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Ernest Lawrence

Index Ernest Lawrence

Ernest Orlando Lawrence (August 8, 1901 – August 27, 1958) was a pioneering American nuclear scientist and winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1939 for his invention of the cyclotron. [1]

194 relations: Academic freedom, Alfred Lee Loomis, American Institute of Physics, Arthur Compton, Assistant professor, Associate professor, Atherosclerosis, Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Atomic nucleus, Bancroft Library, Berkeley, California, Beta decay, Bevatron, Big Science, Bohemian Club, Brigadier general (United States), Brookhaven National Laboratory, California Digital Library, Calutron, Canton, South Dakota, Cavendish Laboratory, Cavity magnetron, César Lattes, Charles Allen Thomas, Chien-Shiung Wu, Clark Kerr, Cold War, Comstock Prize in Physics, Consul (representative), Cosmotron, Cyclotron, Deuterium, Doctor of Philosophy, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Eastman Chemical Company, Edward Teller, Edwin McMillan, Edwin W. Pauley, Electromagnet, Electronvolt, Elliott Cresson Medal, Ellipsoid, Emilio Segrè, Enriched uranium, Enrico Fermi Award, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award, Ernest Rutherford, Ernest Walton, Eugene Gardner, Eulogy, ..., Faraday Medal, Fast neutron therapy, Frank Oppenheimer, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Gabor Medal and Prize, Gaseous diffusion, Geneva, George Kauffman, Glenn T. Seaborg, Harvard University, Helium, Helium-3, Holley Medal, House Un-American Activities Committee, Hughes Medal, Human rights, Ileostomy, Isotope separation, Isotopes of neptunium, J. Robert Oppenheimer, James Bryant Conant, James Chadwick, Jesse Beams, John Cockcroft, John Foster Dulles, John Francis Neylan, John H. Lawrence, John Reginald Richardson, K-25, Karl Taylor Compton, Kenneth Ross MacKenzie, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Hall of Science, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Lawrencium, Legion of Honour, Leslie Groves, Leukemia, Lewis Strauss, Linear particle accelerator, Lithium, Livermore, California, M. Stanley Livingston, Magnetic field, Manhattan Project, Mark Oliphant, Mass spectrometry, Master of Arts, MAUD Committee, Medal for Merit, Merle Tuve, MIT Radiation Laboratory, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Neutron, New Haven, Connecticut, New Mexico, Nitrogen, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Physics, Norris Bradbury, Northfield, Minnesota, Nuclear chemistry, Nuclear fusion, Nuclear medicine, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear weapon, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Office of Scientific and Technical Information, Palo Alto, California, Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, Particle accelerator, Particle physics, Patent, Philosophical Magazine, Phosphorus-32, Photoelectric effect, Physician, Physics, Pierre, South Dakota, Pion, Plutonium, Plutonium-238, Plutonium-239, Polonium, Polycythemia vera, Proceedings of the Royal Society, Project Y, Proton, Radioactive tracer, RDS-1, Regents of the University of California, Republican Party (United States), Research Corporation, Robert Andrews Millikan, Robert Gordon Sproul, Robert Serber, Robert W. Wood, Rockefeller Foundation, Rolf Widerøe, S-50 (Manhattan Project), San Francisco, Seattle, Sigma Xi, Solvay Conference, Soviet Union, St. Olaf College, Stanford University, Stone & Webster, Sweden, Sylvanus Thayer Award, Synchrotron, The New York Times, Theoretical physics, Thermonuclear weapon, Trinity (nuclear test), Trinity Church on the Green, Tritium, Ulcerative colitis, Uncertainty principle, United States Atomic Energy Commission, United States Department of Energy, United States Department of Energy national laboratories, United States Military Academy, University of California, Berkeley, University of Chicago, University of Minnesota, University of South Dakota, University of Virginia, University of Washington, Uranium-235, Uranium-238, Vannevar Bush, Vermillion, South Dakota, Walnut Creek, California, Werner Heisenberg, Wheeler Hall, William Francis Gray Swann, William Henry Crocker, William L. Laurence, William Procter Prize for Scientific Achievement, World War II, Y-12 National Security Complex, Yale School of Medicine, Yale University. Expand index (144 more) »

Academic freedom

Academic freedom is the conviction that the freedom of inquiry by faculty members is essential to the mission of the academy as well as the principles of academia, and that scholars should have freedom to teach or communicate ideas or facts (including those that are inconvenient to external political groups or to authorities) without being targeted for repression, job loss, or imprisonment.

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Alfred Lee Loomis

Alfred Lee Loomis (November 4, 1887 – August 11, 1975) was an American attorney, investment banker, philanthropist, scientist, physicist, inventor of the LORAN Long Range Navigation System, and a lifelong patron of scientific research.

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American Institute of Physics

The American Institute of Physics (AIP) promotes science, the profession of physics, publishes physics journals, and produces publications for scientific and engineering societies.

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Arthur Compton

Arthur Holly Compton (September 10, 1892 – March 15, 1962) was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1927 for his 1923 discovery of the Compton effect, which demonstrated the particle nature of electromagnetic radiation.

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Assistant professor

Assistant professor is an academic rank used in universities or colleges in the United States, Canada, and some other countries.

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Associate professor

Associate professor (frequently capitalized as Associate Professor) is an academic title that can have different meanings.

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Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.

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Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

During the final stage of World War II, the United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively.

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Atomic nucleus

The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.

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Bancroft Library

The Bancroft Library in the center of the campus of the University of California, Berkeley, is the university's primary special-collections library.

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Berkeley, California

Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern Alameda County, California.

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Beta decay

In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.

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The Bevatron was a particle accelerator — specifically, a weak-focusing proton synchrotron — at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, U.S., which began operating in 1954.

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Big Science

Big science is a term used by scientists and historians of science to describe a series of changes in science which occurred in industrial nations during and after World War II, as scientific progress increasingly came to rely on large-scale projects usually funded by national governments or groups of governments.

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Bohemian Club

The Bohemian Club is a private club with two locations: a city clubhouse in the Union Square district of San Francisco, California, and the Bohemian Grove, a retreat north of the city in Sonoma County.

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Brigadier general (United States)

In the United States Armed Forces, brigadier general (BG, BGen, or Brig Gen) is a one-star general officer with the pay grade of O-7 in the U.S. Army, U.S. Marine Corps, and U.S. Air Force.

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Brookhaven National Laboratory

Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory located in Upton, New York, on Long Island, and was formally established in 1947 at the site of Camp Upton, a former U.S. Army base.

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California Digital Library

The California Digital Library (CDL) was founded by the University of California in 1997 to take advantage of emerging technologies that were transforming the way digital information was being published and accessed.

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A calutron is a mass spectrometer originally designed and used for separating the isotopes of uranium.

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Canton, South Dakota

Canton is a city in and the county seat of Lincoln County, South Dakota, United States.

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Cavendish Laboratory

The Cavendish Laboratory is the Department of Physics at the University of Cambridge, and is part of the School of Physical Sciences.

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Cavity magnetron

The cavity magnetron is a high-powered vacuum tube that generates microwaves using the interaction of a stream of electrons with a magnetic field while moving past a series of open metal cavities (cavity resonators).

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César Lattes

Cesare Mansueto Giulio Lattes (11 July 1924 – 8 March 2005), also known as Cesar (or César) Lattes, was a Brazilian experimental physicist, one of the discoverers of the pion, a composite subatomic particle made of a quark and an antiquark.

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Charles Allen Thomas

Charles Allen Thomas (February 15, 1900 – March 29, 1982) was a noted American chemist and businessman, and an important figure in the Manhattan Project.

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Chien-Shiung Wu

Chien-Shiung Wu (May 31, 1912 – February 16, 1997) was a Chinese-American experimental physicist who made significant contributions in the field of nuclear physics.

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Clark Kerr

Clark Kerr (May 17, 1911 – December 1, 2003) was an American professor of economics and academic administrator.

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

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Comstock Prize in Physics

The Comstock Prize in Physics is awarded by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences "for recent innovative discovery or investigation in electricity, magnetism, or radiant energy, broadly interpreted." Honorees must be residents of North America.

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Consul (representative)

A consul is an official representative of the government of one state in the territory of another, normally acting to assist and protect the citizens of the consul's own country, and to facilitate trade and friendship between the people of the two countries.

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The Cosmotron was a particle accelerator, specifically a proton synchrotron, at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

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A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator invented by Ernest O. Lawrence in 1929-1930 at the University of California, Berkeley, and patented in 1932.

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Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).

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Doctor of Philosophy

A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD or Ph.D.; Latin Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries.

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Dwight D. Eisenhower

Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.

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Eastman Chemical Company

Eastman Chemical Company, an American Fortune 500 company, is a global specialty chemical company that produces a broad range of advanced materials, chemicals and fibers for everyday purposes.

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Edward Teller

Edward Teller (Teller Ede; January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-American theoretical physicist who is known colloquially as "the father of the hydrogen bomb", although he claimed he did not care for the title.

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Edwin McMillan

Edwin Mattison McMillan (September 18, 1907 – September 7, 1991) was an American physicist and Nobel laureate credited with being the first-ever to produce a transuranium element, neptunium.

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Edwin W. Pauley

Edwin Wendell Pauley Sr. (January 7, 1903 – July 28, 1981) was an American businessman and political leader.

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An electromagnet is a type of magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by an electric current.

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In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).

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Elliott Cresson Medal

The Elliott Cresson Medal, also known as the Elliott Cresson Gold Medal, was the highest award given by the Franklin Institute.

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An ellipsoid is a surface that may be obtained from a sphere by deforming it by means of directional scalings, or more generally, of an affine transformation.

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Emilio Segrè

Emilio Gino Segrè (1 February 1905 – 22 April 1989) was an Italian-American physicist and Nobel laureate, who discovered the elements technetium and astatine, and the antiproton, a subatomic antiparticle, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1959.

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Enriched uranium

Enriched uranium is a type of uranium in which the percent composition of uranium-235 has been increased through the process of isotope separation.

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Enrico Fermi Award

The Enrico Fermi Award is an award honoring scientists of international stature for their lifetime achievement in the development, use, or production of energy.

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Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award

The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award was established in 1959 in honor of a scientist who helped elevate American physics to the status of world leader in the field.

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Ernest Rutherford

Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, HFRSE LLD (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937) was a New Zealand-born British physicist who came to be known as the father of nuclear physics.

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Ernest Walton

Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton (6 October 1903 – 25 June 1995) was an Irish physicist and Nobel laureate for his work with John Cockcroft with "atom-smashing" experiments done at Cambridge University in the early 1930s, and so became the first person in history to artificially split the atom.

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Eugene Gardner

Milton Eugene Gardner (February 10, 1901 – 1986) was an American physicist who worked on radar systems at the Radiation Laboratory in Massachusetts.

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A eulogy (from εὐλογία, eulogia, Classical Greek, eu for "well" or "true", logia for "words" or "text", together for "praise") is a speech or writing in praise of a person(s) or thing(s), especially one who recently died or retired or as a term of endearment.

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Faraday Medal

The Faraday Medal is the top medal awarded by the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) (previously called the Institution of Electrical Engineers).

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Fast neutron therapy

Fast neutron therapy utilizes high energy neutrons typically between 50 and 70 MeV to treat cancer.

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Frank Oppenheimer

No description.

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Franklin D. Roosevelt

Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.

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Gabor Medal and Prize

The Gabor Medal and Prize (previously the Duddell Medal and Prize until 2008) is a prize awarded biennually by the Institute of Physics for distinguished contributions to the application of physics in an industrial, commercial or business context.

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Gaseous diffusion

Gaseous diffusion is a technology used to produce enriched uranium by forcing gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF6) through semipermeable membranes.

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Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.

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George Kauffman

George B. Kauffman (born 1930 in Philadelphia) is an American chemist.

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Glenn T. Seaborg

Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912February 25, 1999) was an American chemist whose involvement in the synthesis, discovery and investigation of ten transuranium elements earned him a share of the 1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

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Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.

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Helium-3 (He-3, also written as 3He, see also helion) is a light, non-radioactive isotope of helium with two protons and one neutron (common helium having two protons and two neutrons).

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Holley Medal

The Holley Medal is an award of ASME (the American Society of Mechanical Engineers) for "outstanding and unique act(s) of an engineering nature, accomplishing a noteworthy and timely public benefit by one or more individuals for a single achievement, provided the contributions are equal or comparable." at asme.org. Accessed 08-05-2017 The award was established in 1924 in honor of the American mechanical engineer, inventor and charter member of ASME Alexander Lyman Holley (18132-1888).

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House Un-American Activities Committee

The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC, or House Committee on Un-American Activities, or HCUA) was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives.

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Hughes Medal

The Hughes Medal is awarded by the Royal Society of London "in recognition of an original discovery in the physical sciences, particularly electricity and magnetism or their applications".

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Human rights

Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.

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Ileostomy is a stoma (surgical opening) constructed by bringing the end or loop of small intestine (the ileum) out onto the surface of the skin, or the surgical procedure which creates this opening.

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Isotope separation

Isotope separation is the process of concentrating specific isotopes of a chemical element by removing other isotopes.

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Isotopes of neptunium

Neptunium (93Np) is usually considered an artificial element, although trace quantities are found in nature, so thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given.

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J. Robert Oppenheimer

Julius Robert Oppenheimer (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley.

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James Bryant Conant

James Bryant Conant (March 26, 1893 – February 11, 1978) was an American chemist, a transformative President of Harvard University, and the first U.S. Ambassador to West Germany.

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James Chadwick

Sir James Chadwick, (20 October 1891 – 24 July 1974) was an English physicist who was awarded the 1935 Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of the neutron in 1932.

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Jesse Beams

Jesse Wakefield Beams (December 25, 1898 in Belle Plaine, Kansas – July 23, 1977) was an American physicist at the University of Virginia.

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John Cockcroft

Sir John Douglas Cockcroft, (27 May 1897 – 18 September 1967) was a British physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1951 for splitting the atomic nucleus with Ernest Walton, and was instrumental in the development of nuclear power.

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John Foster Dulles

John Foster Dulles (February 25, 1888May 24, 1959) was an American diplomat.

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John Francis Neylan

John Francis Neylan (November 6, 1885 - August 19, 1960) was an American lawyer, journalist, political and educational figure.

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John H. Lawrence

John Hundale Lawrence (January 7, 1904 – September 7, 1991) was an American physicist and physician best known for pioneering the field of nuclear medicine.

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John Reginald Richardson

John Reginald Richardson (1912 in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada – 25 November 1997 in Fremont, California) was a Canadian-American physicist and one of the dominant figures in cyclotron development.

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K-25 was the codename given by the Manhattan Project to the program to produce enriched uranium for atomic bombs using the gaseous diffusion method.

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Karl Taylor Compton

Karl Taylor Compton (September 14, 1887 – June 22, 1954) was a prominent American physicist and president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) from 1930 to 1948.

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Kenneth Ross MacKenzie

Kenneth Ross MacKenzie (June 15, 1912 – July 4, 2002) together with Dale R. Corson and Emilio Segrè, synthesized the element astatine, in 1940.

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Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), commonly referred to as Berkeley Lab, is a United States national laboratory located in the Berkeley Hills near Berkeley, California that conducts scientific research on behalf of the United States Department of Energy (DOE).

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Lawrence Hall of Science

The Lawrence Hall of Science is a public science center that offers hands-on science exhibits, designs curriculum, aids professional development, and offers after school science resources to students of all ages.

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Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is an American federal research facility in Livermore, California, United States, founded by the University of California, Berkeley in 1952.

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Lawrencium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Lr (formerly Lw) and atomic number 103.

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Legion of Honour

The Legion of Honour, with its full name National Order of the Legion of Honour (Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte and retained by all the divergent governments and regimes later holding power in France, up to the present.

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Leslie Groves

Lieutenant General Leslie Richard Groves Jr. (17 August 1896 – 13 July 1970) was a United States Army Corps of Engineers officer who oversaw the construction of the Pentagon and directed the Manhattan Project, a top secret research project that developed the atomic bomb during World War II.

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Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.

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Lewis Strauss

Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss ("straws"; January 31, 1896 – January 21, 1974) was a Jewish American businessman, philanthropist, public official, and naval officer.

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Linear particle accelerator

A linear particle accelerator (often shortened to linac) is a type of particle accelerator that accelerates charged subatomic particles or ions to a high speed by subjecting them to a series of oscillating electric potentials along a linear beamline.

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Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.

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Livermore, California

Livermore (formerly Livermores, Livermore Ranch, and Nottingham) is a city in Alameda County, California, in the United States.

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M. Stanley Livingston

Milton Stanley Livingston (May 25, 1905 – August 25, 1986) was an American accelerator physicist, co-inventor of the cyclotron with Ernest Lawrence, and co-discoverer with Ernest Courant and Hartland Snyder of the strong focusing principle, which allowed development of modern large-scale particle accelerators.

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Magnetic field

A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.

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Manhattan Project

The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.

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Mark Oliphant

Sir Marcus Laurence Elwin "Mark" Oliphant (8 October 1901 – 14 July 2000) was an Australian physicist and humanitarian who played an important role in the first experimental demonstration of nuclear fusion and also the development of nuclear weapons.

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Mass spectrometry

Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.

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Master of Arts

A Master of Arts (Magister Artium; abbreviated MA; also Artium Magister, abbreviated AM) is a person who was admitted to a type of master's degree awarded by universities in many countries, and the degree is also named Master of Arts in colloquial speech.

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MAUD Committee

The MAUD Committee was a British scientific working group formed during the Second World War.

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Medal for Merit

The Medal for Merit was, during the period it was awarded, the highest civilian decoration of the United States, awarded by the President of the United States to civilians for "exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services...

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Merle Tuve

Merle Anthony Tuve (June 27, 1901 – May 20, 1982) was an American geophysicist who was the founding director of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory.

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MIT Radiation Laboratory

The Radiation Laboratory, commonly called the Rad Lab, was a microwave and radar research laboratory located at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (US).

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National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (also known as "NASEM" or "the National Academies") is the collective scientific national academy of the United States.

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New Haven, Connecticut

New Haven is a coastal city in the U.S. state of Connecticut.

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New Mexico

New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.

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Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Nobel Prize in Chemistry

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.

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Nobel Prize in Physics

The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.

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Norris Bradbury

Norris Edwin Bradbury (30 May 1909 – 20 August 1997), was an American physicist who served as Director of the Los Alamos National Laboratory for 25 years from 1945 to 1970.

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Northfield, Minnesota

Northfield is a city in Dakota and Rice counties in the State of Minnesota.

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Nuclear chemistry

Nuclear chemistry is the subfield of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes, such as nuclear transmutation, and nuclear properties.

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Nuclear fusion

In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).

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Nuclear medicine

Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.

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Nuclear reactor

A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.

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Nuclear weapon

A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).

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Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Oak Ridge is a city in Anderson and Roane counties in the eastern part of the U.S. state of Tennessee, about west of Knoxville.

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Office of Scientific and Technical Information

The Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) is a component of the Office of Science within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

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Palo Alto, California

Palo Alto is a charter city located in the northwest corner of Santa Clara County, California, in the San Francisco Bay Area of the United States.

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Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

The Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT) is the abbreviated name of the 1963 Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water, which prohibited all test detonations of nuclear weapons except for those conducted underground.

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Particle accelerator

A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.

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Particle physics

Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.

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A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.

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Philosophical Magazine

The Philosophical Magazine is one of the oldest scientific journals published in English.

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Phosphorus-32 is a radioactive isotope of phosphorus.

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Photoelectric effect

The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons or other free carriers when light shines on a material.

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A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.

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Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Pierre, South Dakota

Pierre ((Lakota: čhúŋkaške; "fort")) is the state capital of the U.S. state of South Dakota, and the county seat of Hughes County.

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In particle physics, a pion (or a pi meson, denoted with the Greek letter pi) is any of three subatomic particles:,, and.

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Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.

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Plutonium-238 (also known as Pu-238 or 238Pu) is a radioactive isotope of plutonium that has a half-life of 87.7 years.

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Plutonium-239 is an isotope of plutonium.

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Polonium is a chemical element with symbol Po and atomic number 84.

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Polycythemia vera

Polycythemia vera is an uncommon neoplasm in which the bone marrow makes too many red blood cells.

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Proceedings of the Royal Society

Proceedings of the Royal Society is the parent title of two scientific journals published by the Royal Society.

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Project Y

The Los Alamos Laboratory, also known as Project Y, was a secret laboratory established by the Manhattan Project and operated by the University of California during World War II.

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| magnetic_moment.

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Radioactive tracer

A radioactive tracer, or radioactive label, is a chemical compound in which one or more atoms have been replaced by a radionuclide so by virtue of its radioactive decay it can be used to explore the mechanism of chemical reactions by tracing the path that the radioisotope follows from reactants to products.

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The RDS-1 (РДС-1), also known as Izdeliye 501 (device 501) and First Lightning, was the nuclear bomb used in the Soviet Union's first nuclear weapon test.

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Regents of the University of California

The Regents of the University of California is the governing board of the University of California system.

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Republican Party (United States)

The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.

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Research Corporation

Research Corporation for Science Advancement (RCSA) is an organization in the United States devoted to the advancement of science, funding research projects in the physical sciences.

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Robert Andrews Millikan

Robert Andrews Millikan (March 22, 1868 – December 19, 1953) was an American experimental physicist honored with the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1923 for the measurement of the elementary electronic charge and for his work on the photoelectric effect.

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Robert Gordon Sproul

Robert Gordon Sproul (May 22, 1891 – September 10, 1975) was the first system-wide President (1952-1958) of the University of California system, and the last President (11th) of the University of California, Berkeley, serving from 1930 to 1952.

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Robert Serber

Robert Serber (March 14, 1909 – June 1, 1997) was an American physicist who participated in the Manhattan Project.

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Robert W. Wood

Robert Williams Wood (May 2, 1868 – August 11, 1955) was an American physicist and inventor.

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Rockefeller Foundation

The Rockefeller Foundation is a private foundation based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City.

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Rolf Widerøe

Rolf Widerøe (11 July 1902 – 11 October 1996), was a Norwegian accelerator physicist who was the originator of many particle acceleration concepts, including the resonance accelerator and the betatron accelerator.

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S-50 (Manhattan Project)

The S-50 Project was the Manhattan Project's effort to produce enriched uranium by liquid thermal diffusion during World War II.

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San Francisco

San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.

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Seattle is a seaport city on the west coast of the United States.

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Sigma Xi

Sigma Xi: The Scientific Research Honor Society (ΣΞ) is a non-profit honor society for scientists and engineers which was founded in 1886 at Cornell University by a junior faculty member and a handful of graduate students.

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Solvay Conference

The International Solvay Institutes for Physics and Chemistry, located in Brussels, were founded by the Belgian industrialist Ernest Solvay in 1912, following the historic invitation-only 1911 Conseil Solvay, considered a turning point in the world of physics.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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St. Olaf College


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Stanford University

Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.

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Stone & Webster

Stone & Webster was an American engineering services company based in Stoughton, Massachusetts.

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Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Sylvanus Thayer Award

The Sylvanus Thayer Award is an award that is given each year by the United States Military Academy at West Point.

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A synchrotron is a particular type of cyclic particle accelerator, descended from the cyclotron, in which the accelerating particle beam travels around a fixed closed-loop path.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Theoretical physics

Theoretical physics is a branch of physics that employs mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena.

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Thermonuclear weapon

A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction.

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Trinity (nuclear test)

Trinity was the code name of the first detonation of a nuclear weapon.

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Trinity Church on the Green

Trinity Church on the Green or Trinity on the Green is a historic, culturally and community-active parish of the Episcopal Diocese of Connecticut in New Haven, Connecticut of the Episcopal Church.

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Tritium (or; symbol or, also known as hydrogen-3) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen.

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Ulcerative colitis

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a long-term condition that results in inflammation and ulcers of the colon and rectum.

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Uncertainty principle

In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle (also known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle) is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known.

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United States Atomic Energy Commission

The United States Atomic Energy Commission, commonly known as the AEC, was an agency of the United States government established after World War II by U.S. Congress to foster and control the peacetime development of atomic science and technology.

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United States Department of Energy

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.

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United States Department of Energy national laboratories

The United States Department of Energy National Laboratories and Technology Centers are a system of facilities and laboratories overseen by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the purpose of advancing science and technology to fulfill the DOE mission.

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United States Military Academy

The United States Military Academy (USMA), also known as West Point, Army, Army West Point, The Academy or simply The Point, is a four-year coeducational federal service academy located in West Point, New York, in Orange County.

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University of California, Berkeley

The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.

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University of Chicago

The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.

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University of Minnesota

The University of Minnesota, Twin Cities (often referred to as the University of Minnesota, Minnesota, the U of M, UMN, or simply the U) is a public research university in Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minnesota.

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University of South Dakota

The University of South Dakota (or informally USD) is a public coeducational research (R2) university located in the small town community of Vermillion, South Dakota.

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University of Virginia

The University of Virginia (U.Va. or UVA), frequently referred to simply as Virginia, is a public research university and the flagship for the Commonwealth of Virginia.

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University of Washington

The University of Washington (commonly referred to as UW, simply Washington, or informally U-Dub) is a public research university in Seattle, Washington.

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Uranium-235 (235U) is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium.

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Uranium-238 (238U or U-238) is the most common isotope of uranium found in nature, with a relative abundance of 99%.

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Vannevar Bush

Vannevar Bush (March 11, 1890 – June 28, 1974) was an American engineer, inventor and science administrator, who during World War II headed the U.S. Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), through which almost all wartime military R&D was carried out, including initiation and early administration of the Manhattan Project.

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Vermillion, South Dakota

Vermillion (Waséoyuze; "The Place Where Vermilion is Obtained") is a city in and the county seat of Clay County, in the southeastern corner of the state of South Dakota, and the eleventh largest city in the state.

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Walnut Creek, California

Walnut Creek is a city in Contra Costa County, California, United States, located in the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area, about east of the city of Oakland.

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Werner Heisenberg

Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics.

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Wheeler Hall

Wheeler Hall is a building on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley in Berkeley, California in the Classical Revival style.

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William Francis Gray Swann

William Francis Gray Swann (August 29, 1884 – January 29, 1962) was an Anglo-American physicist.

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William Henry Crocker

William Henry Crocker (13 January 1861 – 25 September 1937) was president of Crocker National Bank and was a prominent member of the Republican Party.

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William L. Laurence

William Leonard Laurence (March 7, 1888 – March 19, 1977) was a Jewish Lithuanian-born American journalist known for his science journalism writing of the 1940s and 1950s while working for The New York Times.

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William Procter Prize for Scientific Achievement

The William Procter Prize for Scientific Achievement is an award given by Sigma Xi, a scientific-research honor society.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Y-12 National Security Complex

The Y-12 National Security Complex is a United States Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration facility located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, near the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

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Yale School of Medicine

The Yale School of Medicine is the graduate medical school at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut.

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Yale University

Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.

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Redirects here:

E. O. Lawrence, Ernest O. Lawrence, Ernest Orlando Lawrence.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernest_Lawrence

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