77 relations: Adrenaline, Agonist, Alanine, Alkaloid, Amino acid, Arthur Stoll, Atherosclerosis, Aura (symptom), Biological activity, Bleeding, Blood pressure, Bradycardia, Caffeine, Caffeine/ergotamine, Childbirth, Claviceps purpurea, Clavicipitaceae, Coronary artery disease, Coronary vasospasm, Covalent bond, DEA list of chemicals, Delavirdine, Dihydroergotamine, Dimethylallyl pyrophosphate, Dopamine, Dopamine receptor D2, Drugs.com, Efavirenz, Ergoline, Ergometrine, Ergot, Ergotism, Erythromycin, Gangrene, Indinavir, Intermittent claudication, Isomerization, Itch, Itraconazole, Ketoconazole, Lysergic acid, Macrolide, Methyltransferase, Migraine, Natural product, Nelfinavir, Neurotransmitter, Nonribosomal peptide, Norepinephrine, Novartis, ..., Oxygen saturation (medicine), Oxygenase, Pharmacology, Phenylalanine, Postpartum period, Prenylation, Proline, Protease inhibitor (pharmacology), Raynaud syndrome, Receptor (biochemistry), Redox, Ritonavir, Secondary metabolite, Serotonin, Serotonin receptor agonist, Sumatriptan, Tachycardia, Thromboangiitis obliterans, Thrombosis, Trigeminal nerve, Tryptophan, Tryptophan dimethylallyltransferase, Vasoconstriction, Voriconazole, 5-HT1A receptor, 5-HT1B receptor, 5-HT1D receptor. Expand index (27 more) » « Shrink index
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Alanine (symbol Ala or A) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Arthur Stoll (8 January 1887 – 13 January 1971) was a Swiss biochemist.
Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.
An aura is a perceptual disturbance experienced by some with migraines or seizures before either the headache or seizure begins.
In pharmacology, biological activity or pharmacological activity describes the beneficial or adverse effects of a drug on living matter.
Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
Bradycardia is a condition wherein an individual has a very slow heart rate, typically defined as a resting heart rate of under 60 beats per minute (BPM) in adults.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
Caffeine/ergotamine (trade name Cafergot) is the proprietary name of a medication consisting of ergotamine tartrate and caffeine.
Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of a pregnancy by one or more babies leaving a woman's uterus by vaginal passage or C-section.
Claviceps purpurea is an ergot fungus that grows on the ears of rye and related cereal and forage plants.
The Clavicipitaceae are a family of fungi within the order Hypocreales.
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.
Coronary vasospasm is a sudden, intense vasoconstriction of an epicardial coronary artery that causes occlusion (stoppage) or near-occlusion of the vessel.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
The United States Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) maintains lists regarding the classification of illicit drugs (see DEA Schedules).
Delavirdine (DLV) (brand name Rescriptor) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) marketed by ViiV Healthcare.
Dihydroergotamine (DHE) is an ergot alkaloid used to treat migraines.
Dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP; or alternatively, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP); also isoprenyl pyrophosphate) is an isoprenoid precursor.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Dopamine receptor D2, also known as D2R, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the DRD2 gene.
Drugs.com is an online pharmaceutical encyclopedia which provides drug information for consumers and healthcare professionals, primarily in the USA.
Efavirenz (EFV), sold under the brand names Sustiva among others, is an antiretroviral medication used to treat and prevent HIV/AIDS.
Ergoline derivatives comprise a diverse group of chemical compounds whose structural skeleton is the alkaloid ergoline.
Ergometrine also known as ergonovine, is a medication used to cause contractions of the uterus to treat heavy vaginal bleeding after childbirth.
Ergot (pron.) or ergot fungi refers to a group of fungi of the genus Claviceps.
Ergotism (pron.) is the effect of long-term ergot poisoning, traditionally due to the ingestion of the alkaloids produced by the Claviceps purpurea fungus that infects rye and other cereals, and more recently by the action of a number of ergoline-based drugs.
Erythromycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
Gangrene is a type of tissue death caused by a lack of blood supply.
Indinavir (IDV; trade name Crixivan, manufactured by Merck) is a protease inhibitor used as a component of highly active antiretroviral therapy to treat HIV/AIDS.
Intermittent claudication (Latin: claudicatio intermittens), also known as vascular claudication, is a symptom that describes muscle pain on mild exertion (ache, cramp, numbness or sense of fatigue), classically in the calf muscle, which occurs during exercise, such as walking, and is relieved by a short period of rest.
In chemistry isomerization (also isomerisation) is the process by which one molecule is transformed into another molecule which has exactly the same atoms, but the atoms have a different arrangement e.g. A-B-C → B-A-C (these related molecules are known as isomers). In some molecules and under some conditions, isomerization occurs spontaneously.
Itch (also known as pruritus) is a sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch.
Itraconazole is an antifungal medication used to treat a number of fungal infections.
Ketoconazole is a synthetic imidazole antifungal drug used primarily to treat fungal infections.
Lysergic acid, also known as D-lysergic acid and (+)-lysergic acid, is a precursor for a wide range of ergoline alkaloids that are produced by the ergot fungus and found in the seeds of Turbina corymbosa (ololiuhqui), Argyreia nervosa (Hawaiian Baby Woodrose), and Ipomoea tricolor (morning glories, tlitliltzin).
The macrolides are a class of natural products that consist of a large macrocyclic lactone ring to which one or more deoxy sugars, usually cladinose and desosamine, may be attached.
Methyltransferases are a large group of enzymes that all methylate their substrates but can be split into several subclasses based on their structural features.
A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.
A natural product is a chemical compound or substance produced by a living organism—that is, found in nature.
Nelfinavir (brand name Viracept) is an antiretroviral drug used in the treatment of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nonribosomal peptides (NRP) are a class of peptide secondary metabolites, usually produced by microorganisms like bacteria and fungi.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
Novartis International AG is a Swiss multinational pharmaceutical company based in Basel, Switzerland.
Oxygen saturation is the fraction of oxygen-saturated hemoglobin relative to total hemoglobin (unsaturated + saturated) in the blood.
An oxygenase is any enzyme that oxidizes a substrate by transferring the oxygen from molecular oxygen O2 (as in air) to it.
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
Phenylalanine (symbol Phe or F) is an α-amino acid with the formula.
A postpartum (or postnatal) period begins immediately after the birth of a child as the mother's body, including hormone levels and uterus size, returns to a non-pregnant state.
Prenylation (also known as isoprenylation or lipidation) is the addition of hydrophobic molecules to a protein or chemical compound.
Proline (symbol Pro or P) is a proteinogenic amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Protease inhibitors (PIs) are a class of antiviral drugs that are widely used to treat HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C. Protease inhibitors prevent viral replication by selectively binding to viral proteases (e.g. HIV-1 protease) and blocking proteolytic cleavage of protein precursors that are necessary for the production of infectious viral particles.
Raynaud syndrome, also known as Raynaud's phenomenon, is a medical condition in which spasm of arteries cause episodes of reduced blood flow.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Ritonavir, sold under the trade name Norvir, is an antiretroviral medication used along with other medications to treat HIV/AIDS.
Secondary metabolites are organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development, or reproduction of an organism.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
A serotonin receptor agonist is an agonist of one or more serotonin receptors.
Sumatriptan is a medication used for the treatment of migraine and cluster headaches.
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
Thromboangiitis obliterans, also known as Buerger disease (English, German), is a recurring progressive inflammation and thrombosis (clotting) of small and medium arteries and veins of the hands and feet.
Thrombosis (from Ancient Greek θρόμβωσις thrómbōsis "clotting”) is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system.
The trigeminal nerve (the fifth cranial nerve, or simply CN V) is a nerve responsible for sensation in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing; it is the largest of the cranial nerves.
Tryptophan (symbol Trp or W) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
In enzymology, a tryptophan dimethylallyltransferase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are dimethylallyl diphosphate and L-tryptophan, whereas its two products are diphosphate and 4-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-L-tryptophan.
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.
Voriconazole, sold under the brand name Vfend among others, is an antifungal medication used to treat a number of fungal infections.
The serotonin 1A receptor (or 5-HT1A receptor) is a subtype of serotonin receptor (5-HT receptor) that binds the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1B also known as the 5-HT1B receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR1B gene.
5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 1D, also known as HTR1D, is a 5-HT receptor, but also denotes the human gene encoding it.