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Index Erzurum

Erzurum (Կարին) is a city in eastern Anatolia (Asian Turkey). [1]

197 relations: Abaza Mehmed Pasha, Abdallah ibn Abd al-Malik, Acun Ilıcalı, Adnan Polat, Anastasius I Dicorus, Anatolia, Anatolian beyliks, Andris Piebalgs, Annuario Pontificio, Aq Qoyunlu, Arabic, Arabs, Aram Ter-Ghevondyan, Arif Sağ, Armand (photographer), Armen Garo, Armenia, Armenian Genocide, Armenian language, Armenian Revolutionary Federation, Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia, Armenians, Arsacid dynasty of Armenia, Artaxiad dynasty, Assyrian people, Atatürk University, Çifte Minareli Medrese, Çobandede Bridge, İbrahim Hakkı Erzurumi, Bagaran (ancient city), Baku, Balkans, Basil II, Battle of Chaldiran, Battle of Erzurum (1821), Battle of Erzurum (1877), Battle of Manzikert, Börek, BBC News, Byzantine Armenia, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine–Sasanian War of 572–591, Byzantium, Cağ kebabı, Caliphate, Caspian Sea, Catholicos of All Armenians, Caucasus Campaign, Celali rebellions, Cemal Gürsel, ..., Chalcedonian Christianity, Chalcedonian Definition, Chorba, Christian, Cold War, Communist Party of Greece, Council of Chalcedon, Crimean War, Diauehi, Dolma, Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, Emir, Empire of Trebizond, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Encyclopædia Iranica, Erzurum, Erzurum Airport, Erzurum Congress, Erzurum Eyalet, Erzurum GSIM Ice Arena, Erzurum Offensive, Erzurum Province, Erzurumspor, European Commissioner for Energy, European Union, Eutyches, Fethullah Gülen, Flavian of Constantinople, Frank Lenz (cyclist), Further-eastern European Time, Galatasaray S.K., Gourgen Yanikian, Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia (1856–1929), Greater Armenia, Halil İnalcık, Hamidian massacres, HarperCollins, House of Karen, Humid continental climate, Ilkhanate, Johannes Avetaranian, John I Tzimiskes, José Manuel Barroso, Justice and Development Party (Turkey), Justinian I, Kamsarakan, Kara Koyunlu, Karin (historic Armenia), Kars, Kazım Karabekir Stadium, Köppen climate classification, Kebab, Keri (fedayi), Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity), Kingdom of Georgia, Kiremitliktepe Ski Jump, Lala Mustafa Pasha, List of Byzantine emperors, List of largest cities and towns in Turkey, List of Presidents of Turkey, List of sovereign states, Marius Canard, Markos Vafeiadis, Maurice (emperor), Melike Mama Hatun, Metropolitan municipalities in Turkey, Middle Ages, Milli Piyango Curling Arena, Monastery of Saint Minas of Kes, Monophysitism, Mosque, Movses Khorenatsi, Muslim conquest of Armenia, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Nabucco pipeline, Nader Shah, NATO, Natural gas, Nef'i, Nene Hatun, Nestorianism, Nikita Balieff, Nikolai Yudenich, Orhun Ene, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Turks, Ottoman–Persian War (1730–35), Ottoman–Persian wars, Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Pahlavuni, Palandöken Ice Skating Hall, Palandöken Mountain, Parthian Empire, Peace of Acilisene, Pilaf, President of the European Commission, Provinces of Turkey, Qajar dynasty, Ranking member, Rûm, Recep Akdağ, Richard G. Hovannisian, Richard Lugar, Richard Morningstar, Roman Armenia, Roman province, Russian Empire, Russian Ground Forces, Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829), Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878), Safavid dynasty, Saltukids, Sasanian Empire, Süper Lig, Selim I, Seljuq dynasty, Skiing, South Caucasus Pipeline, Suffragan bishop, Suleiman II (Rûm), Sultanate of Rum, Tbilisi, TFF Third League, Theodosius I, Theophilos Kourkouas, Timur, Titular see, Treaty of Adrianople (1829), Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Treaty of San Stefano, Turkey, Turkish Air Force, Turkish War of Independence, Umayyad Caliphate, United States Senate, United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Special Envoy for Eurasian Energy, Urartu, Urmia, Vahakn Dadrian, Vartkes Serengülian, Winter sport, World War I, 2011 Winter Universiade, 2012 European Curling Championships, 2012 IIHF World Championship Division III, 2012 World Mixed Doubles Curling Championship. Expand index (147 more) »

Abaza Mehmed Pasha

Abaza Mehmed Pasha (Abaza Mehmed Paşa; 1576–August 23, 1634) was a statesman and military commander of the Ottoman Empire, the namesake of the Abaza rebellion.

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Abdallah ibn Abd al-Malik

ʿAbdallāh ibn ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Marwān (in Greek sources Ἀβδελᾶς, Abdelas) was an Umayyad prince, the son of Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (r. 685–705), a general and governor of Egypt.

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Acun Ilıcalı

Acun Ilıcalı (born May 29, 1969 in Edirne) is a Turkish television personality and producer.

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Adnan Polat

Adnan Polat was born in Erzurum, in 1953.

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Anastasius I Dicorus

Anastasius I (Flavius Anastasius Augustus; Ἀναστάσιος; 9 July 518) was Byzantine Emperor from 491 to 518.

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Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.

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Anatolian beyliks

Anatolian beyliks (Anadolu beylikleri, Ottoman Turkish: Tavâif-i mülûk, Beylik), sometimes known as Turkmen beyliks, were small principalities (or petty kingdoms) in Anatolia governed by Beys, the first of which were founded at the end of the 11th century.

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Andris Piebalgs

Andris Piebalgs (born September 17, 1957) is a Latvian politician and diplomat who served as European Commissioner for Development at the European Commission from 2010 until 2014.

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Annuario Pontificio

The Annuario Pontificio (Italian for Pontifical Yearbook) is the annual directory of the Holy See of the Catholic Church.

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Aq Qoyunlu

The Aq Qoyunlu or Ak Koyunlu, also called the White Sheep Turkomans (Āq Quyūnlū), was a Persianate Sunni Oghuz Turkic tribal federation that ruled present-day Armenia, Azerbaijan, Eastern Turkey, most part of Iran, and Iraq from 1378 to 1501.

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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.

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Aram Ter-Ghevondyan

Aram Ter-Ghevondyan (Արամ Նահապետի Տեր-Ղևոնդյան; Aрaм Наaпетович Теp-Гeвoндян, also often seen written in Western sources as Ter-Ghewondyan or Ter-Łewondyan; July 24, 1928 – February 10, 1988) was a preeminent Armenian historian and scholar who specialized in the study of historical sources and medieval Armenia's relations with the Islamic world and Oriental studies.

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Arif Sağ

Arif Sağ (born 1945 in Aşkale, Erzurum, Turkey) is a singer, bağlama virtuoso, and leading figure in modern Turkish folk music, as well as a former MP in the Turkish parliament, and an academic.

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Armand (photographer)

Armenak Arzrouni (Արմենակ Արծրունի; 1901–1963), who worked under the mononym Armand, was an Armenian photographer based in Egypt.

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Armen Garo

Garegin or Karekin Pastermadjian (classical Գարեգին Փաստրմաճեան), better known by his nom de guerre Armen Garo or Armen Karo (Արմեն Գարո; 9 February 1872 – 23 March 1923) was an Armenian nationalist activist and politician.

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Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.

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Armenian Genocide

The Armenian Genocide (Հայոց ցեղասպանություն, Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire.

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Armenian language

The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.

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Armenian Revolutionary Federation

The Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF) (classical Հայ Յեղափոխական Դաշնակցութիւն, ՀՅԴ), also known as Dashnaktsutyun (in a short form, Dashnak), is an Armenian nationalist and socialist political party founded in 1890 in Tiflis, Russian Empire (now Tbilisi, Georgia) by Christapor Mikaelian, Stepan Zorian, and Simon Zavarian.

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Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia

The Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia (Հայկական սովետական հանրագիտարան, Haykakan sovetakan hanragitaran; ASE) publishing house was established in 1967 as a department of the Institute of History of the Armenian Academy of Sciences under the presidency of Viktor Hambardzumyan (1908–1996), co-edited by Abel Simonyan (1922–1994) and Makich Arzumanyan (1919–1988).

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Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.

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Arsacid dynasty of Armenia

The Arsacid dynasty, known natively as the Arshakuni dynasty (Արշակունի Aršakuni), ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from 54 to 428.

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Artaxiad dynasty

The Artaxiad dynasty or Ardaxiad dynasty (Artashesian Dynasty, Armenian: Արտաշեսյան արքայատոհմ) ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from 189 BC until their overthrow by the Romans in AD 12.

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Assyrian people

Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), or Syriacs (see terms for Syriac Christians), are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East.

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Atatürk University

Atatürk University (Atatürk Üniversitesi) is a land-grant university established in 1957 in Erzurum, Turkey.

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Çifte Minareli Medrese

Çifte Minareli Medrese is an architectural monument of the late Seljuk period in the Turkish city of Erzurum.

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Çobandede Bridge

Çobandede Bridge (Çobandede Köprüsü, also called Çoban Bridge) is a historical bridge in Turkey.

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İbrahim Hakkı Erzurumi

İbrahim Hakkı Erzurumi (18 May 1703 - 22 June 1780), a popular sufi saint of Turkey from Erzurum in eastern Anatolia - mystic, poet, author, astronomer, physicist, psychologist, sociologist and Islamic scholar.

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Bagaran (ancient city)

Bagaran (Բագարան), was a city in Ancient Armenia founded during the reign of the Orontid Dynasty.

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Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.

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The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.

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Basil II

Basil II (Βασίλειος Β΄, Basileios II; 958 – 15 December 1025) was a Byzantine Emperor from the Macedonian dynasty who reigned from 10 January 976 to 15 December 1025.

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Battle of Chaldiran

The Battle of Chaldiran (جنگ چالدران; Çaldıran Muharebesi) took place on 23 August 1514 and ended with a decisive victory for the Ottoman Empire over the Safavid Empire.

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Battle of Erzurum (1821)

The Battle of Erzurum occurred in 1821 as part of the Ottoman-Persian War of 1821-1823.

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Battle of Erzurum (1877)

The Battle of Erzurum was a military engagement fought between the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire, during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878.

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Battle of Manzikert

The Battle of Manzikert was fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuk Empire on August 26, 1071 near Manzikert, theme of Iberia (modern Malazgirt in Muş Province, Turkey).

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Börek (also burek and other variants) is a family of baked filled pastries made of a thin flaky dough known as phyllo (or yufka), of Anatolian origins and also found in the cuisines of the Balkans, Levant, Mediterranean, and other countries in Eastern Europe and Western Asia.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Byzantine Armenia

Byzantine Armenia, sometimes Western Armenia, is the name given to the parts of Kingdom of Armenia that became part of the Byzantine Empire.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Byzantine–Sasanian War of 572–591

The Byzantine–Sasanian War of 572–591 was a war fought between the Sasanian Empire of Persia and the Eastern Roman Empire, termed by modern historians as the Byzantine Empire.

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Byzantium or Byzantion (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul.

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Cağ kebabı

Cağ kebabı is a horizontally stacked marinated rotating lamb kebab variety, originating in Turkey's Erzurum Province.

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A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).

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Caspian Sea

The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.

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Catholicos of All Armenians

The Catholicos of All Armenians (plural Catholicoi, due to its Greek origin) (Ամենայն Հայոց Կաթողիկոս) is the chief bishop and spiritual leader of Armenia's national church, the Armenian Apostolic Church, and the worldwide Armenian diaspora.

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Caucasus Campaign

The Caucasus Campaign comprised armed conflicts between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire, later including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, the German Empire, the Central Caspian Dictatorship and the British Empire as part of the Middle Eastern theatre during World War I. The Caucasus Campaign extended from the South Caucasus to the Armenian Highlands region, reaching as far as Trabzon, Bitlis, Mush and Van.

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Celali rebellions

The Celali rebellions (Celalî ayaklanmaları), were a series of rebellions in Anatolia of irregular troops led by bandit chiefs and provincial officials known as celalî, against the authority of the Ottoman Empire in the late 16th and early to mid-17th centuries.

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Cemal Gürsel

Cemal Gürsel (13 October 1895 – 14 September 1966) was a Turkish army officer, and the fourth President of Turkey.

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Chalcedonian Christianity

Chalcedonian Christianity is the Christian denominations adhering to christological definitions and ecclesiological resolutions of the Council of Chalcedon, the Fourth Ecumenical Council held in 451.

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Chalcedonian Definition

The Chalcedonian Definition (also called the Chalcedonian Creed) was adopted at the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451.

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Chorba is one of various kinds of soup or stew found in national cuisines across the Balkans, North Africa, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Middle East and the Indian subcontinent.

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A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

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Communist Party of Greece

The Communist Party of Greece (Κομμουνιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδας; Kommounistikó Kómma Elládas, KKE) is a Marxist–Leninist political party in Greece.

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Council of Chalcedon

The Council of Chalcedon was a church council held from October 8 to November 1, AD 451, at Chalcedon.

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Crimean War

The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.

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Diauehi or Daiaeni (დიაოხი, Diaokhi) was a coalition of Georgian tribes, or kingdoms, located in northeastern Anatolia, that was formed in the 12th century BC in the post-Hittite period.

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Dolma is a family of stuffed vegetable dishes common in the Mediterranean cuisine and surrounding regions including the Balkans, the Caucasus, Russia, Central Asia and Middle East.

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Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople

The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople (Οἰκουμενικόν Πατριαρχεῖον Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Oikoumenikón Patriarkhíon Konstantinoupóleos,; Patriarchatus Oecumenicus Constantinopolitanus; Rum Ortodoks Patrikhanesi, "Roman Orthodox Patriarchate") is one of the fourteen autocephalous churches (or "jurisdictions") that together compose the Eastern Orthodox Church.

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An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.

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Empire of Trebizond

The Empire of Trebizond or the Trapezuntine Empire was a monarchy that flourished during the 13th through 15th centuries, consisting of the far northeastern corner of Anatolia and the southern Crimea.

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Encyclopaedia of Islam

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is an encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies published by Brill.

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Encyclopædia Iranica

Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times.

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Erzurum (Կարին) is a city in eastern Anatolia (Asian Turkey).

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Erzurum Airport

Erzurum Airport is a military and public airport serving the city of Erzurum in eastern Turkey.

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Erzurum Congress

Erzurum Congress (Erzurum Kongresi) was an assembly of Turkish Revolutionaries held from 23 July to 4 August 1919 in the city of Erzurum, in eastern Turkey, in accordance with the previously issued Amasya Circular.

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Erzurum Eyalet

The Erzurum Eyalet (ایالت ارضروم; Eyālet-i Erżurūm) was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire.

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Erzurum GSIM Ice Arena

Erzurum GSIM Ice Arena (Erzurum GSİM Buz Salonu), is an indoor ice hockey arena located at Yakutiye district of Erzurum, eastern Turkey.

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Erzurum Offensive

The Erzurum Offensive (Эрзурумское сражение Erzurumskoe srazhenie;Turkish: Erzurum Taarruzu) or Battle of Erzurum (Turkish: Erzurum Muharebesi) was a major winter offensive by the Imperial Russian Army on the Caucasus Campaign, during the First World War, that led to the capture of the strategic city of Erzurum.

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Erzurum Province

Erzurum Province (Erzurum ili) is a province of Turkey in the Eastern Anatolia Region of the country. It is bordered by the provinces of Kars and Ağrı to the east, Muş and Bingöl to the south, Erzincan and Bayburt to the west, Rize and Artvin to the north and Ardahan to the northeast.

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Erzurumspor was a sports club located in Erzurum, Turkey.

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European Commissioner for Energy

The Commissioner for Climate Action and Energy Union is a member of the European Commission.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Eutyches (Εὐτυχής; c. 380 – c. 456) was a presbyter and archimandrite at Constantinople.

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Fethullah Gülen

Muhammed Fethullah Gülen Hocaefendi (– the honorific Hoca Efendi, used among followers, translates to "respected teacher"); born 27 April 1941 is a Turkish preacher, former imam,Helen Rose Fuchs Ebaugh, The Gülen Movement: A Sociological Analysis of a Civic Movement Rooted in Moderate Islam, p 26.

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Flavian of Constantinople

Flavian (Flavianus; Φλαβιανος, Phlabianos; 11 August 449), sometimes Flavian I, was Archbishop of Constantinople from 446 to 449.

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Frank Lenz (cyclist)

Frank Lenz (probably died May 1894) was an American bicyclist and adventurer who disappeared somewhere near Erzurum, Turkey in May 1894, during an attempt to circle the globe by bicycle.

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Further-eastern European Time

Further-eastern European Time (FET) is a time zone defined as three hours ahead of UTC (UTC+03:00) without daylight saving time.

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Galatasaray S.K.

Galatasaray Spor Kulübü (Galatasaray Sports Club) is a Turkish sports club based on the European side of the city of Istanbul in Turkey, most notable for its association football department.

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Gourgen Yanikian

Gourgen Mkrtich Yanikian or in Western Armenian Kourken Mgrditch Yanigian (Գուրգէն Մկրտիչ Եանիկեան, December 24, 1895 – February 27, 1984) was an Armenian American engineer, Armenian Genocide survivor, best known for the assassination of two Turkish consular officials, Los Angeles Consul General Mehmet Baydar and Consul Bahadır Demir, in California in 1973.

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Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia (1856–1929)

Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia (Russian: Николай Николаевич Романов (младший – the younger); 18 November 1856 – 5 January 1929) was a Russian general in World War I. A grandson of Nicholas I of Russia, he was commander in chief of the Russian armies on the main front in the first year of the war, and was later a successful commander-in-chief in the Caucasus.

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Greater Armenia

Greater Armenia (Մեծ Հայք, Mets Hayk') is the name given to the state of Armenia that emerged on the Armenian Highlands under the reign of King Artaxias I at the turn of the second century BC.

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Halil İnalcık

Halil İnalcık (26 May 1916 – 25 July 2016) was a Turkish historian of the Ottoman Empire.

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Hamidian massacres

The Hamidian massacres (Համիդյան ջարդեր, Hamidiye Katliamı), also referred to as the Armenian Massacres of 1892–1896.

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HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster.

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House of Karen

The House of Karen (Middle Persian: Kārēn, قارن Qārin or Qāran, قارنوند Qārinwand), also known as Karen-Pahlavi (Kārēn-Pahlaw) were an aristocratic feudal family of Hyrcania (Gurgan).

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Humid continental climate

A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.

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The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (ایلخانان, Ilxānān; Хүлэгийн улс, Hu’legīn Uls), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu.

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Johannes Avetaranian

Johannes Avetaranian (Erzurum, Ottoman Empire, June 30, 1861 – Wiesbaden, Weimar Republic, nowadays Germany on December 11, 1919), born Muhammad Shukri (Mehmet Şükri), was, according to his autobiography, a Turkish descendent of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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John I Tzimiskes

John I Tzimiskes (Iōánnēs I Tzimiskēs; c. 925 – 10 January 976) was the senior Byzantine Emperor from 11 December 969 to 10 January 976.

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José Manuel Barroso

José Manuel Durão Barroso (born 23 March 1956) is a Portuguese politician who is the current non-executive chairman at Goldman Sachs International.

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Justice and Development Party (Turkey)

The Justice and Development Party (Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi), abbreviated officially AK Parti in Turkish, is a conservative political party in Turkey.

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Justinian I

Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.

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Kamsarakan (Կամսարական) was an Armenian noble family that was an offshoot of the House of Karen, also known as the Karen-Pahlav.

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Kara Koyunlu

The Kara Koyunlu or Qara Qoyunlu, also called the Black Sheep Turkomans (قره قویونلو), were a Muslim Oghuz Turkic monarchy that ruled over the territory comprising present-day Azerbaijan, Armenia (1406), northwestern Iran, eastern Turkey, and northeastern Iraq from about 1374 to 1468.

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Karin (historic Armenia)

Karin (or Garin) was a region of historic Armenia, roughly encompassing parts of the Erzurum and Muş Provinces in present-day Turkey.

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Kars (Armenian: Կարս, less commonly known as Ղարս Ghars) is a city in northeast Turkey and the capital of Kars Province.

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Kazım Karabekir Stadium

Kazım Karabekir Stadium (Kazım Karabekir Stadyumu) is a multi-purpose stadium in Erzurum, Turkey.

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Köppen climate classification

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.

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Kebabs (also kabobs or kababs) are various cooked meat dishes, with their origins in Middle Eastern cuisine.

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Keri (fedayi)

Arshak Gavafian, better known by his nom de guerre Keri (1858 – 15 May 1916), was an Armenian fedayee military commander and member of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation.

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Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity)

The Kingdom of Armenia, also the Kingdom of Greater Armenia, or simply Greater Armenia (Մեծ Հայք; Armenia Maior), was a monarchy in the Ancient Near East which existed from 321 BC to 428 AD.

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Kingdom of Georgia

The Kingdom of Georgia (საქართველოს სამეფო), also known as the Georgian Empire, was a medieval Eurasian monarchy which emerged circa 1008 AD.

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Kiremitliktepe Ski Jump

The Kiremitliktepe Ski Jump (Kiremitliktepe Kayakla Atlama Kuleleri), or officially Türk Telekom Ski Jumping Towers, is a ski jumping venue located on the Kiremitlik Hill at the base of Palandöken Mountain just southwest of Erzurum in eastern Turkey. Completed in September 2010, the complex consists of a large hill (K-125) and a normal hill (K-95) jumping tower, as well as three additional smaller slopes of K-65, K-40 and K-20 for training purposes and for use by young jumpers.

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Lala Mustafa Pasha

Lala Mustafa Pasha (1500 – 7 August 1580), also known by the additional epithet Kara, was an Ottoman general and Grand Vizier from the Sanjak of Bosnia.

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List of Byzantine emperors

This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Byzantine Empire (or the Eastern Roman Empire), to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD.

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List of largest cities and towns in Turkey

This is a list of cities and towns in Turkey by population, which includes cities and towns that are provincial capitals or have a population of at least 7,001.

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List of Presidents of Turkey

The following is a complete list of Presidents of Turkey, consisting of the twelve heads of state and one Executive President of Turkey since the inception of the republican period in 1923, following the Turkish War of Independence.

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List of sovereign states

This list of sovereign states provides an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.

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Marius Canard

Marius Canard (26 December 1888 in Dracy-Saint-Loup – September 1982 in Paris) was a French Orientalist and historian.

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Markos Vafeiadis

Markos Vafiadis (Μάρκος Βαφειάδης; January 28, 1906 in Erzurum, Ottoman Empire – February 22, 1992 in Athens, Greece) was a leading figure of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) during the Greek Civil War.

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Maurice (emperor)

Maurice (Flavius Mauricius Tiberius Augustus;; 539 – 27 November 602) was Byzantine Emperor from 582 to 602.

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Melike Mama Hatun

Melike Mama Hatun, or simply Mama Hatun, was a female ruler of the Saltukid dynasty, with its capital in Erzurum, for an estimated nine years between 1191 and 1200.

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Metropolitan municipalities in Turkey

There are 81 provinces in Turkey (il).

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Milli Piyango Curling Arena

The Milli Piyango Curling Arena, is an indoor curling rink in Erzurum, Turkey.

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Monastery of Saint Minas of Kes

The Monastery of Saint Minas is a former Armenian monastery in eastern Turkey.

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Monophysitism (or; Greek: μονοφυσιτισμός; Late Koine Greek from μόνος monos, "only, single" and φύσις physis, "nature") is the Christological position that, after the union of the divine and the human in the historical incarnation, Jesus Christ, as the incarnation of the eternal Son or Word (Logos) of God, had only a single "nature" which was either divine or a synthesis of divine and human.

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A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.

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Movses Khorenatsi

Movses Khorenatsi (ca. 410–490s AD; Խորենացի,, also written as Movsēs Xorenac‘i and Moses of Khoren, Moses of Chorene, and Moses Chorenensis in Latin sources) was a prominent Armenian historian from the period of Late Antiquity and the author of the History of Armenia.

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Muslim conquest of Armenia

The Arab conquest of Armenia was a part of the Muslim conquests after the death of Muhammad in 632 CE.

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Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 (conventional) – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and founder of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938.

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Nabucco pipeline

The Nabucco-West pipeline (also referred to as the Turkey–Austria gas pipeline) was a proposed natural gas pipeline from the Turkish-Bulgarian border to Austria.

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Nader Shah

Nader Shah Afshar (نادر شاه افشار; also known as Nader Qoli Beyg نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khan تهماسپ قلی خان) (August 1688 – 19 June 1747) was one of the most powerful Iranian rulers in the history of the nation, ruling as Shah of Persia (Iran) from 1736 to 1747 when he was assassinated during a rebellion.

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The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.

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Natural gas

Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.

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Nefʿī (نفعى) was the pen name (Ottoman Turkish: مخلص maḫlaṣ) of an Ottoman Turkish poet and satirist whose real name was ʿÖmer (عمر) (c. 1572, Hasankale, Erzurum – 1635, Istanbul).

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Nene Hatun

Nene Hatun (1857 – 22 May 1955) was a Turkish folk heroine, who became known for fighting against Russian forces during the recapture of Fort Aziziye in Erzurum from Russian forces at the start of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878.

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Nestorianism is a Christological doctrine that emphasizes a distinction between the human and divine natures of the divine person, Jesus.

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Nikita Balieff

Nikita F. Balieff (c.1873– 3 September 1936), was a Jewish Russian Armenian born vaudevillian, stage performer, writer, impresario, and director.

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Nikolai Yudenich

Nikolai Nikolayevich Yudenich (Никола́й Никола́евич Юде́нич) (5 October 1933) was a commander of the Russian Imperial Army during World War I. He was a leader of the anti-communist White movement in Northwestern Russia during the Civil War.

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Orhun Ene

Orhun Ene (born 1 February 1967 in Erzurum, Turkey) is a Turkish former professional basketball player and coach.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Ottoman Turks

The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes.

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Ottoman–Persian War (1730–35)

The Ottoman–Persian War was a conflict between the forces of the Safavid Empire and those of the Ottoman Empire from 1730 to 1735.

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Ottoman–Persian wars

The Ottoman-Persian Wars or Ottoman-Iranian Wars were a series a wars between Ottoman Empire and the Safavid, Afsharid, Zand, and Qajar dynasties of Iran (Persia) through the 16th–19th centuries.

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Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium (often abbreviated to ODB) is a three-volume historical dictionary published by the English Oxford University Press.

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Pahlavuni (Պահլավունի) was an Armenian noble family, a branch of the Kamsarakan, that rose to prominence in the late 10th century during the last years of the Bagratuni monarchy.

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Palandöken Ice Skating Hall

Palandöken Ice Skating Hall (Palandöken Buz Pateni Salonu), formerly GSIM Yenişehir Ice Hockey Hall (GSİM Yenişehir Buz Hokey Salonu) or Erzurum Ice Skating Hall (Erzurum Buz Pateni Salonu), is an indoor ice skating and ice hockey rink located at Ahmet Baba neighborhood of Palandöken district in Erzurum, eastern Turkey.

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Palandöken Mountain

Palandöken Mountain (or shortly Palandöken) is a high tectonic mountain in Erzurum Province, Turkey.

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Parthian Empire

The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.

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Peace of Acilisene

The Peace of Acilisene was a treaty between the East Roman Empire and the Sassanid Empire sometime between 384 and 390 (usually dated to 387) which divided Greater Armenia between these two empires.

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Pilaf or pilau is a dish in which rice is cooked in a seasoned broth.

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President of the European Commission

The President of the European Commission is the head of the European Commission, the executive branch of the:European Union.

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Provinces of Turkey

Turkey is divided into 81 provinces (il).

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Qajar dynasty

The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; script Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.

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Ranking member

In United States politics, a ranking member is the most senior member of a congressional or state legislative committee from the minority party.

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Rûm, also transliterated as Roum or Rhum (in Koine Greek Ῥωμαῖοι, Rhomaioi, meaning "Romans"; in Arabic الرُّومُ ar-Rūm; in Persian and Ottoman Turkish روم Rûm; in Rum), is a generic term used at different times in the Muslim world to refer to.

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Recep Akdağ

Recep Akdağ (born 8 May 1960) is a Turkish physician and politician.

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Richard G. Hovannisian

Richard Gable Hovannisian (Ռիչարդ Հովհաննիսյան, born November 9, 1932) is an Armenian American historian and professor emeritus at the University of California, Los Angeles.

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Richard Lugar

Richard Green Lugar (born April 4, 1932) is an American politician who served as a United States Senator from Indiana from 1977 to 2013 as a member of the Republican Party.

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Richard Morningstar

Richard L. Morningstar (born 1945) is the former United States Ambassador to Azerbaijan.

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Roman Armenia

Roman Armenia refers to the rule of parts of Greater Armenia by the Roman Empire, from the 1st century AD to the end of Late Antiquity.

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Roman province

In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the Tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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Russian Ground Forces

The Ground Forces of the Russian Federation (r) are the land forces of the Russian Armed Forces, formed from parts of the collapsing Soviet Army in 1992.

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Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829)

The Russo-Turkish War of 1828–1829 was sparked by the Greek War of Independence.

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Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)

The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 (lit, named for the year 1293 in the Islamic calendar; Руско-турска Освободителна война, Russian-Turkish Liberation war) was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro.

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Safavid dynasty

The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.

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The Saltukids or Saltuqids (Modern Turkish: Saltuklu Beyliği) were a dynasty ruling one of the Anatolian beyliks founded after the Battle of Manzikert (1071) and centered on Erzurum.

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Sasanian Empire

The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.

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Süper Lig

The Süper Lig (Super League) is a Turkish professional league for association football clubs.

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Selim I

Selim I (Ottoman Turkish: سليم اول, Modern Turkish: Birinci Selim; 1470/1 – September 1520), known as Selim the Grim or Selim the Resolute (Yavuz Sultan Selim), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520.

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Seljuq dynasty

The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs (آل سلجوق Al-e Saljuq), was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.

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Skiing can be a means of transport, a recreational activity or a competitive winter sport in which the participant uses skis to glide on snow.

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South Caucasus Pipeline

The South Caucasus Pipeline (also known as Baku–Tbilisi–Erzurum Pipeline, BTE pipeline, or Shah Deniz Pipeline) is a natural gas pipeline from the Shah Deniz gas field in the Azerbaijan sector of the Caspian Sea to Turkey.

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Suffragan bishop

A suffragan bishop is a bishop subordinate to a metropolitan bishop or diocesan bishop.

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Suleiman II (Rûm)

Suleiman II, also known as Rukn ad-Din Suleiman Shah (رکن الدین سلیمان شاه), was the Seljuk Sultan of Rûm between 1196 and 1204.

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Sultanate of Rum

The Sultanate of Rûm (also known as the Rûm sultanate (سلجوقیان روم, Saljuqiyān-e Rum), Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate, Sultanate of Iconium, Anatolian Seljuk State (Anadolu Selçuklu Devleti) or Turkey Seljuk State (Türkiye Selçuklu Devleti)) was a Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim state established in the parts of Anatolia which had been conquered from the Byzantine Empire by the Seljuk Empire, which was established by the Seljuk Turks.

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Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.

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TFF Third League

TFF Third League (Turkish Football Federation Third League) or TFF 3.

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Theodosius I

Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Αʹ; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from AD 379 to AD 395, as the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the empire. His resources were not equal to destroy them, and by the treaty which followed his modified victory at the end of the Gothic War, they were established as Foederati, autonomous allies of the Empire, south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders. He was obliged to fight two destructive civil wars, successively defeating the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius, not without material cost to the power of the empire. He also issued decrees that effectively made Nicene Christianity the official state church of the Roman Empire."Edict of Thessalonica": See Codex Theodosianus XVI.1.2 He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria. He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. After his death, Theodosius' young sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the east and west halves respectively, and the Roman Empire was never again re-united, though Eastern Roman emperors after Zeno would claim the united title after Julius Nepos' death in 480 AD.

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Theophilos Kourkouas

Theophilos Kourkouas (Θεόφιλος Κουρκούας, fl. ca. 920–960s) was a distinguished Byzantine general in the 10th century.

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Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.

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Titular see

A titular see in various churches is an episcopal see of a former diocese that no longer functions, sometimes called a "dead diocese".

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Treaty of Adrianople (1829)

The Treaty of Adrianople (also called the Treaty of Edirne) concluded the Russo-Turkish War of 1828–29, between Russia and the Ottoman Empire.

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Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on 3 March 1918 between the new Bolshevik government of Soviet Russia and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire), that ended Russia's participation in World War I. The treaty was signed at Brest-Litovsk (Brześć Litewski; since 1945 Brest), after two months of negotiations.

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Treaty of San Stefano

The Preliminary Treaty of San Stefano (Russian: Сан-Стефанский мир; Peace of San-Stefano, Сан-Стефанский мирный договор; Peace treaty of San-Stefano, Turkish: Ayastefanos Muahedesi or Ayastefanos Antlaşması) was a treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed at San Stefano, then a village west of Constantinople, on by Count Nicholas Pavlovich Ignatiev and Aleksandr Nelidov on behalf of the Russian Empire and Foreign Minister Safvet Pasha and Ambassador to Germany Sadullah Bey on behalf of the Ottoman Empire.

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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Turkish Air Force

The Turkish Air Force (Türk Hava Kuvvetleri) is the aerial warfare service branch of the Turkish Armed Forces.

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Turkish War of Independence

The Turkish War of Independence (Kurtuluş Savaşı "War of Liberation", also known figuratively as İstiklâl Harbi "Independence War" or Millî Mücadele "National Campaign"; 19 May 1919 – 24 July 1923) was fought between the Turkish National Movement and the proxies of the Allies – namely Greece on the Western front, Armenia on the Eastern, France on the Southern and with them, the United Kingdom and Italy in Constantinople (now Istanbul) – after parts of the Ottoman Empire were occupied and partitioned following the Ottomans' defeat in World War I. Few of the occupying British, French, and Italian troops had been deployed or engaged in combat.

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Umayyad Caliphate

The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.

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United States Senate

The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.

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United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations

The United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations is a standing committee of the United States Senate.

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United States Special Envoy for Eurasian Energy

The Special Envoy for Eurasian Energy is a diplomatic position within the United States Department of State.

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Urartu, which corresponds to the biblical mountains of Ararat, is the name of a geographical region commonly used as the exonym for the Iron Age kingdom also known by the modern rendition of its endonym, the Kingdom of Van, centered around Lake Van in the Armenian Highlands.

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Urmia (Urmiya, اورمیه; ܐܘܪܡܝܐ; ارومیه (Variously transliterated as Oroumieh, Oroumiyeh, Orūmīyeh and Urūmiyeh); Ûrmiye, ورمێ) is the largest city in West Azerbaijan Province of Iran and the capital of Urmia County.

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Vahakn Dadrian

Vahakn N. Dadrian (Վահագն Տատրեան; born May 26, 1926) is an Armenian-American sociologist and historian, born in Turkey, professor of sociology, historian, and an internationally recognized authority on the Armenian Genocide.

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Vartkes Serengülian

Vartkes Serengülian (Վարդգէս Սէրէնկիւլեան; also known as Hovhannes Յովհաննէս or Gisak) (1871, Erzurum – 1915, Urfa), was an Armenian political and social activist, member of Ottoman Parliament.

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Winter sport

A winter sport or winter activity is a recreational activity or sport which is played on snow or ice.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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2011 Winter Universiade

The XXV Winter Universiade, took place in Erzurum, Turkey between 27 January to 6 February.

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2012 European Curling Championships

The 2012 European Curling Championships was held from December 7 to 15 at the Löfbergs Lila Arena and the Karlstad Curling Club in Karlstad, Sweden.

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2012 IIHF World Championship Division III

The 2012 IIHF World Championship Division III was an international Ice hockey tournaments run by the International Ice Hockey Federation.

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2012 World Mixed Doubles Curling Championship

The 2012 World Mixed Doubles Curling Championship was held at the Milli Piyango Curling Arena in Erzurum, Turkey from April 23 to 29.

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Arzrum, Erserum, Erzen ür-Rum, Erzeroum, Erzerum, Erzurum (city), History of Erzurum, Karin (Greater Armenia), Karin(Greater Armenia), Qaliqala, Teodosiopoli di Cappadocia, Theodosiopolis (Armenia), Theodosiopolis in Armenia, Theodosioupolis.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erzurum

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