152 relations: Abrasion (geology), Accumulation zone, Aeolian processes, Agricultural productivity, Agriculture, Anders Rapp, Arctic Institute of North America, Arctic Ocean, Arid, Armor (hydrology), Badlands, Bank erosion, Base level, Beaufort Sea, Bioerosion, Biorhexistasy, Boulder, Bridge scour, Canadian Shield, Carbonic acid, Cellular confinement, Channeled Scablands, Clastic rock, Clay, Climate, Climate change, Coastal sediment supply, Columbia River drainage basin, Corrosion, Crust (geology), Debris flow, Deforestation, Deposition (geology), Desertification, Downcutting, Downhill creep, Drop (liquid), Drumlin, Earth science, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, East European Platform, Ecological collapse, Environmental issue, Ephemerality, Eutrophication, Extensional tectonics, Feedback, Fetch (geography), Fluid dynamics, Food security, ..., Geomorphology, Geomorphology (journal), Glacial buzzsaw, Glacial erratic, Glacial landform, Glacier, Global warming, Gravity, Great Plains, Groundwater, Groundwater sapping, Gully, Head cut (stream geomorphology), Headward erosion, Highly erodible land, Highway, Himalayas, Hydraulic action, Hydraulics, Ice jacking, Inceptisol, Intensive farming, Isostasy, Isostatic depression, Kärkevagge, Kinetic energy, Kolk (vortex), Lake Ladoga, Lake Missoula, Land degradation, Landslide, Lena River, Lessivage, Limestone, Longshore drift, Mantle (geology), Mass wasting, Meander, Midwestern United States, Moraine, Mountain range, Nanga Parbat, National Snow and Ice Data Center, Natural landscape, Negative feedback, Ordovician, Orogeny, Pebble, Peneplain, Permafrost, Permeability (earth sciences), Plucking (glaciation), Post-glacial rebound, Post-orogenic collapse, Rain, Raised beach, Retreat of glaciers since 1850, Rill, Riparian zone, River, River anticlines, River bank failure, River channel migration, Road, Rock (geology), Rock-cut basin, Saltation (geology), Scree, Sediment, Sediment transport, Semi-arid climate, Shingle beach, Shoal, Sinkhole, Slump (geology), Soil, Soil erosion, Soil horizon, Solution, Space weathering, Sphericity scale, Spit (landform), Summit accordance, Surface runoff, Suspension (chemistry), Taiwan, Tectonic uplift, TERON (Tillage erosion), Timanide Orogen, U-shaped valley, Urban sprawl, Urbanization, Valley, Vegetation, Vetiver System, Vortex, Washington (state), Wave pounding, Weathering, Western Europe, Wind, Wind wave. Expand index (102 more) » « Shrink index
Abrasion is a process of erosion which occurs when material being transported wears away at a surface over time.
On a glacier, the accumulation zone is the area above the firn line, where snowfall accumulates and exceeds the losses from ablation, (melting, evaporation, and sublimation).
Aeolian processes, also spelled eolian or æolian, pertain to wind activity in the study of geology and weather and specifically to the wind's ability to shape the surface of the Earth (or other planets).
Agricultural productivity is measured as the ratio of agricultural outputs to agricultural inputs.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Anders Rapp (1927–1998) was a Swedish geomorphologist and geographer who pioneered quantitative geomorphological approach on mass movements and erosion.
The Arctic Institute of North America is a multi-disciplinary research institute and educational organization located in the University of Calgary.
The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans.
A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life.
In hydrology and geography, armor is the association of surface pebbles, rocks or boulders with stream beds or beaches.
Badlands are a type of dry terrain where softer sedimentary rocks and clay-rich soils have been extensively eroded by wind and water.
Bank erosion is the wearing away of the banks of a stream or river.
In geology and geomorphology a base level is the lower limit for an erosion process.
The Beaufort Sea (Mer de Beaufort) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, located north of the Northwest Territories, the Yukon, and Alaska, west of Canada's Arctic islands.
Bioerosion describes the breakdown of hard ocean substrates – and less often terrestrial substrates – by living organisms.
The Theory of Biorhexistasy describes climatic conditions necessary for periods of soil formation (pedogenesis) separated by periods of soil erosion.
In geology, a boulder is a rock fragment with size greater than in diameter.
Bridge scour is the removal of sediment such as sand and gravel from around bridge abutments or piers.
The Canadian Shield, also called the Laurentian Plateau, or Bouclier canadien (French), is a large area of exposed Precambrian igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks (geological shield) that forms the ancient geological core of the North American continent (the North American Craton or Laurentia).
Carbonic acid is a chemical compound with the chemical formula H2CO3 (equivalently OC(OH)2).
Cellular confinement systems (CCS)—also known as geocells—are widely used in construction for erosion control, soil stabilization on flat ground and steep slopes, channel protection, and structural reinforcement for load support and earth retention.
The Channeled Scablands are a relatively barren and soil-free region of interconnected relict and dry flood channels, coulees and cataracts eroded through Palouse loess and into typically flat-lying basalt flows by cataclysmic floods within eastern part of the U.S. state of Washington.
Clastic rocks are composed of fragments, or clasts, of pre-existing minerals and rock.
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
Coastal sediment supply is the transport of sediment to the beach environment by both fluvial and aeolian transport.
The Columbia River drainage basin is the drainage basin of the Columbia River in the Pacific Northwest region of North America.
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
Debris flows are geological phenomena in which water-laden masses of soil and fragmented rock rush down mountainsides, funnel into stream channels, entrain objects in their paths, and form thick, muddy deposits on valley floors.
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.
Deposition is the geological process in which sediments, soil and rocks are added to a landform or land mass.
Desertification is a type of land degradation in which a relatively dry area of land becomes increasingly arid, typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife.
Downcutting, also called erosional downcutting, downward erosion or vertical erosion is a geological process by hydraulic action that deepens the channel of a stream or valley by removing material from the stream's bed or the valley's floor.
Downhill creep, also known as soil creep or commonly just creep, is the slow downward progression of rock and soil down a low grade slope; it can also refer to slow deformation of such materials as a result of prolonged pressure and stress.
A drop or droplet is a small column of liquid, bounded completely or almost completely by free surfaces.
A drumlin, from the Irish word droimnín ("littlest ridge"), first recorded in 1833, and in the classical sense is an elongated hill in the shape of an inverted spoon or half-buried egg formed by glacial ice acting on underlying unconsolidated till or ground moraine.
Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of natural science related to the planet Earth.
Earth Surface Processes and Landforms is the journal of the British Society for Geomorphology (BSG), formerly the British Geomorphological Research Group (BGRG) and is an international journal of geomorphology, publishing on all aspects of Earth Surface Science.
The East European Platform or Russian Platform is a large and flat area covered by sediments in Eastern Europe spanning from the Ural Mountains to the Tornquist Zone and from the Peri-Caspian Basin to the Barents Sea.
Ecological collapse refers to a situation where an ecosystem suffers a drastic, possibly permanent, reduction in carrying capacity for all organisms, often resulting in mass extinction.
Environmental issues are harmful effects of human activity on the biophysical environment.
Ephemerality (from Greek εφήμερος – ephemeros, literally "lasting only one day") is the concept of things being transitory, existing only briefly.
Eutrophication (from Greek eutrophos, "well-nourished"), or hypertrophication, is when a body of water becomes overly enriched with minerals and nutrients that induce excessive growth of plants and algae.
Extensional tectonics is concerned with the structures formed, and the tectonic processes associated with, the stretching of a planetary body's crust or lithosphere.
Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop.
The fetch, also called the fetch length, is the length of water over which a given wind has blown.
In physics and engineering, fluid dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids - liquids and gases.
Food security is a condition related to the availability of food supply, group of people such as (ethnicities, racial, cultural and religious groups) as well as individuals' access to it.
Geomorphology (from Ancient Greek: γῆ, gê, "earth"; μορφή, morphḗ, "form"; and λόγος, lógos, "study") is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface.
Geomorphology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal about geomorphology.
The glacial buzzsaw is a hypothesis claiming erosion by warm-based glaciers is key to limit the height of mountains above certain threshold altitude.
Indian Rock in the Village of Montebello, New York A glacial erratic is a piece of rock that differs from the size and type of rock native to the area in which it rests.
Glacial landforms are landforms created by the action of glaciers.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
The Great Plains (sometimes simply "the Plains") is the broad expanse of flat land (a plain), much of it covered in prairie, steppe, and grassland, that lies west of the Mississippi River tallgrass prairie in the United States and east of the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. and Canada.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
Groundwater sapping is a geomorphic erosion process that results in the headward migration of channels in response to near constant fluid discharge at a fixed point.
A gully is a landform created by running water, eroding sharply into soil, typically on a hillside.
Head cut in stream geomorphology is an erosional feature of some intermittent and perennial streams where an abrupt vertical drop, also known as a knickpoint in the stream bed occurs.
Headward erosion is erosion at the origin of a stream channel, which causes the origin to move back away from the direction of the stream flow, and so causes the stream channel to lengthen.
In United States agricultural policy, Highly erodible land (HEL) refers to land that is very susceptible to erosion, including fields that have at least 1/3 or of soils with a natural erosion potential of at least 8 times their T value.
A highway is any public or private road or other public way on land.
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.
Hydraulic action is the erosion that occurs when the motion of water against a rock surface produces mechanical weathering.
Hydraulics (from Greek: Υδραυλική) is a technology and applied science using engineering, chemistry, and other sciences involving the mechanical properties and use of liquids.
Ice jacking occurs when water invades a confined space in a structural support or geologic formation, and upon freezing causes structural fracture as the ice expands.
Inceptisols are a soil order in USDA soil taxonomy.
Intensive farming involves various types of agriculture with higher levels of input and output per cubic unit of agricultural land area.
Isostasy (Greek ''ísos'' "equal", ''stásis'' "standstill") is the state of gravitational equilibrium between Earth's crust and mantle such that the crust "floats" at an elevation that depends on its thickness and density.
Isostatic depression is the sinking of large parts of the Earth's crust into the asthenosphere.
Kärkevagge (Northern Sami: Geargevággi, "Stone Valley") is a short (4 km long) valley in Kiruna Municipality, Sweden.
In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.
A kolk (colc) is an underwater vortex created when rapidly rushing water passes an underwater obstacle in boundary areas of high shear.
Lake Ladoga (p or p; Laatokka;; Ladog, Ladoganjärv) is a freshwater lake located in the Republic of Karelia and Leningrad Oblast in northwestern Russia, in the vicinity of Saint Petersburg.
Lake Missoula was a prehistoric proglacial lake in western Montana that existed periodically at the end of the last ice age between 15,000 and 13,000 years ago.
Land degradation is a process in which the value of the biophysical environment is affected by a combination of human-induced processes acting upon the land.
The term landslide or, less frequently, landslip, refers to several forms of mass wasting that include a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep-seated slope failures, mudflows and debris flows.
The Lena (Ле́на,; Зүлхэ; Елюенэ; Өлүөнэ) is the easternmost of the three great Siberian rivers that flow into the Arctic Ocean (the other two being the Ob' and the Yenisey).
Lessivage is a kind of leaching from clay particles being carried down in suspension.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
Longshore drift is a geological process that consists of the transportation of sediments (clay, silt, sand and shingle) along a coast parallel to the shoreline, which is dependent on oblique incoming wind direction.
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.
Mass wasting, also known as slope movement or mass movement, is the geomorphic process by which soil, sand, regolith, and rock move downslope typically as a solid, continuous or discontinuous mass, largely under the force of gravity, but frequently with characteristics of a flow as in debris flows and mudflows.
A meander is one of a series of regular sinuous curves, bends, loops, turns, or windings in the channel of a river, stream, or other watercourse.
The Midwestern United States, also referred to as the American Midwest, Middle West, or simply the Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau (also known as "Region 2").
A moraine is any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris (regolith and rock) that occurs in both currently and formerly glaciated regions on Earth (i.e. a past glacial maximum), through geomorphological processes.
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground.
Nanga Parbat (Urdu), locally known as Diamer, is the ninth highest mountain in the world at above sea level.
The National Snow and Ice Data Center, or NSIDC, is a United States information and referral center in support of polar and cryospheric research.
A natural landscape is the original landscape that exists before it is acted upon by human culture.
Negative feedback (or balancing feedback) occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances.
The Ordovician is a geologic period and system, the second of six periods of the Paleozoic Era.
An orogeny is an event that leads to a large structural deformation of the Earth's lithosphere (crust and uppermost mantle) due to the interaction between plate tectonics.
A pebble is a clast of rock with a particle size of 2 to 64 millimetres based on the Krumbein phi scale of sedimentology.
In geomorphology and geology a peneplain is a low-relief plain formed by protracted erosion.
In geology, permafrost is ground, including rock or (cryotic) soil, at or below the freezing point of water for two or more years.
Permeability in fluid mechanics and the earth sciences (commonly symbolized as κ, or k) is a measure of the ability of a porous material (often, a rock or an unconsolidated material) to allow fluids to pass through it.
Plucking, also referred to as quarrying, is a glacial phenomenon that is responsible for the erosion and transportation of individual pieces of bedrock, especially large "joint blocks".
Post-glacial rebound (also called isostatic rebound or crustal rebound) is the rise of land masses after the lifting of the huge weight of ice sheets during the last glacial period, which had caused isostatic depression.
A post-orogenic collapse is the loss of height and lateral spread out of mass of an orogen as consequence of the cessation or overcoming of the tectonic forces that formed the orogeny.
Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then becomes heavy enough to fall under gravity.
A raised beach, coastal terrace,Pinter, N (2010): 'Coastal Terraces, Sealevel, and Active Tectonics' (educational exercise), from or perched coastline is a relatively flat, horizontal or gently inclined surface of marine origin,Pirazzoli, PA (2005a): 'Marine Terraces', in Schwartz, ML (ed) Encyclopedia of Coastal Science. Springer, Dordrecht, pp.
The retreat of glaciers since 1850 affects the availability of fresh water for irrigation and domestic use, mountain recreation, animals and plants that depend on glacier-melt, and, in the longer term, the level of the oceans.
Landscape shaped by erosion rill. Volgograd Oblast, Russia. In hillslope geomorphology, a rill is a shallow channel (no more than a few tens of centimetres deep) cut into soil by the erosive action of flowing water.
A riparian zone or riparian area is the interface between land and a river or stream.
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.
A river anticline is a geologic structure that is formed by the focused uplift of rock caused by high erosion rates from large rivers relative to the surrounding areas.
River bank failure can be caused when the gravitational forces acting on a bank exceed the forces which hold the sediment together.
River channel migration is the geomorphological process that involves the lateral migration of an alluvial river channel across its floodplain.
A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places that has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance, including a motor vehicle, cart, bicycle, or horse.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
A rock-cut basin, in this usage of the term, is a natural phenomenon.
In geology, saltation (from Latin saltus, "leap") is a specific type of particle transport by fluids such as wind or water.
Scree is a collection of broken rock fragments at the base of crags, mountain cliffs, volcanoes or valley shoulders that has accumulated through periodic rockfall from adjacent cliff faces.
Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.
Sediment transport is the movement of solid particles (sediment), typically due to a combination of gravity acting on the sediment, and/or the movement of the fluid in which the sediment is entrained.
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.
A shingle beach (also referred to as rocky beach or pebble beach) is a beach which is armoured with pebbles or small- to medium-sized cobbles (as opposed to fine sand).
In oceanography, geomorphology, and earth sciences, a shoal is a natural submerged ridge, bank, or bar that consists of, or is covered by, sand or other unconsolidated material, and rises from the bed of a body of water to near the surface.
A sinkhole, also known as a cenote, sink, sink-hole, swallet, swallow hole, or doline (the different terms for sinkholes are often used interchangeably), is a depression or hole in the ground caused by some form of collapse of the surface layer.
A slump is a form of mass wasting that occurs when a coherent mass of loosely consolidated materials or rock layers moves a short distance down a slope.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
Soil erosion is the displacement of the upper layer of soil, one form of soil degradation.
A soil horizon is a layer parallel to the soil surface, whose physical characteristics differ from the layers above and beneath.
In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.
Space weathering is the type of weathering that occurs to any object exposed to the harsh environment of outer space.
The sphericity scale is a measure used by geologists and geographers which measures the sphericity of a stone or particle.
A spit or sandspit is a deposition bar or beach landform off coasts or lake shores.
Altai region of Russia. A summit accordance exists when hill and mountaintops tops, and eventually also plateaux, have such disposition that they form a geometric plane that may be either horizontal or tilted.
Surface runoff (also known as overland flow) is the flow of water that occurs when excess stormwater, meltwater, or other sources flows over the Earth's surface.
In chemistry, a suspension is a heterogeneous mixture that contains solid particles sufficiently large for sedimentation.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Tectonic uplift is the portion of the total geologic uplift of the mean Earth surface that is not attributable to an isostatic response to unloading.
TERON is a foundation dedicated to the assessment of tillage related erosion in Europe.
The Timanide Orogen (Ороген Протоуралид-Тиманид, literally: "Protouralian–Timanide Orogen") is a pre-Uralian orogen that formed in northeastern Baltica during the Neoproterozoic in the Timanide orogeny.
U-shaped valleys, trough valleys or glacial troughs, are formed by the process of glaciation.
Urban sprawl or suburban sprawl describes the expansion of human populations away from central urban areas into low-density, monofunctional and usually car-dependent communities, in a process called suburbanization.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
A valley is a low area between hills or mountains often with a river running through it.
Vegetation is an assemblage of plant species and the ground cover they provide.
The Vetiver System (VS) is a system of soil and water conservation whose main component is the use of the vetiver plant in hedgerows.
In fluid dynamics, a vortex (plural vortices/vortexes) is a region in a fluid in which the flow revolves around an axis line, which may be straight or curved.
Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.
Wave pounding is the 'sledge hammer' effect of tonnes of water crashing against cliffs.
Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale.
In fluid dynamics, wind waves, or wind-generated waves, are surface waves that occur on the free surface of bodies of water (like oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, canals, puddles or ponds).
Eroded, Erosion (geology), Erosion of land, Erosional, Erosional landform, Erosive, Erotion, Glacial denudation, Glacial erosion, Ice Erosion, Land erosion, River erosion, Sheet Erosion, Soil Erosion, Soil Loss, Soil erotion, Soil loss, Topsoil loss, Topsoil losses, Water erosion, Water worn, Water-worn, Waterworn.