367 relations: Accordion, Adolf Hitler, Adolf Hitler's rise to power, Afrika Korps, Alan Cunningham, Albert Kesselring, Alexander von Falkenhausen, Alfred Gause, Alfred Ingemar Berndt, Allen Dulles, Allies of World War II, Alpenkorps (German Empire), Anti-aircraft warfare, Antisemitism, Archibald Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell, Ariel Sharon, Army Group B, Army Group E, Army of Württemberg, Arras, Atlantic Wall, Avesnes, B. H. Liddell Hart, Baden-Württemberg, Baldur von Schirach, Battle of Alam el Halfa, Battle of Arras (1940), Battle of Bir Hakeim, Battle of Caporetto, Battle of El Agheila, Battle of France, Battle of Gazala, Battle of Greece, Battle of Kasserine Pass, Battle of Medenine, Battle of Singapore, Benghazi, Bernard Montgomery, Bersaglieri, Blaustein, Bonner Fellers, Brega, Brian Horrocks, Bundeswehr, Carl Friedrich Goerdeler, Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel, Caucasus, Chaim ibn Attar, Charles F. 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Accordions (from 19th-century German Akkordeon, from Akkord—"musical chord, concord of sounds") are a family of box-shaped musical instruments of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone type, colloquially referred to as a squeezebox.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Adolf Hitler's rise to power began in Germany in September 1919 when Hitler joined the political party known as the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei – DAP (German Workers' Party).
The Afrika Korps or German Africa Corps (Deutsches Afrikakorps, DAK) was the German expeditionary force in Africa during the North African Campaign of World War II.
General Sir Alan Gordon Cunningham (1 May 1887 – 30 January 1983) was a senior officer of the British Army noted for his victories over Italian forces in the East African Campaign during World War II.
Albert Kesselring (30 November 1885 – 16 July 1960) was a German Luftwaffe Generalfeldmarschall during World War II.
Alexander Ernst Alfred Hermann Freiherr von Falkenhausen (29 October 1878 – 31 July 1966) was a German General and military advisor to Chiang Kai-shek.
Alfred Gause (14 February 1896 – 30 September 1967) was a German general during World War II.
Alfred-Ingemar Berndt (born 22 April 1905 in Bromberg (West Prussia); died 28 March 1945 at Veszprém, Hungary) was a German journalist, writer and close collaborator of Nazi Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels.
Allen Welsh Dulles (April 7, 1893 – January 29, 1969) was an American diplomat and lawyer who became the first civilian Director of Central Intelligence (DCI), and its longest-serving director to date.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
The Alpenkorps was a provisional mountain formation of division size formed by the Imperial German Army during World War I. It was considered by the Allies to be one of the best in the German Army.
Anti-aircraft warfare or counter-air defence is defined by NATO as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action."AAP-6 They include ground-and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements and passive measures (e.g. barrage balloons).
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
Field Marshal Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell, (5 May 1883 – 24 May 1950) was a senior officer of the British Army.
Ariel Sharon (אריאל שרון;,, also known by his diminutive Arik, אַריק, born Ariel Scheinermann, אריאל שיינרמן‎; February 26, 1928 – January 11, 2014) was an Israeli general and politician who served as the 11th Prime Minister of Israel from March 2001 until April 2006.
Army Group B (German: Heeresgruppe B) was the title of three German Army Groups that saw action during World War II.
Army Group E (Heeresgruppe E) was a German Army Group active during World War II.
The army of the German state of Württemberg was until 1918 known in Germany as the Württembergische Armee.
Arras (Atrecht) is the capital (chef-lieu/préfecture) of the Pas-de-Calais department, which forms part of the region of Hauts-de-France; prior to the reorganization of 2014 it was located in Nord-Pas-de-Calais.
The Atlantic Wall (Atlantikwall) was an extensive system of coastal defence and fortifications built by Nazi Germany between 1942 and 1944 along the coast of continental Europe and Scandinavia as a defence against an anticipated Allied invasion of Nazi-occupied Europe from the United Kingdom during World War II.
Avesnes is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France.
Sir Basil Henry Liddell Hart (31 October 1895 – 29 January 1970), commonly known throughout most of his career as Captain B. H. Liddell Hart, was a British soldier, military historian and military theorist.
Baden-Württemberg is a state in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the border with France.
Baldur Benedikt von Schirach (9 May 1907 – 8 August 1974) was a Nazi German politician who is best known for his role as the German Nazi Party's national youth leader and head of the Hitler Youth from 1931 to 1940.
The Battle of Alam el Halfa took place between 30 August and 5 September 1942 south of El Alamein during the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War.
The Battle of Arras, part of the Battle of France, took place during the Second World War on 21 May 1940.
The Battle of Bir Hakeim took place at Bir Hakeim, an oasis in the Libyan desert south and west of Tobruk, during the Battle of Gazala (26 May – 21 June 1942).
The Battle of Caporetto (also known as the Twelfth Battle of the Isonzo, the Battle of Kobarid or the Battle of Karfreit as it was known by the Central Powers) was a battle on the Austro-Italian front of World War I. The battle was fought between the Entente and the Central Powers and took place from 24 October to 19 November 1917, near the town of Kobarid (now in north-western Slovenia, then part of the Austrian Littoral).
The Battle of El Agheila was a brief engagement of the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
The Battle of Gazala (near the modern town of Ayn al Ghazālah) was fought during the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War, west of the port of Tobruk in Libya, from 26 May to 21 June 1942.
The Battle of Greece (also known as Operation Marita, Unternehmen Marita) is the common name for the invasion of Allied Greece by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany in April 1941 during World War II.
The Battle of Kasserine Pass was a battle of the Tunisia Campaign of World War II that took place in February 1943.
The Battle of Medenine, also known as Operation Capri (Unternehmen Capri), was an Axis spoiling attack at Medenine in Tunisia on 6 March 1943.
The Battle of Singapore, also known as the Fall of Singapore, was fought in the South-East Asian theatre of World War II when the Empire of Japan invaded the British stronghold of Singapore—nicknamed the "Gibraltar of the East".
Benghazi (بنغازي) is the second-most populous city in Libya and the largest in Cyrenaica.
Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, (17 November 1887 – 24 March 1976), nicknamed "Monty" and "The Spartan General", was a senior British Army officer who fought in both the First World War and the Second World War.
The Bersaglieri (Marksmen in English) are a corps of the Italian Army originally created by General Alessandro La Marmora on 18 June 1836 to serve in the Army of the Kingdom of Sardinia, later to become the Royal Italian Army.
Blaustein is a town in the district of Alb-Donau Baden-Württemberg in Germany.
Bonner Frank Fellers (February 7, 1896 – October 7, 1973) was a U.S. Army officer who served during World War II as military attaché and psychological warfare director.
Brega, also known as Mersa Brega or Marsa al-Brega (مرسى البريقة, i.e. "Brega Seaport"), is a complex of several smaller towns, industry installations and education establishments situated in Libya on the Gulf of Sidra, the most southerly point of the Mediterranean Sea.
Lieutenant-General Sir Brian Gwynne Horrocks, (7 September 1895 – 4 January 1985) was a British Army officer, chiefly remembered as the commander of XXX Corps in Operation Market Garden and other operations during the Second World War.
The Bundeswehr (Federal Defence) is the unified armed forces of Germany and their civil administration and procurement authorities.
Carl Friedrich Goerdeler (31 July 1884 – 2 February 1945) was a monarchist conservative German politician, executive, economist, civil servant, and opponent of the Nazi regime.
Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel (2 January 1886 – 30 August 1944) was a German general in the Wehrmacht during World War II who was an army level commander.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Ḥayyim ben Moshe ibn Attar also known as the Or ha-Ḥayyim after his popular commentary on the Pentateuch, was a Talmudist and kabbalist; born at Meknes, Morocco, in 1696; died in Jerusalem, Ottoman Empire on 7 July 1743.
World War II veteran Charles F. Marshall (1915 - October 2002) was raised by a German-speaking family in New Jersey, United States, and spoke fluent German.
Charles N'Tchoréré (15 November 1896 – 7 June 1940) was a French (naturalized in 1940) military commander who was shot by Germans in World War II.
Charles William Fox, DFC and Bar, CD (b. 16 February 1920, Guelph, Ontario; d.18 October 2008, Tillsonburg, Ontario) was a Flight Lieutenant in the Royal Canadian Air Force in World War II.
Cherbourg-Octeville is a city and former commune situated at the northern end of the Cotentin peninsula in the northwestern French department of Manche.
Chivalry, or the chivalric code, is an informal, varying code of conduct developed between 1170 and 1220, never decided on or summarized in a single document, associated with the medieval institution of knighthood; knights' and gentlewomen's behaviours were governed by chivalrous social codes.
The Clasp to the Iron Cross (Spange zum Eisernen Kreuz) was a metal medal clasp displayed on the uniforms of German Wehrmacht personnel who had been awarded the Iron Cross in World War I.
Field Marshal Sir Claude John Eyre Auchinleck (21 June 1884 – 23 March 1981) was a British Army commander during the Second World War.
Claus Philipp Maria Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg (15 November 1907 – 21 July 1944) was a German army officer and member of the Bavarian noble family von Stauffenberg, who was one of the leading members of the failed 20 July plot of 1944 to assassinate Adolf Hitler and remove the Nazi Party from power.
The myth of the Clean Wehrmacht (Saubere Wehrmacht), Clean Wehrmacht legend (Legende von der sauberen Wehrmacht), or Wehrmacht's "clean hands" is the belief that the Wehrmacht was an apolitical organization along the lines of its predecessor, the Reichswehr, and was largely innocent of Nazi Germany's crimes, comporting themselves as honorably as the armed forces of the Western Allies.
The Colonial Order of the Star of Italy (Ordine coloniale della Stella d'Italia) was founded as a colonial order of knighthood on 18 June 1914 by King Victor Emmanuel III, to reward soldiers deployed to the colony of Libya.
The Commando Order was issued by the OKW, the High Command of the German armed forces, on 18 October 1942 stating that all Allied commandos encountered in Europe and Africa should be killed immediately without trial, even if in proper uniforms or if they attempted to surrender.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
Cyanide poisoning is poisoning that results from exposure to a number of forms of cyanide.
David T. Zabecki (born 1947) is an American military historian, author and editor.
Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.
The Desert Air Force (DAF), also known chronologically as Air Headquarters Western Desert, Air Headquarters Libya, the Western Desert Air Force, and the First Tactical Air Force (1TAF), was an Allied tactical air force created from No. 204 Group under RAF Middle East Command in North Africa in 1941 to provide close air support to the British Eighth Army.
The German Historical Museum (Deutsches Historisches Museum), known by the acronym DHM, is a museum in Berlin, Germany devoted to German history.
Die Welt ("The World") is a German national daily newspaper, published as a broadsheet by Axel Springer SE.
Dieppe is a coastal community in the Arrondissement of Dieppe in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region of northern France.
Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich (Дми́трий Дми́триевич Шостако́вич|Dmitriy Dmitrievich Shostakovich,; 9 August 1975) was a Russian composer and pianist.
Douglas Porch (born December 29, 1944) is an American military historian and academic.
Dresden (Upper and Lower Sorbian: Drježdźany, Drážďany, Drezno) is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany.
A drumhead court-martial is a court-martial held in the field to hear urgent charges of offences committed in action.
The Dunkirk evacuation, code-named Operation Dynamo, and also known as the Miracle of Dunkirk, was the evacuation of Allied soldiers during World War II from the beaches and harbour of Dunkirk, in the north of France, between 26 May and 4 June 1940.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
Eduard Dietl (21 July 1890 – 23 June 1944) was a German general during World War II who commanded the 20th Mountain Army.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Eighth Army was a field army formation of the British Army during the Second World War, fighting in the North African and Italian campaigns.
El Agheila (العقيلة al-'Uqaylah) is a coastal city at the bottom of the Gulf of Sidra in far western Cyrenaica, Libya.
El Alamein (العلمين.,, literally "the two worlds") is a town in the northern Matrouh Governorate of Egypt.
An embolism is the lodging of an embolus, a blockage-causing piece of material, inside a blood vessel.
Ensign (Late Middle English, from Old French enseigne (12c.) "mark, symbol, signal; flag, standard, pennant", from Latin insignia (plural)) is a junior rank of a commissioned officer in the armed forces of some countries, normally in the infantry or navy.
Brigadier Eric Edward ("Chink") Dorman-Smith (24 July 1895 – 11 May 1969), who later changed his name to Eric Edward Dorman O'Gowan, was an Irish officer whose career in the British Army began in the First World War and closed at the end of the Second World War.
Erich Marcks (6 June 1891 – 12 June 1944) was a German general in the Wehrmacht during World War II.
Erich von Manstein (24 November 1887 – 9 June 1973) was a German commander of the Wehrmacht, Nazi Germany's armed forces during the Second World War.
Ernst Jünger (29 March 1895 – 17 February 1998) was a highly decorated German soldier, author, and entomologist who became publicly known for his World War I memoir Storm of Steel.
Generalleutnant Ernst Maisel (16 September 1896 – 16 December 1978) was a general in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Job Wilhelm Georg Erdmann Erwin von Witzleben (4 December 1881 – 8 August 1944) was a German officer, by 1940 in the rank of Generalfeldmarschall (General Field Marshal), and army commander in the Second World War.
During World War II, Fall Rot (Case Red) was the plan for the second phase of the conquest of France by the German Army and began on 5 June 1940.
Fähnrich is an officer candidate rank in the Austrian Bundesheer and German Bundeswehr.
The Führer Headquarters (Führerhauptquartiere in German), abbreviated FHQ, is a common name for a number of official headquarters used by the Nazi leader Adolf Hitler and various German commanders and officials throughout Europe during the Second World War.
The Führerbegleitbrigade (FBB: Führer escort brigade) was a German armoured brigade and later armoured division (Panzer-Führerbegleitdivision), in World War II.
Adolf Hitler's special train, the Führersonderzug was named Führersonderzug "Amerika" in 1940, and later Führersonderzug "Brandenburg".
Field marshal (or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is a very senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer ranks.
The Field Marshal Rommel Barracks, Augustdorf (Generalfeldmarschall-Rommel-Kaserne, often abbreviated to GFM-Rommel-Kaserne) is a German Army military base located in Augustdorf in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, and the largest base of the German Army.
The First Battle of El Alamein (1–27 July 1942) was a battle of the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War, fought in Egypt between Axis forces (Germany and Italy) of the Panzer Army Africa (Panzerarmee Afrika, which included the Afrika Korps) (Field Marshal (Generalfeldmarschall) Erwin Rommel) and Allied (British Imperial and Commonwealth) forces (Britain, British India, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand) of the Eighth Army (General Claude Auchinleck).
The flag of the United States of America, often referred to as the American flag, is the national flag of the United States.
Fort Capuzzo (Ridotta Capuzzo) was a fort in the colony of Italian Libya, near the Libyan-Egyptian border and next to the Italian Frontier Wire.
Fortress Europe (Festung Europa) was a military propaganda term used by both sides of the Second World War which referred to the areas of Continental Europe occupied by Nazi Germany, as opposed to the United Kingdom across the Channel.
The founding of Rome can be investigated through archaeology, but traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves explain the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and myth.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Franz Halder (30 June 1884 – 2 April 1972) was a German general and the chief of the Oberkommando des Heeres staff (OKH, Army High Command) from 1938 until September 1942, when he was dismissed after frequent disagreements with Adolf Hitler.
Friedrich Wilhelm Ernst Paulus (23 September 1890 – 1 February 1957) was a German general during World War II who commanded the 6th Army.
Friedrich Oskar Ruge (24 December 1894 – 3 July 1985) was an officer in the German Navy and recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross of Nazi Germany.
Friedrich von Mellenthin (30 August 1904 – 28 June 1997) was a German general during World War II.
Fritz Hermann Michael Bayerlein (14 January 1899 – 30 January 1970) was a general in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Friuli-Venezia Giulia (Friûl-Vignesie Julie; Furlanija-Julijska krajina, Friaul-Julisch Venetien; Friul-Venesia Julia; Friul-Unieja Julia) is one of the 20 regions of Italy, and one of five autonomous regions with special statute.
Gastone Gambara (10 November 1890 – 27 February 1962) was an Italian General who participated in the First World War and the Second World War.
The Gau Württemberg-Hohenzollern was an administrative division of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945 in the German state of Württemberg and the Prussian province of Hohenzollern.
Günther von Kluge (30 October 1882 – 19 August 1944) was a German field marshal during World War II.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
Generalfeldmarschall (general field marshal, field marshal general, or field marshal;; abbreviated to Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states and the Holy Roman Empire; in the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, the rank Feldmarschall was used.
Generalleutnant, short GenLt, (lieutenant general) is the second highest general officer rank in the German Army (Heer) and the German Air Force (Luftwaffe).
Generalmajor, short GenMaj, (English: major general) is a general officer rank in many countries, and is identical to and translated as major general.
Geoffrey P. Megargee (born 1959) is an American historian and author who specialises in the World War II military history and the history of the Holocaust.
Georg Stumme (29 July 1886 – 24 October 1942) was a general in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II who briefly commanded of the Axis forces at the beginning of the Second Battle of El Alamein.
Georg-Hans Reinhardt (1 March 1887 – 23 November 1963) was a German general and war criminal during World War II.
General George Smith Patton Jr. (November 11, 1885 – December 21, 1945) was a senior officer of the United States Army who commanded the U.S. Seventh Army in the Mediterranean theater of World War II, but is best known for his leadership of the U.S. Third Army in France and Germany following the Allied invasion of Normandy in June 1944.
Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (12 December 1875 – 24 February 1953) was a Field Marshal in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.
The German Army (Heer) was the land forces component of the Wehrmacht, the regular German Armed Forces, from 1935 until it was demobilized and later dissolved in August 1946.
The German destroyer D187 Rommel was one of three guided-missile destroyers, a modified version of the American, built for the Bundesmarine (West German Navy) during the 1960s.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The German Navy (Deutsche Marine or simply Marine—) is the navy of Germany and part of the unified Bundeswehr ("Federal Defense"), the German Armed Forces.
German resistance to Nazism (German: Widerstand gegen den Nationalsozialismus) was the opposition by individuals and groups in Germany to the National Socialist regime between 1933 and 1945.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Giovanni Messe (10 December 1883 – 18 December 1968) was an Italian general, politician, and field marshal (Maresciallo d'Italia).
Giuseppe "Pippo" Civati (Monza, Italy, 4 August 1975) is an Italian politician, leader of Possibile and a member of the Italian Chamber of Deputies.
The Gold Medal of Military Valour (Medaglia d'oro al valor militare) is an Italian medal established on 21 May 1793 by King Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia "....per bassi ufficiali e soldati che avevano fatto azioni di segnalato valore in guerra" (for deeds of outstanding gallantry in war by junior officers and soldiers).
Goslar is a historic town in Lower Saxony, Germany.
ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.
Halfaya Pass (مَمَرّ حَلْفَيَا translit., known colloquially as Hellfire Pass) is located in Egypt, near the border with Libya.
Hans Speidel (28 October 1897 – 28 November 1984) was a German general during the Second World War and the Cold War, who served as Supreme Commander of the NATO ground forces in Central Europe from 1957 to 1963.
Hans von Funck (23 December 1891 – 14 February 1979) was a German general in the Wehrmacht during World War II, who commanded the 7th Panzer Division and the XXXXVII Panzer Corps.
Hans-Jürgen von Arnim (4 April 1889 – 1 September 1962) was a German general in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II who commanded several armies.
Hans-Ulrich Wehler (September 11, 1931 – July 5, 2014) was a German historian known for his role in promoting social history through the "Bielefeld School", and for his critical studies of 19th-century Germany.
Field Marshal Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis, (10 December 1891 – 16 June 1969) was a senior British Army officer who served with distinction in both the First World War and the Second World War and, afterwards, as Governor General of Canada, the 17th since Canadian Confederation.
Hartmut Bagger (born 17 July 1938) is a retired German general.
Hauptmann is a German word usually translated as captain when it is used as an officer's rank in the German, Austrian and Swiss armies.
Heidenheim an der Brenz (short: Heidenheim; Swabian: Hoidna) is a town in Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany.
Heinrich Eberbach (24 November 1895 – 13 July 1992) was a General der Panzertruppe in the Wehrmacht during World War II.
Heinrich Kirchheim (6 April 1882 – 14 December 1973) was a German generalleutnant who served in both World War I and World War II.
Heinz Wilhelm Guderian (17 June 1888 – 14 May 1954) was a German general during the Nazi era.
General Hendrik Balzazar Klopper (25 September 190331 December 1977) was a South African military commander.
Hermann Hoth (12 April 1885 – 25 January 1971) was a German army commander and war criminal during World War II.
History (originally The History Channel from 1995 to 2008) is a history-based digital cable and satellite television network that is owned by A&E Networks, a joint venture between the Hearst Communications and the Disney–ABC Television Group division of the Walt Disney Company.
The Hitler Youth (German:, often abbreviated as HJ in German) was the youth organisation of the Nazi Party in Germany.
Hobart's Funnies were a number of unusually modified tanks operated during the Second World War by the 79th Armoured Division of the British Army or by specialists from the Royal Engineers.
Hradčany (Hradschin), the Castle District, is the district of the city of Prague, Czech Republic surrounding Prague Castle.
The I SS Panzer Corps (I.SS-Panzerkorps) was a German armoured corps of the Waffen-SS.
The II Corps was a corps-sized formation of the United States Army that was active in both World War I and World War II.
Infantry Attacks (German: Infanterie greift an) is a classic book on military tactics written by Erwin Rommel about his experiences in World War I. At the time of the book's writing in the mid-1930s, Rommel's rank was lieutenant colonel.
In warfare, infiltration tactics involve small independent light infantry forces advancing into enemy rear areas, bypassing enemy front-line strongpoints, possibly isolating them for attack by follow-up troops with heavier weapons.
The Inspector General of the Bundeswehr (Generalinspekteur der Bundeswehr, GenInspBw), also translated as Chief of Staff of the Federal Armed Forces, is the highest-ranking military post held by a commissioned officer in the Bundeswehr, the present-day armed forces of Germany.
The Western Allies of World War II launched the largest amphibious invasion in history when they assaulted Normandy, located on the northern coast of France, on 6 June 1944.
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
The Iron Cross (abbreviated EK) is a former military decoration in the Kingdom of Prussia, and later in the German Empire (1871–1918) and Nazi Germany (1933–1945).
was a Japanese Marshal Admiral of the Navy and the commander-in-chief of the Combined Fleet during World War II until his death.
The Italian Front (Fronte italiano; in Gebirgskrieg, "Mountain war") was a series of battles at the border between Austria-Hungary and Italy, fought between 1915 and 1918 in World War I. Following the secret promises made by the Allies in the Treaty of London, Italy entered the war in order to annex the Austrian Littoral and northern Dalmatia, and the territories of present-day Trentino and South Tyrol.
The Italian XX Motorised Corps was an armoured formation of the Italian army.
Italo Gariboldi (20 April 1879 – 3 February 1970) was a senior officer in the Italian Royal Army (Regio Esercito) before and during World War II.
Jacob wrestling with the angel is an episode from Genesis (32:22-32; also referenced in Hosea 12:4).
Jäger (singular Jäger, plural Jäger) is a German military term that originally referred to light infantry, but has come to have wider usage.
Johann "Hans" Theodor von Ravenstein (1 January 1889 – 26 March 1962) was a German general (generalleutnant) in the Wehrmacht during World War II.
John Joseph Mearsheimer (born December 14, 1947) is an American political scientist.
Paul Joseph Goebbels (29 October 1897 – 1 May 1945) was a German Nazi politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945.
A kangaroo court is a court that ignores recognized standards of law or justice, and often carries little or no official standing in the territory within which it resides.
Karl von Luz (3 August 1824 – 6 November 1899) was a Württembergian politician and civil servant.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of Württemberg (Königreich Württemberg) was a German state that existed from 1805 to 1918, located within the area that is now Baden-Württemberg.
Klaus Naumann (born 25 May 1939 in Munich) is a retired German General, who served as Chief of Staff of the Bundeswehr, the German armed forces, from 1991 to 1996, and as Chairman of the NATO Military Committee from 1996 to 1999, succeeding the British general Richard Frederick Vincent, Baron Vincent of Coleshill.
The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes), or simply the Knight's Cross (Ritterkreuz), and its variants were the highest awards in the military and paramilitary forces of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Kolovrat (Colorât, Colovrat) is a mountain ridge of the Julian Prealps on the border between Slovenia and Italy, northwest of Tolmin and southwest of Kobarid.
Konstantin Hermann Karl Freiherr von Neurath (2 February 1873 – 14 August 1956) was a German diplomat remembered mostly for having served as Foreign minister of Germany between 1932 and 1938.
Lake Garda (Lago di Garda or Lago Benàco, Benacus; Lach de Garda; Łago de Garda) is the largest lake in Italy.
The Type 103 Lütjens class was the last class of destroyers in service with the German Navy.
Leo Freiherr Geyr von Schweppenburg (2 March 1886 – 27 January 1974) was a general in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II, noted for his pioneering stance and expertise in the field of armoured warfare.
Lieutenant General Sir Leslie James Morshead, (18 September 1889 – 26 September 1959) was an Australian soldier, teacher, businessman, and farmer, whose military career spanned both world wars.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
A lieutenant (abbreviated Lt, LT, Lieut and similar) is a junior commissioned officer in the armed forces, fire services, police and other organizations of many nations.
Lieutenant general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries.
Lille (Rijsel; Rysel) is a city at the northern tip of France, in French Flanders.
Lindau (officially in German: Lindau (Bodensee)) is a major town and an island on the eastern side of Lake Constance (Bodensee in German).
Longarone is a town and comune on the banks of the Piave in the province of Belluno, in North-East Italy.
Ludwig Crüwell (20 March 1892 – 25 September 1958), was a general in the Afrika Korps of Nazi Germany during World War II.
The M3 Lee, officially Medium Tank, M3, was an American medium tank used during World War II.
The M4 Sherman, officially Medium Tank, M4, was the most widely used medium tank by the United States and Western Allies in World War II.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Manfred Rommel (24 December 1928 – 7 November 2013) was a German politician belonging to the Christian Democratic Union, who served as Mayor of Stuttgart from 1974 until 1996.
The Mareth Line was a system of fortifications built by France in southern Tunisia, prior to World War II.
Margival is a commune in the Aisne department in Hauts-de-France in northern France.
Martin Blumenson (8 November 1918–15 April 2005) was an American military historian who served as a historical officer with the Third and Seventh Armies in World War II and later became a prolific author.
Martin Kitchen (December 21, 1936, Nottingham, England) is a British-Canadian historian, who has specialized in modern European history, with an emphasis on Germany.
Matajur is a mountain in the Julian Alps on the border between Italy and Slovenia.
Mathematical tables are lists of numbers showing the results of calculation with varying arguments.
The Tank, Infantry, Mk I, Matilda I (A11) was a British infantry tank of the Second World War.
The Infantry Tank Mark II, best known as the Matilda, was a British infantry tank of the Second World War.
Mersa Matruh (مرسى مطروح) is a seaport in Egypt, the capital of the Matrouh Governorate.
The Meuse (la Meuse; Walloon: Moûze) or Maas (Maas; Maos or Maas) is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Middle East Command, later Middle East Land Forces, was a British Army Command established prior to the Second World War in Egypt.
The miles Christianus (Christian soldier) or "miles Christi" (soldier of Christ) is a Christian allegory based on New Testament military metaphors, especially the Armor of God metaphor of military equipment standing for Christian virtues and on certain passages of the Old Testament from the Latin Vulgate.
The Military Merit Order (Militärverdienstorden) was a military order of the Kingdom of Württemberg, which joined the German Empire in 1871.
Moshe Dayan (משה דיין; 20 May 1915 – 16 October 1981) was an Israeli military leader and politician.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
The Naval War College (NWC or NAVWARCOL) is the staff college and "Home of Thought" for the United States Navy at Naval Station Newport in Newport, Rhode Island.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and supported the ideology of Nazism.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
General Sir Neil Methuen Ritchie, (29 July 1897 – 11 December 1983) was a British Army officer who saw service during both the world wars.
Nigel Hamilton (born 16 February 1944) is an award-winning British-born biographer, academic, and broadcaster, whose works have been translated into sixteen languages.
Norman Ohler (born 1970) is a German New York Times bestselling author, novelist and screenwriter, best known for his book Blitzed: Drugs in Nazi Germany, which has been published in over 25 languages.
Herbert Norman Schwarzkopf Jr. (August 22, 1934 – December 27, 2012) was a United States Army general.
Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.
The Normandy landings were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II.
The North African Campaign of the Second World War took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943.
The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW, "High Command of the Armed Forces") was the High Command of the Wehrmacht (armed forces) of Nazi Germany during World War II.
The Oberkommando des Heeres (OKH) was the High Command of the German Army during the Era of Nazi Germany.
Oberleutnant (OF-1a) is the highest lieutenant officer rank in the armed forces of Germany (Bundeswehr), Austrian Armed Forces, and Military of Switzerland.
Oberst is a military rank in several German-speaking and Scandinavian countries, equivalent to Colonel.
Oberstleutnant is a German Army and German Air Force rank equal to lieutenant colonel, above Major, and below Oberst.
The Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the body responsible for the operation of Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO) and of other public information services of the United Kingdom.
Opel (Opel) is a German automobile manufacturer, subsidiary of French automaker Groupe PSA since August 2017.
Operation Achse (Fall Achse, "Case Axis"), originally called Operation Alaric (Unternehmen Alarich), was the codename for the German plan to forcibly disarm the Italian armed forces after the armistice with the Allies in 1943.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Operation Battleaxe was a British Army operation during the Second World War in June 1941, to clear eastern Cyrenaica of German and Italian forces and raise the Siege of Tobruk.
Operation Brevity was a limited offensive conducted in mid-May 1941, during the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War.
Operation Compass was the first large Allied military operation of the Western Desert Campaign (1940–1943) during the Second World War.
Operation Crusader was a military operation during the Second World War by the British Eighth Army against the Axis forces in North Africa between 18 November and 30 December 1941.
Operation Flipper (also called the Rommel Raid) was a British commando raid during the Second World War, carried out mainly by men from No. 11 (Scottish) Commando.
For the Australian immigration checking operation, see Australian Border Force#Operation Fortitude Operation Fortitude was the code name for a World War II military deception employed by the Allied nations as part of an overall deception strategy (code named Bodyguard) during the build-up to the 1944 Normandy landings.
During World War II, Operation Gaff was the parachuting of a six-man patrol of Special Air Service commandos into German-occupied France on Tuesday 25 July 1944, with the aim of killing or kidnapping German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel.
Operation Herkules (Unternehmen Herkules/Operazione C3) was the German code-name given to an abortive plan for the invasion of Malta during World War II.
Operation Sea Lion, also written as Operation Sealion (Unternehmen Seelöwe), was Nazi Germany's code name for the plan for an invasion of the United Kingdom during the Battle of Britain in the Second World War.
Operation Sonnenblume (Unternehmen Sonnenblume/Operation Sunflower) was the name given to the dispatch of German troops to North Africa in February 1941, during the Second World War.
In the field of military theory, the operational level of war (also called the operational art, as derived from оперативное искусство, or the operational warfare) represents the level of command that connects the details of tactics with the goals of strategy.
The Todt Organisation (Organisation Todt, OT) was a civil and military engineering group in the Third Reich from 1933 to 1945, named after its founder, Fritz Todt, an engineer and senior Nazi figure.
Owen Sergeson "Mike" Connelly Jr. (29 January 1924 – 12 July 2011), who published as Owen Connelly, was an American historian who specialized in military history, especially the Napoleonic wars.
Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
As the number of German armed forces committed to the North Africa Campaign of World War II grew from the initial commitment of a small corps the Germans developed a more elaborate command structure and placed the enlarged Afrika Korps, with Italian units under this new German command and a succession of commands were created to manage Axis forces in Africa.
Panzer Battles (Panzerschlachten) is the English language title of Friedrich von Mellenthin's memoirs of his service as a staff officer in the Panzerwaffe of the German Army during World War II.
A panzer division is one of the armored (tank) divisions in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.
The Panzer II is the common name used for a family of German tanks used in World War II.
The Panzer Lehr Division was an elite German armoured division during World War II.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Pas-de-Calais is a department in northern France named after the French designation of the Strait of Dover, which it borders ('pas' meaning passage).
Patrick N. Major (born Surrey, 1964) is a professor of history at the University of Reading.
Paul Hausser (7 October 1880 – 21 December 1972) was a high-ranking commander in the Waffen-SS of Nazi Germany during World War II who played a key role in the post-war efforts by former members of the Waffen-SS to achieve historical and legal rehabilitation.
The People's Court (Volksgerichtshof) was a Sondergericht ("special court") of Nazi Germany, set up outside the operations of the constitutional frame of law.
Peter Caddick-Adams FRHistS (born 1960) is a British military historian at Cranfield University.
The Pour le Mérite (French, literally "For Merit") is an order of merit (Verdienstorden) established in 1740 by King Frederick II of Prussia.
The propaganda used by the German Nazi Party in the years leading up to and during Adolf Hitler's leadership of Germany (1933–1945) was a crucial instrument for acquiring and maintaining power, and for the implementation of Nazi policies.
The Protezione Civile (Civil Protection) department is the national body in Italy that deals with the prediction, prevention and management of exceptional events.
The Qattara Depression (منخفض القطارة Munḫafaḍ al-Qaṭṭārah) is a depression in northwestern Egypt, specifically in the Matruh Governorate.
Randall Hansen is a political scientist and historian at the University of Toronto, where he has held a Canada Research Chair in Political Science since 2005.
The Reich Chancellery (Reichskanzlei) was the traditional name of the office of the Chancellor of Germany (then called Reichskanzler) in the period of the German Reich from 1878 to 1945.
The Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda (Reichsministerium für Volksaufklärung und Propaganda, RMVP or Propagandaministerium) was a Nazi government agency to enforce Nazi ideology.
The Reichswehr (English: Realm Defence) formed the military organisation of Germany from 1919 until 1935, when it was united with the new Wehrmacht (Defence Force).
Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich (7 March 1904 – 4 June 1942) was a high-ranking German Nazi official during World War II, and a main architect of the Holocaust.
Sir Richard John Evans (born 29 September 1947), is a British historian of nineteenth- and twentieth-century Europe with a focus on Germany.
Lawrence Rush "Rick" Atkinson IV (born November 16, 1952) is an American author.
Robert M. Citino (born June 19, 1958) is an American military historian and the Samuel Zemurray Stone Senior Historian at the National WWII Museum.
Roland Freisler (30 October 1893 – 3 February 1945) was a jurist and judge of Nazi Germany.
The Kingdom of Romania was neutral for the first two years of World War I, entering on the side of the Allied powers from 27 August 1916 until Central Power occupation led to the Treaty of Bucharest in May 1918, before reentering the war on 10 November 1918. It had the only oil fields in Europe, and Germany eagerly bought its petroleum, as well as food exports. King Carol favored Germany but after his death in 1914, King Ferdinand and the nation's political elite favored the Entente. For Romania, the highest priority was taking Transylvania from Hungary, with its 3,000,000 Romanians. The Allies wanted Romania to join its side in order to cut the rail communications between Germany and Turkey, and to cut off Germany's oil supplies. Britain made loans, France sent a military training mission, and Russia promised modern munitions. The Allies promised at least 200,000 soldiers to defend Romania against Bulgaria to the south, and help it invade Austria. The Romanian campaign was part of the Balkan theatre of World War I, with Romania and Russia allied with Britain and France against the Central Powers of Germany, Austria, and Turkey. Fighting took place from August 1916 to December 1917 across most of present-day Romania, including Transylvania, which was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the time, as well as in southern Dobruja, which is currently part of Bulgaria. Despite initial successes, the Romanian forces (aided by Russia) suffered massive setbacks, and by the end of 1916 only Moldavia remained. After several defensive victories in 1917, with Russia's withdrawal from the war following the October Revolution, Romania, almost completely surrounded by the Central Powers, was also forced to drop out of the war; it signed the Treaty of Bucharest with the Central Powers in May 1918. On 10 November 1918, just one day before the German armistice and after all the other Central Powers had already capitulated, Romania re-entered the war after the successful Allied advances on the Macedonian Front.
Rommel is a 2012 German television film first shown on Das Erste.
The Rommel Museum is located in Blaustein in the state of Baden-Württemberg in Germany.
The Rommel Museum is a museum dedicated to the memory of German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel in Mersa Matruh in Egypt.
The Rommel myth, or the Rommel legend, is a phrase used by a number of historians in reference to common depictions of German field marshal Erwin Rommel as an apolitical, brilliant commander and a victim of Nazi Germany due to his participation in the 20 July plot against Adolf Hitler.
Rommel's asparagus (German: Rommelspargel - the German word Spargel means '"asparagus") were logs which the Axis placed in the fields and meadows of Normandy to cause damage to the expected invasion of Allied military gliders and paratroopers.
Rommel: The Desert Fox is a 1950 biography of German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel by Desmond Young.
Romulus was the legendary founder and first king of Rome.
Rouen (Frankish: Rodomo; Rotomagus, Rothomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France.
The Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF; Aviation royale canadienne, ARC) is the air force of Canada.
Sainte-Foy-de-Montgommery is a former commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region in northwestern France.
A salient, also known as a bulge, is a battlefield feature that projects into enemy territory.
Sallum, As Sallum, or Sollum (السلوم "Alternative") is a village in Egypt, near the Mediterranean Sea, east of the border with Libya, and around from Tobruk.
Sönke Neitzel (born June 26, 1968) is a German historian who has written extensively about the Second World War.
Schwäbisch Gmünd (until 1934: Gmünd) is a town in the eastern part of the German state of Baden-Württemberg.
The Second Battle of Champagne (Herbstschlacht or Autumn Battle) in World War I was a French offensive against the German army.
The Second Battle of El Alamein (23 October – 11 November 1942) was a battle of the Second World War that took place near the Egyptian railway halt of El Alamein. With the Allies victorious, it was the watershed of the Western Desert Campaign. The First Battle of El Alamein had prevented the Axis from advancing further into Egypt. In August 1942, Lieutenant-General Sir Bernard Law Montgomery took command of the Eighth Army following the sacking of General Claude Auchinleck and the death of his replacement Lieutenant-General William Gott in an air crash. The Allied victory turned the tide in the North African Campaign and ended the Axis threat to Egypt, the Suez Canal and the Middle Eastern and Persian oil fields via North Africa. The Second Battle of El Alamein revived the morale of the Allies, being the first big success against the Axis since Operation Crusader in late 1941. The battle coincided with the Allied invasion of French North Africa in Operation Torch, which started on 8 November, the Battle of Stalingrad and the Guadalcanal Campaign.
The Seine (La Seine) is a river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France.
Josef Dietrich (28 May 1892 – 21 April 1966) was an Oberst-Gruppenführer in the Waffen-SS, the armed paramilitary branch of the Schutzstaffel (SS), who commanded units up to army level during World War II.
A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault.
The Siege of Lille or Lille Pocket was a Second World War battle fought during the Battle of France.
The Siege of Tobruk lasted for 241 days in 1941, after Axis forces advanced through Cyrenaica from El Agheila in Operation Sonnenblume against Allied forces in Libya, during the Western Desert Campaign (1940–1943) of the Second World War.
Siegfried Westphal (18 March 1902 – 2 July 1982) was a German general in the Wehrmacht during World War II.
Sippenhaft or Sippenhaftung (kin liability) is a German term referring to the idea that a family can share the responsibility for a crime or act committed by one of its members; that is, it is a form of collective punishment because of family association.
Sirte (سرت,; from Σύρτις), also spelled Sirt, Surt, Sert or Syrte, is a city in Libya.
The Somme is a river in Picardy, northern France.
Southern Germany as a region has no exact boundary but is generally taken to include the areas in which Upper German dialects are spoken.
Spiegel Online (SPON) is one of the most widely read German-language news websites.
Stackpole Books is an trade publishing company in Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania.
A state funeral is a public funeral ceremony, observing the strict rules of protocol, held to honour people of national significance.
Steven J. Zaloga (born February 1, 1952) is an American historian, defense consultant, and an author on military technology.
The Strategic Studies Institute (SSI) is the U.S. Army's institute for strategic and national security research and analysis.
thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
A suicide pill (also known as the cyanide pill, kill-pill, lethal pill, Death-pill, or L-pill) is a pill, capsule, ampoule, or tablet containing a fatally poisonous substance that a person ingests deliberately in order to quickly commit suicide.
Sun Li-jen (December 8, 1900 – November 19, 1990) KBE was a Chinese Nationalist (KMT) general, a graduate of Virginia Military Institute, best known for his leadership in the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War.
The Supermarine Spitfire is a British single-seat fighter aircraft used by the Royal Air Force and other Allied countries before, during and after World War II.
Swabian is one of the dialect groups of Alemannic German that belong to the High German dialect continuum.
Szymon Datner (2 February 1902, Kraków – 8 December 1989, Warsaw) was a Polish historian of Jewish descent, best known for his studies of Nazi war crimes committed against the Jewish population of the Białystok area (Bezirk Bialystok) after the German attack, across Poland, upon the Soviet Union in June 1941.
Colonel Thomas Edward Lawrence, (16 August 1888 – 19 May 1935) was a British archaeologist, military officer, diplomat, and writer.
Terry Brighton (born 28 April 1949 in Boston, England) is a British military historian and author.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The National WWII Museum, formerly known as The National D-Day Museum, is a military history museum located in the Central Business District of New Orleans, Louisiana, on Andrew Higgins Drive between Camp Street and Magazine Street.
The Theresian Military Academy (Theresianische Militärakademie, TherMilAk) is a military academy in Austria, where the Austrian Armed Forces train their officers.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Timimi, At Timimi (التميمي) or Tmimi, is a small village in Libya about 75 km east of Derna and 100 km west of Tobruk.
Tobruk or Tubruq (Αντίπυργος) (طبرق Ṭubruq; also transliterated as Tóbruch, Tobruch, Tobruck and Tubruk) is a port city on Libya's eastern Mediterranean coast, near the border of Egypt.
Trench warfare is a type of land warfare using occupied fighting lines consisting largely of military trenches, in which troops are well-protected from the enemy's small arms fire and are substantially sheltered from artillery.
Tripoli (طرابلس,; Berber: Oea, or Wy't) is the capital city and the largest city of Libya, with a population of about 1.1 million people in 2015.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
Ulm is a city in the federal German state of Baden-Württemberg, situated on the River Danube.
Ultra was the designation adopted by British military intelligence in June 1941 for wartime signals intelligence obtained by breaking high-level encrypted enemy radio and teleprinter communications at the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) at Bletchley Park.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The United States Naval Institute (USNI), based in Annapolis, Maryland, is a private, non-profit, professional military association that seeks to offer independent, nonpartisan forums for debate of national defense and security issues.
Unity of command is ensuring unity of effort under one responsible person (or commander) for completing a task.
The University Press of Kansas is a publisher located in Lawrence, KS that represents the six state universities in the US state of Kansas: Emporia State University, Fort Hays State University, Kansas State University (K-State), Pittsburg State University, the University of Kansas (KU), and Wichita State University.
The Waffen-SS (Armed SS) was the armed wing of the Nazi Party's SS organisation.
Walburga Stemmer (March 1892–October 1928) was a woman who had an affair with Erwin Rommel and gave birth to his daughter, Gertrud Stemmer (later Mrs. Gertrud Pan), on December 8, 1913.
Walter Rauff (19 June 1906 – 14 May 1984) was a mid-ranking SS commander in Nazi Germany.
Walther von Brauchitsch (4 October 1881 – 18 October 1948) was a German field marshal and the Commander-in-Chief of the German Army during the Nazi era.
War In History is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the field of History.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
(German for "wine garden") is a town with a population of 24,000 in Württemberg, in the District of Ravensburg, in the valley of the Schussen River.
Wesley Kanne Clark, Sr. (born December 23, 1944) is a retired General of the United States Army.
The Western Desert Campaign (Desert War), took place in the deserts of Egypt and Libya and was the main theatre in the North African Campaign during the Second World War.
The Western Desert Force (WDF) was a British Army formation active in Egypt during the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War.
Wiederbewaffnung (rearmament) refers to the United States's program to help build up the military of West Germany after World War II.
Wiener Neustadt is a city located south of Vienna, in the state of Lower Austria, in north-east Austria.
Wilhelm Bittrich (26 February 1894 – 19 April 1979) was a high-ranking Waffen-SS commander of Nazi Germany.
Wilhelm Emanuel Burgdorf (15 February 1895 – 2 May 1945) was a German general in the Wehrmacht during World War II, who served as a commander and staff officer in the German Army (Wehrmacht) (army).
Wilhelm Keitel (22 September 1882 – 16 October 1946) was a German field marshal who served as Chief of the Armed Forces High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht or OKW) in Nazi Germany during World War II.
Lieutenant-General William Henry Ewart Gott, & Bar, MC (13 August 1897 – 7 August 1942), nicknamed "Strafer", was a senior British Army officer who fought during both World War I and World War II, reaching the rank of lieutenant-general while serving with the British Eighth Army.
Wolf "Hecki" Heckmann (10 February 1929 – 13 December 2006) was a German journalist.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The XIII (Royal Württemberg) Army Corps / XIII AK (XIII.) was a corps of the Imperial German Army.
XIII Corps was a corps-sized formation of the British Army that fought on the Western Front during the First World War and was reformed for service during the Second World War, serving in the Mediterranean and Middle East throughout its service.
XXX Corps (30 Corps) was a corps of the British Army during the Second World War.
101st Motorised Division Trieste or 101° Divisione Trieste (Italian) was a Motorised Division of the Italian Army during World War II.
The 10th Panzer Division was a formation of the German Army during World War II.
12th SS Panzer Division "Hitlerjugend" (12.) was a German armoured division of the Waffen-SS during World War II.
The Ariete Armoured Division was an armoured division of the Italian Army during World War II.
The 15th Panzer Division (15.) was an armoured division in the German Army, the Wehrmacht, during World War II, established in 1940.
The 1st SS Panzer Division "Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler", short LSSAH, (1.) began as Adolf Hitler's personal bodyguard, responsible for guarding the Führer's person, offices, and residences.
On 20 July 1944, Claus von Stauffenberg and other conspirators attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler, Führer of Nazi Germany, inside his Wolf's Lair field headquarters near Rastenburg, East Prussia.
The 21st Panzer Division was a German armoured division best known for its role in the battles of the North African Campaign from 1941–1943 during World War II when it was one of the two armoured divisions making up the Deutsches Afrikakorps (DAK).
The German 23rd Infantry Division was a military unit operational during World War II.
The Australian 26th Brigade was an Australian Army infantry brigade of World War II.
The 29th Indian Infantry Brigade was an infantry brigade formation of the Indian Army during World War II.
The 2nd New Zealand Division, initially the New Zealand Division, was an infantry division of the New Zealand Military Forces (New Zealand's army) during the Second World War.
The 2nd SS Panzer Division "Das Reich" (2. SS-Panzerdivision "Das Reich".) was one of 38 divisions of the Waffen-SS of Nazi Germany during World War II.
The 3rd SS Panzer Division "Totenkopf" (3. SS-Panzerdivision "Totenkopf".) was one of 38 divisions of the Waffen-SS of Nazi Germany during World War II.
The 44th Infantry Division was formed on 1 April 1938 in Vienna, about two weeks after the Anschluss of Austria.
The 50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division was an infantry division of the British Army that saw distinguished service in the Second World War.
The 5th Panzer Division (5th Tank Division) was an armoured division in the German Army, the Wehrmacht, during World War II, established in 1938.
The Italian 60th "Sabratha" Infantry Division was an Italian auto-transportable infantry division during World War II.
The 70th Infantry Division was an infantry division of the British Army that fought during the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War.
The 7th Armoured Division was an armoured division of the British Army that saw distinguished active service during World War II, where its exploits in the Western Desert Campaign gained it the Desert Rats nickname.
The 7th Division was an infantry division of the Australian Army.
The 7th Panzer Division was an armored formation of the German Army in World War II.
The 90th Light Infantry Division was a light infantry division of the German Army during World War II that served in North Africa as well as Sardinia and Italy.
The 9th Division was a division of the Australian Army that served during World War II.
Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel, Erwin Johannes Eugin Rommel, Erwin Rommell, Erwin rommel, Field Marshal Rommel, General Erwin Rommel, General Rommel, Irwin Rommel, Rommel, Wuestenfuchs, Wustenfuchs, Wüstenfuchs.