428 relations: Abraham Afewerki, Abyssinian hare, Adal Sultanate, Addis Ababa, Adulis, Afar language, Afar people, Afar Triangle, African bush elephant, African golden wolf, African leopard, African Union, African wild ass, African wild dog, African wildcat, Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic Urheimat, Agordat, Agriculture in Eritrea, Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi, Akele Guzai, Aksumite currency, Algiers Agreement (2000), AllAfrica.com, Allies of World War II, Amenhotep II, Ancient Egypt, Anno Domini, Anseba Region, Arab League, Arab–Eritrean relations, Arabian Peninsula, Arabic, Ark of the Covenant, Asaita, Asmara, Asmara International Airport, Asmara-Massawa Cableway, Assab, Association football, Axum, Baboon, Bahá'í Faith, Barley, Battle of Gallabat, Battle of Keren, BBC, BBC News, Begena, Beja language, ..., Benito Mussolini, Berber languages, Bereket Mengisteab, Bilen language, Bilen people, Bitis arietans, Black-backed jackal, Book of Aksum, Brazil, British Museum, Buddhism, C-Group 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Abraham Afewerki (30 January 1966 – 7 October 2006) was an Eritrean singer, songwriter and music producer.
The Abyssinian hare (Lepus habessinicus) is a species of mammal in the family Leporidae.
The Adal Sultanate, or Kingdom of Adal (alt. spelling Adel Sultanate), was a Muslim Sultanate located in the Horn of Africa. It was founded by Sabr ad-Din II after the fall of the Sultanate of Ifat. The kingdom flourished from around 1415 to 1577. The sultanate and state were established by the local inhabitants of Harar. At its height, the polity controlled most of the territory in the Horn region immediately east of the Ethiopian Empire (Abyssinia). The Adal Empire maintained a robust commercial and political relationship with the Ottoman Empire.
Addis Ababa (አዲስ አበባ,, "new flower"; or Addis Abeba (the spelling used by the official Ethiopian Mapping Authority); Finfinne "natural spring") is the capital and largest city of Ethiopia.
Adulis or Aduli (Αδουλίς in Ancient Greek) is an archeological site in the Northern Red Sea of Eritrea, situated about 30 miles south of Massawa in the Gulf of Zula.
The Afar language (Qafaraf) (also known as ’Afar Af, Afaraf, Qafar af) is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch.
The Afar (Qafár), also known as the Danakil, Adali and Odali, are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa.
The Afar Triangle (also called the Afar Depression) is a geological depression caused by the Afar Triple Junction, which is part of the Great Rift Valley in East Africa.
The African bush elephant (Loxodonta africana), also known as the African savanna elephant, is the larger of the two species of African elephants, and the largest living terrestrial animal.
The African golden wolf (Canis anthus), also known as the golden wolf or African wolf, is a canid native to north and northeastern Africa.
The African leopard (Panthera pardus pardus) is the leopard nominate subspecies native to many countries in Africa.
The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent, extending slightly into Asia via the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt.
The African wild ass or African wild donkey (Equus africanus) is a wild member of the horse family, Equidae.
The African wild dog (Lycaon pictus), also known as African hunting dog, African painted dog, painted hunting dog, or painted wolf, is a canid native to Sub-Saharan Africa.
The African wildcat (Felis lybica), also called Near Eastern wildcat is a wildcat species that lives in Northern Africa, the Near East and around the periphery of the Arabian Peninsula.
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.
The term Afroasiatic Urheimat refers to the hypothetical place where speakers of the proto-Afroasiatic language lived in a single linguistic community, or complex of communities, before this original language dispersed geographically and divided into separate distinct languages.
Agordat (ኣቆርዳት, أغوردات; also Akordat or Ak'ordat) is a city in Gash-Barka, Eritrea.
Agriculture is the main economic activity in Eritrea.
Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi (Axmad Ibraahim al-Gaasi, Harari: አሕመድ ኢቢን ኢብራሂም አል ጋዚ, "Acmad Ibni Ibrahim Al-Gaazi" Afar, أحمد بن إبراهيم الغازي) "the Conqueror" (c. 1506 – February 21, 1543) was an Imam and General of the Adal Sultanate who fought against the Abyssinian empire and defeated several Abysinian Emperors.
Akele Guzai was a province in the interior of Eritrea until 1996, when the newly independent national government consolidated all provinces into six regions.
Aksumite currency was coinage produced and used within the Kingdom of Aksum (or Axum) centered in present-day Eritrea and the Tigray Region of Ethiopia.
The Algiers Agreement was a peace agreement between the governments of Eritrea and Ethiopia signed on December 12, 2000, at Algiers, Algeria for the formal end the Eritrean-Ethiopian War, a border war fought by the two countries from 1998 to 2000.
AllAfrica.com is a website that aggregates news produced primarily on the African continent about all areas of African life, politics, issues and culture.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Amenhotep II (sometimes called Amenophis II and meaning Amun is Satisfied) was the seventh Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
Anseba Region is one of the six administrative regions, located in northern Eritrea.
The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.
Eritrea is one of the three non-Arab League states that adopt Arabic as an official language, and is the closest to become an Arab League member, with Chad and Israel having numerous problems with the League.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Ark of the Covenant, also known as the Ark of the Testimony, is a gold-covered wooden chest with lid cover described in the Book of Exodus as containing the two stone tablets of the Ten Commandments.
Asaita (አሳይታ - Asayəta), also known as Aussa, is a town in northeastern Ethiopia, and before 2007, it was the capital of the Afar Region of Ethiopia.
Asmara (ኣስመራ), known locally as Asmera (meaning "They made them unite" in Tigrinya), is the capital city and largest city of Eritrea.
Asmara International Airport, formerly known as Yohannes IV International Airport, is the international airport of Asmara, the capital of Eritrea.
The Asmara-Massawa Cableway was a cableway (or "ropeway") built in Italian Eritrea before World War II.The Eritrean Ropeway, completed in 1937, ran 71.8 km from the south end of Asmara until the city-port of Massawa.
Assab or Aseb (ዓሰብ,; عصب) is a port city in the Southern Red Sea Region of Eritrea.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Axum or Aksum (ኣኽሱም, አክሱም) is a city in the northern part of Ethiopia.
Baboons are Old World monkeys belonging to the genus Papio, part of the subfamily Cercopithecinae which are found natively in very specific areas of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.
The Battle of Gallabat (also called the Battle of Metemma) was fought 9–10 March 1889 between the Mahdist Sudanese and Ethiopian forces.
The Battle of Keren (or Cheren, the old Italian spelling) was fought as part of the East African Campaign during the Second World War.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
The begena (or bèguèna, as in French) is an Eritrean and Ethiopian string instrument with ten strings belonging to the family of the lyre.
Beja (Bidhaawyeet) is an Afroasiatic language of the Cushitic branch spoken on the western coast of the Red Sea by the Beja people.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
Bereket Mengisteab (Ge'ez: በረኸት መንግስተአብ, 1938) is a well-known Eritrean songwriter, composer and singer.
The Bilen language (ብሊና b(ɨ)lina or ብሊን b(ɨ)lin) is spoken by the Bilen people in and around the city of Keren in Eritrea and Kassala in eastern Sudan.
The Bilenalso variously transcribed as Blin, and also formerly known as the Bogo, Bogos or North Agaware an ethnic group on the Horn of Africa.
Bitis arietans is a venomous viper species found in savannah and grasslands from Morocco and western Arabia throughout Africa except for the Sahara and rain forest regions.
The black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas) is a canid native to two areas of Africa, separated by roughly 900 km.
The Book of Aksum or Mats'hafa Aksum (Ge'ez መጽሐፈ ፡ አክሱም maṣḥafa aksūm, meṣhafe aksūm, meṣḥafe aksūm, Liber Axumae) is the name accepted since the time of James Bruce for a collection of documents from St. Mary's Cathedral of Aksum providing information on Ethiopian history.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
The C-Group culture was an ancient civilization centered in Nubia, which existed from ca.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back.
A canyon (Spanish: cañón; archaic British English spelling: cañon) or gorge is a deep cleft between escarpments or cliffs resulting from weathering and the erosive activity of a river over geologic timescales.
The imbabala or Cape bushbuck (Tragelaphus sylvaticus) is a widespread species of antelope in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Central Region, also known as the Ma'ekel or Maakel Region, is an administrative region (or zoba) in central Eritrea.
Child mortality, also known as child death, refers to the death of children under the age of 14 and encompasses neonatal mortality, under-5 mortality, and mortality of children aged 5-14.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
A coffee ceremony (bunna maflat) is a ritualized form of making and drinking coffee.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Constitution of Eritrea is the supreme law of Eritrea.
CounterPunch is a magazine published six times per year in the United States that covers politics in a manner its editors describe as "muckraking with a radical attitude".
Crocodiles (subfamily Crocodylinae) or true crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia.
Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native to a territory including Middle East and stretching east to India.
Curry (sometimes, plural curries) is an umbrella term referring to a number of dishes originating in the cuisine of the Indian subcontinent.
The Cushitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
Dahalik (ዳሃሊክ dahālík, " the people of Dahlak"; also Dahaalik, Dahlik, Dahlak) is an Afroasiatic language spoken exclusively in the Dahlak Archipelago in Eritrea.
The Dahlak Archipelago (أرخبيل دهلك, Ge'ez: ዳህላክ) is an island group located in the Red Sea near Massawa, Eritrea.
The Danakil Depression is the northern part of the Afar Triangle or Afar Depression in Ethiopia, a geological depression that has resulted from the divergence of three tectonic plates in the Horn of Africa.
Daniel Teklehaimanot Girmazion (ዳንኤል ተክለሃይማኖት ግርማጽዮን) (born 10 November 1988) is a professional road racing cyclist from Eritrea, currently riding for UCI Professional Continental team.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
In law and government, de jure (lit) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.
Debarwa is a market town in central Eritrea.
Faytinga is a singer and musician from Eritrea.
Dʿmt (South Arabian alphabet: 𐩩𐩣𐩲𐩵; Unvocalized Ge'ez: ደዐመተ, DʿMT theoretically vocalized as ዳዓማት Daʿamat or ዳዕማት Daʿəmat) was a kingdom located in Eritrea and northern Ethiopia that existed during the 10th to 5th centuries BC.
A dik-dik is the name for any of four species of small antelope in the genus Madoqua that live in the bushlands of eastern and southern Africa.
Djibouti (جيبوتي, Djibouti, Jabuuti, Gabuuti), officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Dolphins are a widely distributed and diverse group of aquatic mammals.
The dorcas gazelle (Gazella dorcas), also known as the ariel gazelle, is a small and common gazelle.
The Doumeira Islands are situated northeast of Djibouti and east of Eritrea near the Bab el-Mandeb in the Red Sea.
Duce ("leader") is an Italian title, derived from the Latin word dux, and cognate with duke.
The dugong (Dugong dugon) is a medium-sized marine mammal.
A duiker is a small to medium-sized brown in colour antelope native to Sub-Saharan Africa.
East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography.
East Africa Time, or EAT, is a time zone used in eastern Africa.
The East African Rift (EAR) is an active continental rift zone in East Africa.
Echis pyramidum is a species of venomous viper endemic to Northeast Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.
An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.
Edinburgh University Press is a scholarly publisher of academic books and journals, based in Edinburgh, Scotland.
Edward Ullendorff FBA (25 January 1920 – 6 March 2011) was a British scholar and historian.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum or Museum of Cairo, in Cairo, Egypt, is home to an extensive collection of ancient Egyptian antiquities.
Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea.
Emba Soira (also transliterated Sowera) is the highest mountain in Eritrea.
The Emperor of Ethiopia (ንጉሠ ነገሥት, nəgusä nägäst, "King of Kings") was the hereditary ruler of the Ethiopian Empire, until the abolition of the monarchy in 1975.
An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Eritrea Governorate was one of the six governorates of Italian East Africa.
The Eritrea Institute of Technology (EIT) or Mai-Nefhi College is a technological institute located near the town Himbrti, Mai Nefhi, Eritrea.
Eritrean Airlines, shortened to Eritrean, is the national airline of Eritrea.
The Eritrean Catholic Church is a Metropolitan sui iuris Eastern particular church headquartered in Asmara, Eritrea.
The Eritrean Defence Forces military role stems from Eritrea's strategic geographical location.
An independence referendum was held in Eritrea between 23 and 25 April 1993.
The Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF) was the main independence movement in Eritrea which sought Eritrea's independence from Ethiopia during the 1960s and 1970s.
The nakfa (ISO 4217 code: ERN) is the currency of Eritrea and was introduced on 8 November 1997 to replace the Ethiopian birr at par.
The Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church is an Oriental Orthodox church with its headquarters in Asmara, Eritrea.
The Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) (ህዝባዊ ግንባር, ህግ, الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير إريتريا) was an armed organization that fought for the independence of Eritrea from Ethiopia.
The Eritrean Railway is the only railway system in Eritrea.
The Eritrean War of Independence was a conflict fought between the Ethiopian government and Eritrean separatists, both before and during the Ethiopian Civil War.
The Eritrean–Ethiopian War took place from May 1998 to June 2000 between Ethiopia and Eritrea, one of the conflicts in the Horn of Africa.
Ertra, Ertra, Ertra (ኤርትራ ኤርትራ ኤርትራ, ارتريا ارتريا ارتريا) is the national anthem of Eritrea.
The Erythraean Sea (Greek: Ἐρυθρὰ Θάλασσα Erythra Thalassa, "Red Sea") is the name in ancient cartography for a body of water located between the Horn of Africa and the Arabian peninsula.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Ethiopian cuisine (የኢትዮጵያ ምግብ) characteristically consists of vegetable and often very spicy meat dishes.
The Ethiopian Empire (የኢትዮጵያ ንጉሠ ነገሥት መንግሥተ), also known as Abyssinia (derived from the Arabic al-Habash), was a kingdom that spanned a geographical area in the current state of Ethiopia.
The Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (የኢትዮጵያ ሕዝቦች አብዮታዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ግንባር; abbreviated EPRDF but commonly known as Ehadig) is the ruling political coalition in Ethiopia.
Ethiopian Semitic (also known as Ethiosemitic or Ethiopic, or in the past by a few linguists as Abyssinian due to geographyIgor Mikhailovich Diakonov: Nauka, Central Department of Oriental Literature, (1965) pp 12) is a language group which forms the Western branch of the South Semitic languages.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
The Subcommittee on Human Rights (DROI) is a subcommittee of the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the European Parliament.
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
Eyalets (ایالت,, English: State), also known as beylerbeyliks or pashaliks, were a primary administrative division of the Ottoman Empire.
‘Ezana of Axum (ዔዛና ‘Ezana, unvocalized ዐዘነ ‘zn; also spelled Aezana or Aizan) was ruler of the Kingdom of Aksum (320s – c. 360 CE) located in present-day northern Ethiopia, Yemen, part of southern Saudi Arabia, northern Somalia, Djibouti, Eritrea, and parts of Sudan.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.
The Federation of Ethiopia and Eritrea or Ethiopian–Eritrean FederationSiegbert Uhlig, et al.
Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia.
The First Italo-Ethiopian War was fought between Italy and Ethiopia from 1895 to 1896.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
Flax (Linum usitatissimum), also known as common flax or linseed, is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae.
Floruit, abbreviated fl. (or occasionally, flor.), Latin for "he/she flourished", denotes a date or period during which a person was known to have been alive or active.
Freedom of assembly, sometimes used interchangeably with the freedom of association, is the individual right or ability of people to come together and collectively express, promote, pursue, and defend their collective or shared ideas.
Although the Eritrean constitution guarantees freedoms of speech and press, reporters without border claim that Eritrea is the second worst country in terms of press freedom after North Korea.
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
Fuelling stations, also known as coaling stations, are repositories of fuel (initially coal and later oil) that have been located to service commercial and naval vessels.
Gash-Barka (ጋሽ-ባርካ) is one of the six regions of Eritrea.
Ge'ez (Ge'ez: ግዕዝ), also known as Ethiopic, is a script used as an abugida (alphasyllabary) for several languages of Ethiopia and Eritrea.
A genet (pronounced or) is a member of the genus Genetta, which consists of 14 to 17 species of small African carnivorans.
The Global Environment Facility (GEF) was established on the eve of the 1992 Rio Earth Summit to help tackle our planet’s most pressing environmental problems.
GlobaLex is an online publication of the Hauser Global Law School Program at the New York University School of Law providing research tools for comparative law, international law, and the laws of various jurisdictions around the world.
GlobalSecurity.org is a nonpartisan, independent, nonprofit organization that serves as a think tank, research and consultancy group, and website.
The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.
The greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) is a woodland antelope found throughout eastern and southern Africa.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
The ground squirrels are members of the squirrel family of rodents (Sciuridae) which generally live on or in the ground, rather than trees.
Habesh Eyalet (ایالت حبش; Eyālet-i Ḥabeş) was an Ottoman eyalet.
Hadhrami Arabic, or Ḥaḍrami Arabic, is a variety of Arabic spoken by the Hadhrami people (Ḥaḍārima) living in the Hadhramaut.
Haile Selassie I (ቀዳማዊ ኃይለ ሥላሴ, qädamawi haylä səllasé,;, born Ras Tafari Makonnen, was Ethiopia's regent from 1916 to 1930 and emperor from 1930 to 1974.
Hamasien (Tigrinya: ሓማሴን) As the bible Ge'ez teachings teaches that the name hamasien was made up by the mixing of the names of Ham and Shem in Ge'ez "Esien" Because this people were made up by the mixing of Ham and Shem As the inhabitants of the hamasien and some other regions in Eritrea are of Semitic origin, a branch of Afroasiatic.
Hamid Idris Awate (10 April 1910 – 28 May 1962) was an Eritrean independence leader.
The Hanish Islands (جزر حنيش) are an island group in the Red Sea.
Harar (Harari: ሐረር), and known to its inhabitants as Gēy (Harari: ጌይ), is a walled city in eastern Ethiopia.
Hatshepsut (also Hatchepsut; Egyptian: ḥꜣt-šps.wt "Foremost of Noble Ladies"; 1507–1458 BCE) was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt.
The Hedareb or T'bdaweHedareb, t'badwe, to-bedawye and bedawi may refer to the people or their language.
Hegemony (or) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.
The Hejaz (اَلْـحِـجَـاز,, literally "the Barrier"), is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia.
Hejazi Arabic or Hijazi Arabic (حجازي), also known as West Arabian Arabic, is a variety of Arabic spoken in the Hejaz region in Saudi Arabia.
Helen Meles (born 1970s) is a prominent Eritrean singer and actress.
Higher education (also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education) is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education.
The Ḥimyarite Kingdom or Ḥimyar (مملكة حِمْيَر, Mamlakat Ḥimyar, Musnad: 𐩢𐩣𐩺𐩧𐩣, ממלכת חִמְיָר) (fl. 110 BCE–520s CE), historically referred to as the Homerite Kingdom by the Greeks and the Romans, was a kingdom in ancient Yemen.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Djibouti is a country in the Horn of Africa.
"Eritrea" is an ancient name, associated in the past with its Greek form Erythraia, Ἐρυθραία, and its derived Latin form Erythræa.
The history of Islam concerns the political, social,economic and cultural developments of the Islamic civilization.
The Hominidae, whose members are known as great apes or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, which includes modern humans and its extinct relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal), and ancestors, such as Homo erectus.
Homo erectus (meaning "upright man") is an extinct species of archaic humans that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.
Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.
Homogeneity and heterogeneity are concepts often used in the sciences and statistics relating to the uniformity in a substance or organism.
The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
The Human Development Report (HDR) is an annual milestone published by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
Immunization, or immunisation, is the process by which an individual's immune system becomes fortified against an agent (known as the immunogen).
Independence is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory.
Articles (arranged alphabetically) related to Eritrea include.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indiana University Press, also known as IU Press, is an academic publisher founded in 1950 at Indiana University that specializes in the humanities and social sciences.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Injera (Amharic: ənǧära እንጀራ; sometimes transliterated as enjera; or "taita"; Tigrinya: ጣይታ; Somali: Canjeero) is a sourdough-risen flatbread with a slightly spongy texture.
The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) is an international financial institution that offers loans to middle-income developing countries.
The International Finance Corporation (IFC) is an international financial institution that offers investment, advisory, and asset-management services to encourage private-sector development in developing countries.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
An interpersonal relationship is a strong, deep, or close association or acquaintance between two or more people that may range in duration from brief to enduring.
The International Criminal Police Organization (Organisation internationale de police criminelle; ICPO-INTERPOL), more commonly known as Interpol, is an international organization that facilitates international police cooperation.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
Isaias Afwerki (ኢሳይያስ ኣፍወርቂ; born 2 February 1946) is the President of Eritrea, a position he has held since its independence in 1993.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana) was an Italian colony in the Horn of Africa.
The Italian Empire (Impero Italiano) comprised the colonies, protectorates, concessions, dependencies and trust territories of the Kingdom of Italy and, after 1946, the Italian Republic.
Italian Eritrea was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy in the territory of present-day Eritrea.
Italian Eritrean cuisine is the mix of Eritrean dishes and spices with Italian dishes.
Italian Eritreans (or Eritrean Italians) are Eritrean-born descendants of Italian settlers as well as Italian long-term residents in Eritrea.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Italian Somaliland (Somalia italiana, الصومال الإيطالي Al-Sumal Al-Italiy, Dhulka Talyaaniga ee Soomaaliya), also known as Italian Somalia, was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy in present-day northeastern, central and southern Somalia.
The Italo-Turkish or Turco-Italian War (Trablusgarp Savaşı, "Tripolitanian War"; also known in Italy as Guerra di Libia, "Libyan War") was fought between the Kingdom of Italy and the Ottoman Empire from September 29, 1911, to October 18, 1912.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
The ivory trade is the commercial, often illegal trade in the ivory tusks of the hippopotamus, walrus, narwhal, mammoth, and most commonly, African and Asian elephants.
James Bruce of Kinnaird (14 December 1730 – 27 April 1794) was a Scottish traveller and travel writer who spent more than a dozen years in North Africa and Ethiopia, where he traced the origins of the Blue Nile.
Jeddah (sometimes spelled Jiddah or Jedda;; جدة, Hejazi pronunciation) is a city in the Hijaz Tihamah region on the coast of the Red Sea and is the major urban center of western Saudi Arabia. It is the largest city in Makkah Province, the largest seaport on the Red Sea, and with a population of about four million people, the second-largest city in Saudi Arabia after the capital city, Riyadh. Jeddah is Saudi Arabia's commercial capital. Jeddah is the principal gateway to Mecca and Medina, two of the holiest cities in Islam and popular tourist attractions. Economically, Jeddah is focusing on further developing capital investment in scientific and engineering leadership within Saudi Arabia, and the Middle East. Jeddah was independently ranked fourth in the Africa – Mid-East region in terms of innovation in 2009 in the Innovation Cities Index. Jeddah is one of Saudi Arabia's primary resort cities and was named a Beta world city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC). Given the city's close proximity to the Red Sea, fishing and seafood dominates the food culture unlike other parts of the country. In Arabic, the city's motto is "Jeddah Ghair," which translates to "Jeddah is different." The motto has been widely used among both locals as well as foreign visitors. The city had been previously perceived as the "most open" city in Saudi Arabia.
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
JPMorgan Chase & Co. is an American multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in New York City.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Justin Hill is an English novelist.
A kebero is a double-headed, conical hand drum used in the traditional music of Eritrea, Sudan and Ethiopia.
Keren (Ge'ez: ከረን كرن or كيرين), formerly known as Cheren and Sanhit,Shinn, David & al.
The Kerma culture or Kerma kingdom was an early civilization centered in Kerma, Sudan.
The Khedivate of Egypt (خدیویت مصر) was an autonomous tributary state of the Ottoman Empire, established and ruled by the Muhammad Ali Dynasty following the defeat and expulsion of Napoleon Bonaparte's forces which brought an end to the short-lived French occupation of Lower Egypt.
The Kingdom of Aksum (also known as the Kingdom of Axum, or the Aksumite Empire) was an ancient kingdom in what is now northern Ethiopia and Eritrea.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of Kush or Kush was an ancient kingdom in Nubia, located at the confluences of the Blue Nile, White Nile and the Atbarah River in what are now Sudan and South Sudan.
The klipspringer (Oreotragus oreotragus) is a small antelope found in eastern and southern Africa.
The krar or kraar is a five- or six-stringed bowl-shaped lyre from Eritrea and Ethiopia.
The Kunama language has been included in the proposed Nilo-Saharan language family, though it is distantly related to the other languages, if at all.
The Kunama are a Nilotic ethnic inhabiting Eritrea and Ethiopia.
Land degradation is a process in which the value of the biophysical environment is affected by a combination of human-induced processes acting upon the land.
The Land of Punt, also called Pwenet or Pwene by the ancient Egyptians, was an ancient kingdom.
A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
The lion (Panthera leo) is a species in the cat family (Felidae).
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of heads of state of Eritrea.
Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Luxor (الأقصر; Egyptian Arabic:; Sa'idi Arabic) is a city in Upper (southern) Egypt and the capital of Luxor Governorate.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Manta rays are large rays belonging to the genus Manta.
The Mareb River (or Gash River), is a river flowing out of central Eritrea.
A marlin is a fish from the family Istiophoridae, which includes about 10 species.
The mesenqo (also spelled mesenko, mesenqo, mesenko, mesinko, or mesinqo) is a single-stringed bowed lute commonly found in the musical traditions of Ethiopia and Eritrea.
Massawa (Maṣṣawa‘, Mitsiwa), also known as Miṣṣiwa‘ (مِـصِّـوَع) and Bāḍiʿ (بَـاضِـع),Matt Phillips, Jean-Bernard Carillet, Lonely Planet Ethiopia and Eritrea, (Lonely Planet: 2006), p.340.
Massawa International Airport is an airport in Massawa, a major city in the Northern Red Sea region of Eritrea.
Matara (Metera) is an archaeological site in Eritrea.
The McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology is an English-language multivolume encyclopedia, specifically focused on scientific and technical subjects, and published by McGraw-Hill Education.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
Medri Bahri (ምድሪ ባሕሪ) was a medieval semi-unified political entity in the Horn of Africa.
Mendefera (መንደፈራ), formerly Adi Ugri, is the capital city of the Debub Region of Eritrea.
Emperor Menelik II GCB, GCMG (ዳግማዊ ምኒልክ), baptised as Sahle Maryam (17 August 1844 – 12 December 1913), was Negus of Shewa (1866–89), then Emperor of Ethiopia from 1889 to his death in 1913.
Merhawi Kudus Ghebremedhin (መርሃዊ ቕዱስን ገብረመድኅን; born January 23, 1994) is an Eritrean cyclist.
Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.
A metropolis or metropolitan archdiocese is a see or city whose bishop is the metropolitan of a province.
A middle school (also known as intermediate school or junior high school) is an educational stage which exists in some countries, providing education between primary school and secondary school.
The Migration to Abyssinia (الهجرة إلى الحبشة, al-hijra ʾilā al-habaša), also known as the First Hegira (هِجْرَة hijrah), was an episode in the early history of Islam, where Prophet Muhammad's first followers (the Sahabah) fled from the persecution of the ruling Quraysh tribe of Mecca.
Mikael Sehul (Tigrinya "Mikael the Astute" – his name at birth was Blatta Mikael; c. 1691 – 23 June 1779) was a Ras or governor of Tigray 1748–71 and again from 1772 until his death.
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were the eight international development goals for the year 2015 that had been established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration.
Millets (/ˈmɪlɪts/) are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food.
A minority group refers to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, those who hold on to major positions of social power in a society.
Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
The Mosque of the Companions (Masjid aṣ-Ṣaḥābah) is a mosque in the city of Massawa, Eritrea.
The mountains classification is a secondary competition in the Tour de France, that started in 1933.
The Mudaito Dynasty (Modaytó Dynasty) was the ruling dynasty of the Sultanate of Aussa (Sultanate of Awsa) in Ethiopia.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The Nara (Nera) or Barea (Barya) language is a Nilo-Saharan language spoken chiefly in western Eritrea.
The Nara are a Nilotic ethnic group inhabiting Eritrea.
The National Assembly of Eritrea (Hagerawi Baito) has 150 members, 75 members appointed (consisting mostly of representatives elected by the general population, of whom at least 11 must be women, and 15 members representing Eritreans living abroad) and 75 members representing the members of the Central Committee of the People's Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ), the sole legal political party of Eritrea.
Natnael Berhane (ናትናኤል ብርሃነ; born 5 January 1991 in Asmara) is an Eritrean professional road bicycle racer for UCI WorldTeam.
Negus (ነጉሥ,; nigūs; cf. ነጋሲ) is a royal title in the Ethiopian Semitic languages.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
The New York University School of Law is the law school of New York University.
The news media or news industry are forms of mass media that focus on delivering news to the general public or a target public.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
The Nilo-Saharan languages are a proposed family of African languages spoken by some 50–60 million people, mainly in the upper parts of the Chari and Nile rivers, including historic Nubia, north of where the two tributaries of the Nile meet.
The Nilotic peoples are peoples indigenous to the Nile Valley who speak Nilotic languages, which constitute a large sub-group of the Nilo-Saharan languages spoken in South Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, and northern Tanzania.
Niter kibbeh, or niter qibe (Ge'ez ንጥር ቅቤ niṭer ḳibē), also called tesmi (in Tigrinya), is a seasoned, clarified butter used in Ethiopian cuisine.
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
The Northern Red Sea Region (Tigrinya: ዞባ ሰሜናዊ ቀይሕ ባሕሪ) of Eritrea is one of the country's six regions.
The Obelisk of Axum (የአክሱም ሐውልት) is a 4th-century AD, 24-meter-tall (79-feet) granite stele/obelisk, weighing 160 tonnes, in the city of Axum in Ethiopia.
The olive baboon (Papio anubis), also called the Anubis baboon, is a member of the family Cercopithecidae (Old World monkeys).
A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
In microeconomic theory, the opportunity cost, also known as alternative cost, is the value (not a benefit) of the choice in terms of the best alternative while making a decision.
Oreste Baratieri (né Oreste Baratter, 13 November 1841 – 7 August 1901) was an Italian general and governor of Eritrea who led the Italian army defeated in the First Italo–Ethiopian War's Battle of Adowa.
The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) is an intergovernmental organisation and the implementing body for the Chemical Weapons Convention, which entered into force on 29 April 1997.
Oriental Orthodoxy is the fourth largest communion of Christian churches, with about 76 million members worldwide.
Oryx is a genus consisting of four large antelope species called oryxes.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Eritrea: Eritrea – country in the Horn of Africa.
The Overseas Development Institute (ODI) is an independent think tank on international development and humanitarian issues, founded in 1960.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The pale fox (Vulpes pallida) is a species of fox found in the band of African Sahel from Senegal in the west to Sudan in the east.
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
Pasta is a staple food of traditional Italian cuisine, with the first reference dating to 1154 in Sicily.
The People's Front for Democracy and Justice (ህዝባዊ ግንባር ንደሞክራስን ፍትሕን, Həzbawi Gənbar nəDämokrasən Fətəḥən, abbreviated ህግደፍ, الجبهة الشعبية للديمقراطية والعدالة al-Jabhatu l-Shaʻabiyatu lil-Dīmuqrāṭiyati wāl-ʻIdālah; abbreviated PFDJ) is the founding and ruling political party of the State of Eritrea.
The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea or Periplus of the Red Sea (Περίπλους τῆς Ἐρυθράς Θαλάσσης, Periplus Maris Erythraei) is a Greco-Roman periplus, written in Greek, describing navigation and trading opportunities from Roman Egyptian ports like Berenice along the coast of the Red Sea, and others along Northeast Africa and the Sindh and South western India.
The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) is an intergovernmental organization located at The Hague in the Netherlands.
In the early days of Islam at Mecca, the new Muslims were often subjected to abuse and persecution.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
Phacochoerus is a genus in the family Suidae, commonly known as warthogs.
Pharaoh (ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE.
A plough (UK) or plow (US; both) is a tool or farm implement used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting to loosen or turn the soil.
The Port Management Association of Eastern and Southern Africa (PMAESA) is a non-profit, inter-governmental organization made up of Port Operators, Government Line Ministries, Logistics and Maritime Service Providers and other port and shipping stakeholders from the Eastern, Western and Southern African and Indian Ocean regions.
Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.
A preschool, also known as nursery school, pre-primary school, playschool or kindergarten, is an educational establishment or learning space offering early childhood education to children before they begin compulsory education at primary school.
A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.
Primary education and elementary education is typically the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool and before secondary education (The first two grades of primary school, Grades 1 and 2, are also part of early childhood education).
A prison, also known as a correctional facility, jail, gaol (dated, British English), penitentiary (American English), detention center (American English), or remand center is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state.
In religion, a prophet is an individual regarded as being in contact with a divine being and said to speak on that entity's behalf, serving as an intermediary with humanity by delivering messages or teachings from the supernatural source to other people.
Prophets in Islam (الأنبياء في الإسلام) include "messengers" (rasul, pl. rusul), bringers of a divine revelation via an angel (Arabic: ملائكة, malāʾikah);Shaatri, A. I. (2007).
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Qohaito, also known as Kohaito, was an ancient city in the southern Debub region of Eritrea.
The Queen of Sheba (Musnad: 𐩣𐩡𐩫𐩩𐩪𐩨𐩱) is a figure first mentioned in the Hebrew Bible.
A queen regnant (plural: queens regnant) is a female monarch, equivalent in rank to a king, who reigns in her own right, in contrast to a queen consort, who is the wife of a reigning king, or a queen regent, who is the guardian of a child monarch and reigns temporarily in the child's stead.
The Quraysh (قريش) were a mercantile Arab tribe that historically inhabited and controlled Mecca and its Ka'aba.
The Rashaida, Rashaayda or Bani Rashid (بني رشيد, الرشايدة) is a tribe of ethnic Bedouin Arabs descending from Banu Abs native to the Hejaz region of Saudi Arabia.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
The red spitting cobra (Naja pallida), is a species of spitting cobra native to Africa.
The regions of Eritrea are the primary geographical divisions through which Eritrea is administered.
A remittance is a transfer of money by a foreign worker to an individual in their home country.
Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Ruth Abraha, also known as Rutta Abraha, is a singer from Eritrea.
The term (الصحابة meaning "the companions", from the verb صَحِبَ meaning "accompany", "keep company with", "associate with") refers to the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Saho language (Tigrinya: ሳሆኛ) is an Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Eritrea, Sudan and Ethiopia.
The Saho sometimes called Soho, are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa.
Sahure (meaning "He who is close to Re", also known in Greek as Sephrês, Σϵϕρής) was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh, the second ruler of the Fifth Dynasty, who reigned for about 12 years in the early 25th century BC.
The Scramble for Africa was the occupation, division, and colonization of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914.
A sea lane, sea road or shipping lane is a regularly used route for vessels on oceans and large lakes.
Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans.
The Second Italo-Ethiopian War, also referred to as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, was a colonial war from 3 October 1935 until 1939, despite the Italian claim to have defeated Ethiopia by 5 May 1936, the date of the capture of Addis Ababa.
Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education scale.
Sembel is an archaeological site in the Maekel Region of Eritrea.
Serae ሰራየ (or Seraye) is a former province of Eritrea.
Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum, also called benne.
The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Protestant Christian denomination distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the seventh day of the week in Christian and Jewish calendars, as the Sabbath, and by its emphasis on the imminent Second Coming (advent) of Jesus Christ.
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.
Shewa (ሸዋ, Šawā; Šewā), formerly romanized as Shoa (Scioà in Italian), is a historical region of Ethiopia, formerly an autonomous kingdom within the Ethiopian Empire.
Shire (ሽረ), also known as Inda Selassie (እንዳ ሥላሴ, Tigrinya "House of the Trinity"), is a town and separate woreda in northern Ethiopia.
The Soemmerring's gazelle (Nanger soemmerringii, formerly Gazella soemmerringii), also known as Abyssinian mohr, is a gazelle species native to the Horn of Africa (Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia and South Sudan).
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae.
The Southern Red Sea Region is a region of Eritrea.
Debub Region, also known as the Southern Region, is a region of Eritrea.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), also known as the laughing hyena, is a species of hyena, currently classed as the sole member of the genus Crocuta, native to Sub-Saharan Africa.
A steleAnglicized plural steles; Greek plural stelai, from Greek στήλη, stēlē.
Suakin or Sawakin (سواكن Sawákin) is a port city in north-eastern Sudan, on the west coast of the Red Sea, which has been leased to the Republic of Turkey for 99 years by bilateral agreement.
The six regions of Eritrea are divided into administrative subregions.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.
The Sultanate of Aussa (alternate spelling: Awsa, also known as the Afar Sultanate) was a kingdom that existed in the Afar Region of eastern Ethiopia in the 18th and 19th centuries.
The Sultanate of Harar was an ancient kingdom centered in Harar, Ethiopia.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Swordfish (Xiphias gladius), also known as broadbills in some countries, are large, highly migratory, predatory fish characterized by a long, flat bill.
Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.
In any given society, a taboo is an implicit prohibition or strong discouragement against something (usually against an utterance or behavior) based on a cultural feeling that it is either too repulsive or dangerous, or, perhaps, too sacred for ordinary people.
The Tekezé River (ተከዘ or ተከዜ), also known as the Takkaze River, is a major river of Ethiopia.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thebes (Θῆβαι, Thēbai), known to the ancient Egyptians as Waset, was an ancient Egyptian city located east of the Nile about south of the Mediterranean.
Thomas Michael Keneally, AO (born 7 October 1935) is a prolific Australian novelist, playwright, and essayist.
Tigray Region (Geez: ክልል ትግራይ, kilil Tigrāy; Official name: Geez:ብሔራዊ ከልላቂ መንግሥቲ ትግራይ, Bəh̩erawi Kəllelawi Mängəśti Təgray, "Tigray National Regional State") is the northernmost of the nine regions (kililat) of Ethiopia.
Tigre (ትግረ tigre or ትግሬ tigrē), better known in Eritrea by its autonym Tigrayit (ትግራይት), and also known by speakers in Sudan as Xasa (الخاصية ḫāṣiyah), is an Afroasiatic language spoken in Northeast Africa.
The Tigre people are an ethnic group inhabiting Eritrea.
Tigrinya (often written as Tigrigna) is an Afroasiatic language of the Semitic branch.
The Tigrinyas (also referred to as Biher Tigrinya, Kebessa, and Bihere-Tigrinya) are an ethnic group inhabiting central Eritrea.
The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red, fruit/berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant.
Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.
The Tour de France is an annual male multiple stage bicycle race primarily held in France, while also occasionally making passes through nearby countries.
The Tour of Eritrea (ዙር ኤርትራ, Giro dell’ Eritrea.) is a multistage bicycle race held annually throughout Eritrea.
The traditional African religions (or traditional beliefs and practices of African people) are a set of highly diverse beliefs that include various ethnic religions.
Transport in Eritrea includes highways, airports and seaports, in addition to various forms of public and private vehicular, maritime and aerial transportation.
Treaty of Wuchale (or, Treaty of Ucciale; in Italian, Trattato di Uccialli) was a treaty signed by King Menelik II of Shewa, later the Emperor of Ethiopia with Count Pietro Antonelli of Italy in the town of Wuchale, Ethiopia, on 2 May 1889.
A triple junction is the point where the boundaries of three tectonic plates meet.
Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests (TSMF), also known as tropical moist forests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome, sometimes referred to as jungle.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Turtles are diapsids of the order Testudines (or Chelonii) characterized by a special bony or cartilaginous shell developed from their ribs and acting as a shield.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is a United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The University of Asmara (UoA) was a public university in Asmara, Eritrea.
The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the US state of California.
There are many varieties of Arabic (dialects or otherwise) in existence.
Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans as food as part of a meal.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
The Vuelta a España (Tour of Spain) is an annual multi-stage bicycle race primarily held in Spain, while also occasionally making passes through nearby countries.
Wat, we̠t’, wot (ወጥ) or tsebhi (ጸብሒ) is an Ethiopian and Eritrean stew or curry that may be prepared with chicken, beef, lamb, a variety of vegetables, spice mixtures such as berbere, and niter kibbeh, a seasoned clarified butter.
The Wefri Warsay Yika'alo (WWY) or Warsay Yika'alo Program of Eritrea is an ambitious project of post-war recovery.
The whale shark (Rhincodon typus) is a slow-moving, filter-feeding carpet shark and the largest known extant fish species.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
A working language (also procedural language) is a language that is given a unique legal status in a supranational company, society, state or other body or organization as its primary means of communication.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Customs Organization (WCO) is an intergovernmental organization headquartered in Brussels, Belgium.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Worship is an act of religious devotion usually directed towards a deity.
Yeha (ይሐ yiḥa, older ESA 𐩥𐩢 ḤW) is a town in the Mehakelegnaw Zone of the northern Tigray Region in Ethiopia.
Yemane Ghebremichael (commonly known as Yemane Baria) was a well-known Eritrean songwriter, composer and singer.
Yohannes IV (Ge'ez: ፬ኛ ዮሓንስ, Āratenya Yōḥānnis; horse name "Abba Bezba"; 11 July 1837 – 10 March 1889), born Lij Kaśa Mercha and contemporaneously also known in English as Johannes or John IV, was ruler of Tigray 1867-71, and Emperor of Ethiopia ("King of Zion" and "King of Kings" of Ethiopia) 1872-89 is remembered as one of the leading architects of the modern state of Ethiopia.
Zar'a Ya`qob or Zera Yacob (Ge'ez ዘርአ:ያዕቆብ zar'ā yāʿiqōb) (1399 – 26 August 1468) was the Emperor (nəgusä nägäst) of Ethiopia, and a member of the Solomonic dynasty who ruled under regnal name Kwestantinos I (Ge'ez ቈስታንቲኖስ qʷastāntīnōs) or Constantine I. Born at Telq in the province of Fatajar (now part of the Oromia Region, near the Awash River), Zara Yaqob was the youngest son of Dawit I and his youngest wife, Igzi Kebra. The British expert on Ethiopia, Edward Ullendorff, stated that Zara Yaqob "was unquestionably the greatest ruler Ethiopia had seen since Ezana, during the heyday of Aksumite power, and none of his successors on the throne – excepted only the emperors Menelik II and Haile Selassie – can be compared to him." Paul B. Henze repeats the tradition that the jealousy of his older brother Tewodros I forced the courtiers to take Zara Yaqob to Tigray where he was brought up in secret, and educated in Axum and at the monastery of Debre Abbay. While admitting that this tradition "is invaluable as providing a religious background for Zar'a-Ya'iqob's career", Taddesse Tamrat dismisses this story as "very improbable in its details." The professor notes that Zara Yaqob wrote in his Mashafa Berhan that "he was brought down from the royal prison of Mount Gishan only on the eve of his accession to the throne.".
Zersenay Tadese (Tigrinya: ዘርእሰናይ ታደሰ; born 8 February 1982) is an Eritrean long-distance track and road running athlete.
Zoskales (c. 100 CE) was an ancient King in the Horn of Africa.
A zuria is a hooded dress worn by Tigrinya women in Eritrea and Ethiopia.
.er is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Eritrea.
The 12th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 12 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 18th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 18 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 2015 Critérium du Dauphiné was the 67th edition of the Critérium du Dauphiné cycling stage race.
The 2015 Tour de France was the 102nd edition of the Tour de France, one of cycling's Grand Tours.
The meridian 36° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Asia, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The meridian 44° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Asia, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 7th century is the period from 601 to 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era.
Administrative divisions of Eritrea, Dawlat Iritriyá, Eirtrea, Eriteria, Erithrea, Eritirea, Eritreah, Eritria, Ertra, Ertrea, Eruthraia, Erythraia, Erythrea, Erythree, Erythrée, Hagere Ertra, ISO 3166-1:ER, Iritriya, State of Eritrea, The State of Eritrea, ʾErtrā.