21 relations: Amphibian, Animal, Brain, Cockroach, Crayfish, Effector (biology), Escape response, Fish, Interneuron, Lateral giant interneuron, Mauthner cell, Mollusca, Motor neuron, Pain, Reflex, Reflex arc, Sensory neuron, Spinal cord, Squid giant axon, Stimulus (physiology), Withdrawal reflex.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Cockroaches are insects of the order Blattodea, which also includes termites. About 30 cockroach species out of 4,600 are associated with human habitats. About four species are well known as pests. The cockroaches are an ancient group, dating back at least as far as the Carboniferous period, some 320 million years ago. Those early ancestors however lacked the internal ovipositors of modern roaches. Cockroaches are somewhat generalized insects without special adaptations like the sucking mouthparts of aphids and other true bugs; they have chewing mouthparts and are likely among the most primitive of living neopteran insects. They are common and hardy insects, and can tolerate a wide range of environments from Arctic cold to tropical heat. Tropical cockroaches are often much bigger than temperate species, and, contrary to popular belief, extinct cockroach relatives and 'roachoids' such as the Carboniferous Archimylacris and the Permian Apthoroblattina were not as large as the biggest modern species. Some species, such as the gregarious German cockroach, have an elaborate social structure involving common shelter, social dependence, information transfer and kin recognition. Cockroaches have appeared in human culture since classical antiquity. They are popularly depicted as dirty pests, though the great majority of species are inoffensive and live in a wide range of habitats around the world.
Crayfish, also known as crawfish, crawdads, crawldads, freshwater lobsters, mountain lobsters, mudbugs or yabbies, are freshwater crustaceans resembling small lobsters, to which they are related; taxonomically, they are members of the superfamilies Astacoidea and Parastacoidea.
In biochemistry, an effector molecule is usually a small molecule that selectively binds to a protein and regulates its biological activity.
In animal behaviour, escape response, escape reaction, or escape behaviour is a rapid series of movements performed by an animal in response to possible predation.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
An interneuron (also called internuncial neuron, relay neuron, association neuron, connector neuron, intermediate neuron or local circuit neuron) is a broad class of neurons found in the human body.
The lateral giant interneuron (LG) is an interneuron in the abdominal nerve cord of crayfish, lobsters, shrimp of the order Decapoda and their relatives in the crustacean class Malacostraca.
The Mauthner cells are a pair of big and easily identifiable neurons (one for each half of the body) located in the rhombomere 4 of the hindbrain in fish and amphibians that are responsible for a very fast escape reflex (in the majority of animals – a so-called C-start response).
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
A motor neuron (or motoneuron) is a neuron whose cell body is located in the motor cortex, brainstem or the spinal cord, and whose axon (fiber) projects to the spinal cord or outside of the spinal cord to directly or indirectly control effector organs, mainly muscles and glands.
Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.
A reflex, or reflex action, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus.
A reflex arc is a neural pathway that controls a reflex.
Sensory neurons also known as afferent neurons are neurons that convert a specific type of stimulus, via their receptors, into action potentials or graded potentials.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
The squid giant axon is the very large (up to 1 mm in diameter; typically around 0.5 mm) axon that controls part of the water jet propulsion system in squid.
In physiology, a stimulus (plural stimuli) is a detectable change in the internal or external environment.
The withdrawal reflex (nociceptive flexion reflex or flexor withdrawal reflex) is a spinal reflex intended to protect the body from damaging stimuli.