossils including rhizomes, stems, and leaves.
Equisetum variegatum, commonly known as variegated horsetail or variegated scouring rush, is a horsetail native to the Northern Hemisphere.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) that provides independent scientific advice and communicates on existing and emerging risks associated with the food chain.
In botany, an evergreen is a plant that has leaves throughout the year, always green.
In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.
Florida International University (FIU) is a metropolitan public research university in Greater Miami, Florida.
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
Franz Josef Ruprecht (1 November 1814 – 4 April 1870) was an Austrian-born physician and botanist active in the Russian Empire, where he was known as Frants Ivanovič Ruprekht (Франц Ива́нович Ру́прехт).
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
Georg Heinrich Weber (27 July 1752 Göttingen – 25 July 1828 Kiel) was a German botanist, physician and professor at the University of Kiel.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Graduation is the marking of an instrument with indicators of a measurement.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Health claims on food labels and in food marketing are claims by manufacturers of food products that their food will reduce the risk of developing a disease or condition.
Herbaceous plants (in botanical use frequently simply herbs) are plants that have no persistent woody stem above ground.
Herbicides, also commonly known as weedkillers, are chemical substances used to control unwanted plants.
Hippuris, the Mare's tail, was previously the sole genus in the family Hippuridaceae.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction.
Jakob Friedrich Ehrhart (4 November 1742, Holderbank, Aargau – 26 June 1795) was a German botanist, a pupil of Carl Linnaeus at Uppsala University, and later director of the Botanical Garden of Hannover, where he produced several major botanical works between 1780–1793.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
John Napier of Merchiston (1550 – 4 April 1617); also signed as Neper, Nepair; nicknamed Marvellous Merchiston) was a Scottish landowner known as a mathematician, physicist, and astronomer. He was the 8th Laird of Merchiston. His Latinized name was Ioannes Neper. John Napier is best known as the discoverer of logarithms. He also invented the so-called "Napier's bones" and made common the use of the decimal point in arithmetic and mathematics. Napier's birthplace, Merchiston Tower in Edinburgh, is now part of the facilities of Edinburgh Napier University. Napier died from the effects of gout at home at Merchiston Castle and his remains were buried in the kirkyard of St Giles. Following the loss of the kirkyard there to build Parliament House, he was memorialised at St Cuthbert's at the west side of Edinburgh.
Juncus is a genus of monocotyledonous flowering plants, commonly known as rushes.
The Jurassic (from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period Mya.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.
Many plants are poisonous to equines; the species vary depending on location, climate, and grazing conditions.
A living fossil is an extant taxon that closely resembles organisms otherwise known only from the fossil record.
In mathematics, the logarithm is the inverse function to exponentiation.
The Division Lycopodiophyta (sometimes called lycophyta or lycopods) is a tracheophyte subgroup of the Kingdom Plantae.
In plant anatomy and evolution a microphyll is a type of plant leaf with one single, unbranched leaf vein.
The millimetre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI unit symbol mm) or millimeter (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousandth of a metre, which is the SI base unit of length.
Mixed-linkage glucan (MLG), sometimes incorrectly referred to as beta-glucan, is a hemicellulosic polysaccharide consisting of β-D(1-3) and β-D(1-4) linked glucosyl residues.
Mixed-linkage glucan: xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (MXE) is a plant cell wall-modifying enzyme found in plants of the Equisetum genus.
The National Pest Plant Accord (NPPA) is a New Zealand agreement that identifies pest plants that are prohibited from sale and commercial propagation and distribution.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States.
The Pacific Northwest (PNW), sometimes referred to as Cascadia, is a geographic region in western North America bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the west and (loosely) by the Cascade Mountain Range on the east.
The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.
The Parc floral de Paris is a public park and botanical garden located within the Bois de Vincennes in the 12th arrondissement of Paris.
A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant that lives more than two years.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant, the other being the root.
The Poales are a large order of flowering plants in the monocotyledons, and includes families of plants such as the grasses, bromeliads, and sedges.
In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
A prothallium, or prothallus (from Latin pro.
René Louiche Desfontaines (14 February 1750 – 16 November 1833) was a French botanist.
In botany and dendrology, a rhizome (from script "mass of roots", from rhizóō "cause to strike root") is a modified subterranean stem of a plant that sends out roots and shoots from its nodes.
Sandpaper and glasspaper are names used for a type of coated abrasive that consists of sheets of paper or cloth with abrasive material glued to one face.
In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula, where 0 ≤ x Silicate anions are often large polymeric molecules with an extense variety of structures, including chains and rings (as in polymeric metasilicate), double chains (as in, and sheets (as in. In geology and astronomy, the term silicate is used to mean silicate minerals, ionic solids with silicate anions; as well as rock types that consist predominantly of such minerals. In that context, the term also includes the non-ionic compound silicon dioxide (silica, quartz), which would correspond to x.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The spermatophytes, also known as phanerogams or phenogamae, comprise those plants that produce seeds, hence the alternative name seed plants.
A sporangium (pl., sporangia) (modern Latin, from Greek σπόρος (sporos) ‘spore’ + αγγείον (angeion) ‘vessel’) is an enclosure in which spores are formed.
In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions.
A strobilus (plural: strobili) is a structure present on many land plant species consisting of sporangia-bearing structures densely aggregated along a stem.
In biology, a subgenus (plural: subgenera) is a taxonomic rank directly below genus.
Thiaminase is an enzyme that metabolizes or breaks down thiamine into two molecular parts.
Thiamine, also known as thiamin or vitamin B1, is a vitamin found in food, and manufactured as a dietary supplement and medication.
Thiamine deficiency is a medical condition of low levels of thiamine (vitamin B1).
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine.
In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species.
In forestry and ecology, understory (or understorey, underbrush, undergrowth) comprises plant life growing beneath the forest canopy without penetrating it to any great extent, but above the forest floor.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.
A vascular bundle is a part of the transport system in vascular plants.
Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.
A weed is a plant considered undesirable in a particular situation, "a plant in the wrong place".
Werner Walter Hugo Paul Rothmaler (born 20 August 1908 in Sangerhausen, died 13 April 1962 in Leipzig) was a German botanist and from 1953 until 1962 head of the Institute for Agricultural Biology of the University of Greifswald.
In botany, a whorl or verticil is an arrangement of sepals, petals, leaves, stipules or branches that radiate from a single point and surround or wrap around the stem.
Willard N. Clute (1869–1950) was an American author, naturalist and botanist.
Woodworking is the activity or skill of making items from wood, and includes cabinet making (cabinetry and furniture), wood carving, joinery, carpentry, and woodturning.