207 relations: Acetate, Adenosine triphosphate, Affinity chromatography, Aldo Castellani, Alkaline phosphatase, Amino acid, Anaerobic organism, Anaerobic respiration, Antibiotic, Antibody, Antigen, ATCC (company), Azithromycin, Bacillus (shape), Bacteria, Bacterial conjugation, Bacterial taxonomy, Bacteriological water analysis, Bacteriophage, Bacterium (genus), Base pair, Biofilm, Biofuel, Biological engineering, Bioremediation, Biotechnology, Bioterrorism, Bird, Caenorhabditis elegans, Campylobacter jejuni, Carbon dioxide, Cellular respiration, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Ciprofloxacin, Citric acid, Clade, Coliform bacteria, Commensalism, Contamination control, Crohn's disease, Dehydration, Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen, Diarrhea, Dimethyl sulfoxide, DNA, DNA methylation, E. coli long-term evolution experiment, Ecological niche, Edward Tatum, Egypt, ..., Eijkman test, Endospore, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterobacteriales, Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Enzyme, Ernst Haeckel, Escherichia, Escherichia albertii, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli in molecular biology, Escherichia coli O104:H4, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Escherichia fergusonii, Ethanol, Evolution, Facultative anaerobic organism, Félix d'Herelle, Fecal coliform, Fecal–oral route, Feces, Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture (Germany), Fenugreek, Fermentation, Flagellin, Flagellum, Food contaminant, Foodborne illness, Formic acid, Fumaric acid, Gammaproteobacteria, Gastroenteritis, Gastrointestinal tract, Gene duplication, Genome, Genus, Germany, Glucomannan, Glycosylation, Gram-negative bacteria, Gut flora, Hamiltonian path problem, Hemolytic-uremic syndrome, Herbert Boyer, Heterologous, Homologous recombination, Homology (biology), Horizontal gene transfer, Host (biology), Human microbiota, Hydrogen, Immunodeficiency, Indicator organism, Industrial fermentation, Industrial microbiology, Infant, Inflammatory bowel disease, Insular biogeography, Insulin, Interactome, International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes, Joshua Lederberg, Lactic acid, Landscape ecology, Large intestine, Lipopolysaccharide, List of bacterial genera named after personal names, List of strains of Escherichia coli, Lysogeny broth, Mammal, Mass spectrometry, Mastitis, Meningitis, Methanogen, Microbiology, Micrometre, Model organism, Monera, Motility, Mucus, Mutaflor, Mutation, Nanotechnology, Nitrate, Nucleic acid sequence, Open reading frame, Operon, Overflow metabolism, Oxygen, Pan-genome, Pathogen, Pathogenic bacteria, Periplasm, Peritonitis, Phenotypic trait, Phylogenetic tree, Plasmid, Pneumonia, Post-translational modification, Probiotic, Product recall, Prokaryote, Prophage, Protein, Protein complex, Protein production, Proteobacteria, Proteome, Pyruvic acid, Quinolone antibiotic, RecA, RecBCD, Receptor (biochemistry), Recombinant DNA, Redox, Restriction enzyme, Ribosomal RNA, Richard Lenski, Rifaximin, Safranin, Salmonella, Salmonella enterica, Self-limiting (biology), Sepsis, Serotype, Seymour Benzer, Shiga toxin, Shigatoxigenic and verotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Shigella, Shigella boydii, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, Shigella sonnei, Speciation, Stanley Norman Cohen, Strain (biology), Stroke, Succinic acid, Sulfate-reducing microorganisms, T4 rII system, Taxon in disguise, Theodor Escherich, Transduction (genetics), Transfer RNA, Transposable element, Trimethylamine N-oxide, UniProt, Urinary tract infection, Vaccine, Virulence, Virulence factor, Vitamin K, Walter Migula, Warm-blooded, Whole genome sequencing, Wild type, 2011 Germany E. coli O104:H4 outbreak. Expand index (157 more) » « Shrink index
An acetate is a salt formed by the combination of acetic acid with an alkaline, earthy, metallic or nonmetallic and other base.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Affinity chromatography is a method of separating biochemical mixtures based on a highly specific interaction between antigen and antibody, enzyme and substrate, receptor and ligand, or protein and nucleic acid.
Aldo Castellani (8 September 1874 – 3 October 1971) was an Italian pathologist and bacteriologist.
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, ALKP, ALPase, Alk Phos) or basic phosphatase is a homodimeric protein enzyme of 86 kilodaltons.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth.
Anaerobic respiration is respiration using electron acceptors other than molecular oxygen (O2).
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.
ATCC or the American Type Culture Collection is a nonprofit organization which collects, stores, and distributes standard reference microorganisms, cell lines and other materials for research and development.
Azithromycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
A bacillus (plural bacilli) or bacilliform bacterium is a rod-shaped bacterium or archaeon.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge-like connection between two cells.
Bacterial taxonomy is the taxonomy, i.e. the rank-based classification, of bacteria.
Bacteriological water analysis is a method of analysing water to estimate the numbers of bacteria present and, if needed, to find out what sort of bacteria they are.
A bacteriophage, also known informally as a phage, is a virus that infects and replicates within Bacteria and Archaea.
The genus Bacterium was a taxon described in 1828 by Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
A biofilm comprises any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface.
A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.
Biological engineering or bio-engineering is the application of principles of biology and the tools of engineering to create usable, tangible, economically viable products.
Bioremediation is a process used to treat contaminated media, including water, soil and subsurface material, by altering environmental conditions to stimulate growth of microorganisms and degrade the target pollutants.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
Bioterrorism is terrorism involving the intentional release or dissemination of biological agents.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living (not parasitic), transparent nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, that lives in temperate soil environments.
Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common causes of food poisoning in the United States and in Europe.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.
Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula.
A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".
Coliform bacteria are defined as rod-shaped Gram-negative non-spore forming and motile or non-motile bacteria which can ferment lactose with the production of acid and gas when incubated at 35–37°C.
Commensalism is a long term biological interaction (symbiosis) in which members of one species gain benefits while those of the other species are neither benefited nor harmed.
Contamination control is the generic term for all activities aiming to control the existence, growth and proliferation of contamination in certain areas.
Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus.
In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.
The Leibniz Institute DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH) (abbreviation is DSM and DSMZ)was founded 1969 as the national culture collection in Germany.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an organosulfur compound with the formula (CH3)2SO.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule.
The E. coli long-term evolution experiment (LTEE) is an ongoing study in experimental evolution led by Richard Lenski that has been tracking genetic changes in 12 initially identical populations of asexual Escherichia coli bacteria since 24 February 1988.
In ecology, a niche (CanE, or) is the fit of a species living under specific environmental conditions.
Edward Lawrie Tatum (December 14, 1909 – November 5, 1975) was an American geneticist.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Eijkman test or Differential coliform test or Confirmed Escherichia coli count is a test used for the identification of coliform bacteria from warm-blooded animals based on the bacteria's ability to produce gas when grown in glucose media at 46°C (114.8°F).
An endospore is a dormant, tough, and non-reproductive structure produced by certain bacteria from the Firmicute phylum.
The Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of Gram-negative bacteria.
The Enterobacteriales are an order of gram-negative bacteria that includes only one family which is the Enterobacteriaceae.
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a type of Escherichia coli and one of the leading bacterial causes of diarrhea in the developing world, as well as the most common cause of travelers' diarrhea.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was a German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor, marine biologist, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology, including anthropogeny, ecology, phylum, phylogeny, and Protista. Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the influential but no longer widely held recapitulation theory ("ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny") claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny.
Escherichia is a genus of Gram-negative, nonspore forming, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria from the family Enterobacteriaceae.
Escherichia albertii is a species of bacteria in the same genus as E. coli.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Escherichia coli (commonly abbreviated E. coli) is a Gram-negative gammaproteobacterium commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Escherichia coli O104:H4 is an enteroaggregative ''Escherichia coli'' strain of the bacterium Escherichia coli, and the cause of the 2011 ''Escherichia coli'' O104:H4 outbreak.
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a serotype of the bacterial species Escherichia coli and is one of the Shiga toxin–producing types of E. coli.
Escherichia fergusonii is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped species of bacterium.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
The title of this article should be "Facultative Aerobic Organism," as "facultative anaerobe" is a misnomer.
Félix d'Hérelle (April 25, 1873 – February 22, 1949) was a French-Canadian microbiologist.
A fecal coliform (British: faecal coliform) is a facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium.
The fecal–oral route (or oral–fecal route or fecal oral route) describes a particular route of transmission of a disease.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
The Federal Ministry for Food and Agriculture (Bundesministerium für Ernährung und Landwirtschaft), abbreviated BMEL, is a cabinet-level ministry of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an annual plant in the family Fabaceae, with leaves consisting of three small obovate to oblong leaflets.
Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.
Flagellin is a globular protein that arranges itself in a hollow cylinder to form the filament in a bacterial flagellum.
A flagellum (plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells.
Food contamination refers to the presence in food of harmful chemicals and microorganisms which can cause consumer illness.
Foodborne illness (also foodborne disease and colloquially referred to as food poisoning) is any illness resulting from the food spoilage of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites that contaminate food, as well as toxins such as poisonous mushrooms and various species of beans that have not been boiled for at least 10 minutes.
Formic acid, systematically named methanoic acid, is the simplest carboxylic acid.
Fumaric acid or trans-butenedioic acid is the chemical compound with the formula HO2CCH.
Gammaproteobacteria are a class of bacteria.
Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract -- the stomach and small intestine.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Gene duplication (or chromosomal duplication or gene amplification) is a major mechanism through which new genetic material is generated during molecular evolution.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Glucomannan is a water-soluble polysaccharide that is considered a dietary fiber.
Glycosylation (see also chemical glycosylation) is the reaction in which a carbohydrate, i.e. a glycosyl donor, is attached to a hydroxyl or other functional group of another molecule (a glycosyl acceptor).
Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the gram-staining method of bacterial differentiation.
Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects.
In the mathematical field of graph theory the Hamiltonian path problem and the Hamiltonian cycle problem are problems of determining whether a Hamiltonian path (a path in an undirected or directed graph that visits each vertex exactly once) or a Hamiltonian cycle exists in a given graph (whether directed or undirected).
Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a disease characterized by a triad of hemolytic anemia (anemia caused by destruction of red blood cells), acute kidney failure (uremia), and a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia).
Herbert Wayne "Herb" Boyer (born July 10, 1936) is a researcher and entrepreneur in biotechnology.
In medicine a heterologous transplant means 'between species' or 'from one species to another'.
Homologous recombination is a type of genetic recombination in which nucleotide sequences are exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA.
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.
In biology and medicine, a host is an organism that harbours a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest (symbiont), the guest typically being provided with nourishment and shelter.
The human microbiota is the aggregate of microorganisms that resides on or within any of a number of human tissues and biofluids, including the skin, mammary glands, placenta, seminal fluid, uterus, ovarian follicles, lung, saliva, oral mucosa, conjunctiva, biliary and gastrointestinal tracts.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease and cancer is compromised or entirely absent.
Indicator organisms are used as a proxy to monitor conditions in a particular environment, ecosystem, area, habitat, or consumer product.
Industrial fermentation is the intentional use of fermentation by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi as well as eukaryotic cells like CHO cells and insect cells, to make products useful to humans.
Industrial microbiology is a branch of biotechnology that applies microbial sciences to create industrial products in mass quantities.
An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine.
Insular biogeography or island biogeography is a field within biogeography that examines the factors that affect the species richness of isolated natural communities.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
In molecular biology, an interactome is the whole set of molecular interactions in a particular cell.
The International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP) formerly the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (ICNB) or Bacteriological Code (BC) governs the scientific names for Bacteria and Archaea.
Joshua Lederberg, ForMemRS (May 23, 1925 – February 2, 2008) was an American molecular biologist known for his work in microbial genetics, artificial intelligence, and the United States space program.
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
Landscape ecology is the science of studying and improving relationships between ecological processes in the environment and particular ecosystems.
The large intestine, also known as the large bowel or colon, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates.
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxins, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Many bacterial species are named after people, either the discoverer or a famous person in the field of microbiology.
Escherichia coli is a well-studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.
Lysogeny broth (LB), a nutritionally rich medium, is primarily used for the growth of bacteria.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.
Mastitis is inflammation of the breast or udder, usually associated with breastfeeding.
Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.
Methanogens are microorganisms that produce methane as a metabolic byproduct in anoxic conditions.
Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).
The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
Monera (Greek - μονήρης (monḗrēs), "single", "solitary") is a kingdom that contains unicellular organisms with a prokaryotic cell organization (having no nuclear membrane), such as bacteria.
Motility is the ability of an organism to move independently, using metabolic energy.
Mucus is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.
Mutaflor is a probiotic consisting of a viable non-pathogenic bacterial strain named Escherichia coli Nissle 1917.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.
In molecular genetics, an open reading frame (ORF) is the part of a reading frame that has the ability to be translated.
In genetics, an operon is a functioning unit of DNA containing a cluster of genes under the control of a single promoter.
Overflow metabolism refers to the seemingly wasteful strategy in which cells incompletely oxidize their growth substrate (e.g. glucose) instead of using the more energetically-efficient respiratory pathway, even in the presence of oxygen.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
In molecular biology a pan-genome (or supra-genome) describes the full complement of genes in a clade (originally applied to species in bacteria and archaea, but also to plant species), which can have large variation in gene content among closely related strains or ecotypes.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Pathogenic bacteria are bacteria that can cause disease.
The periplasm is a concentrated gel-like matrix in the space between the inner cytoplasmic membrane and the bacterial outer membrane called the periplasmic space in gram-negative bacteria.
Peritonitis is inflammation of the peritoneum, the lining of the inner wall of the abdomen and cover of the abdominal organs.
A phenotypic trait, or simply trait, is a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism; it may be either inherited or determined environmentally, but typically occurs as a combination of the two.
A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.
A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
Post-translational modification (PTM) refers to the covalent and generally enzymatic modification of proteins following protein biosynthesis.
Probiotics are microorganisms that are claimed to provide health benefits when consumed.
A product recall is a request to return a product after the discovery of safety issues or product defects that might endanger the consumer or put the maker/seller at risk of legal action.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
A prophage is a bacteriophage (often shortened to "phage") genome inserted and integrated into the circular bacterial DNA chromosome or existing as an extrachromosomal plasmid.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
A protein complex or multiprotein complex is a group of two or more associated polypeptide chains.
Protein production is the biotechnological process of generating a specific protein.
Proteobacteria is a major phylum of gram-negative bacteria. They include a wide variety of pathogens, such as Escherichia, Salmonella, Vibrio, Helicobacter, Yersinia, Legionellales, and many other notable genera. Others are free-living (non-parasitic), and include many of the bacteria responsible for nitrogen fixation. Carl Woese established this grouping in 1987, calling it informally the "purple bacteria and their relatives". Because of the great diversity of forms found in this group, it was named after Proteus, a Greek god of the sea capable of assuming many different shapes and is not named after the genus Proteus. Some Alphaproteobacteria can grow at very low levels of nutrients and have unusual morphology such as stalks and buds. Others include agriculturally important bacteria capable of inducing nitrogen fixation in symbiosis with plants. The type order is the Caulobacterales, comprising stalk-forming bacteria such as Caulobacter. The Betaproteobacteria are highly metabolically diverse and contain chemolithoautotrophs, photoautotrophs, and generalist heterotrophs. The type order is the Burkholderiales, comprising an enormous range of metabolic diversity, including opportunistic pathogens. The Hydrogenophilalia are obligate thermophiles and include heterotrophs and autotrophs. The type order is the Hydrogenophilales. The Gammaproteobacteria are the largest class in terms of species with validly published names. The type order is the Pseudomonadales, which include the genera Pseudomonas and the nitrogen-fixing Azotobacter. The Acidithiobacillia contain only sulfur, iron and uranium-oxidising autotrophs. The type order is the Acidithiobacillales, which includes economically important organisms used in the mining industry such as Acidithiobacillus spp. The Deltaproteobacteria include bacteria that are predators on other bacteria and are important contributors to the anaerobic side of the sulfur cycle. The type order is the Myxococcales, which includes organisms with self-organising abilities such as Myxococcus spp. The Epsilonproteobacteria are often slender, Gram-negative rods that are helical or curved. The type order is the Campylobacterales, which includes important food pathogens such as Campylobacter spp. The Oligoflexia are filamentous aerobes. The type order is the Oligoflexales, which contains the genus Oligoflexus.
The proteome is the entire set of proteins that is, or can be, expressed by a genome, cell, tissue, or organism at a certain time.
Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group.
A quinolone antibiotic is any member of a large group of broad-spectrum bactericides that share a bicyclic core structure related to the compound 4-quinolone.
RecA is a 38 kilodalton protein essential for the repair and maintenance of DNA.
RecBCD (Exonuclease V, Escherichia coli exonuclease V, E. coli exonuclease V, gene recBC endoenzyme, RecBC deoxyribonuclease, gene recBC DNase, gene recBCD enzymes) is an enzyme of the ''E. coli'' bacterium that initiates recombinational repair from potentially lethal double strand breaks in DNA which may result from ionizing radiation, replication errors, endonucleases, oxidative damage, and a host of other factors.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
A restriction enzyme or restriction endonuclease is an enzyme that cleaves DNA into fragments at or near specific recognition sites within the molecule known as restriction sites.
Ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) is the RNA component of the ribosome, and is essential for protein synthesis in all living organisms.
Richard Eimer Lenski (born August 13, 1956) is an American evolutionary biologist, a MacArthur "genius" fellow, a Hannah Distinguished Professor of Microbial Ecology at Michigan State University, and a member of the National Academy of Sciences.
Rifaximin, sold under the trade name Xifaxan among others, is an antibiotic used to treat traveler's diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, and hepatic encephalopathy.
Safranin (also Safranin O or basic red 2) is a biological stain used in histology and cytology.
Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped (bacillus) Gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae.
Salmonella enterica (formerly Salmonella choleraesuis) is a rod-shaped, flagellate, facultative anaerobic, gram-negative bacterium and a species of the genus Salmonella.
In biology, a self-limiting organism or colony of organisms limits its own growth by its actions.
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.
A serotype or serovar is a distinct variation within a species of bacteria or virus or among immune cells of different individuals.
Seymour Benzer (October 15, 1921 – November 30, 2007) was an American physicist, molecular biologist and behavioral geneticist.
Shiga toxins are a family of related toxins with two major groups, Stx1 and Stx2, expressed by genes considered to be part of the genome of lambdoid prophages.
Shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) and verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) are strains of the bacterium Escherichia coli that produce either Shiga toxin or Shiga-like toxin (verotoxin).
Shigella is a genus of gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, nonspore-forming, non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria genetically closely related to E. coli.
Shigella boydii is a Gram-negative bacterium of the genus Shigella.
Shigella dysenteriae is a species of the rod-shaped bacterial genus Shigella.
Shigella flexneri is a species of Gram-negative bacteria in the genus Shigella that can cause diarrhea in humans.
Shigella sonnei is a species of Shigella.
Speciation is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species.
Stanley Norman Cohen (born February 17, 1935 in Perth Amboy, New Jersey, United States) is an American geneticist and the Kwoh-Ting Li Professor in the Stanford University School of Medicine.
In biology, a strain is a low-level taxonomic rank used at the intraspecific level (within a species).
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Succinic acid is a dicarboxylic acid with the chemical formula (CH2)2(CO2H)2.
Sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) or sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) are a group composed of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfate-reducing archaea (SRA), both of which can perform anaerobic respiration utilizing sulfate (SO42–) as terminal electron acceptor, reducing it to hydrogen sulfide (H2S).
The T4 rII system is an experimental system developed in the 1950s by Seymour Benzer for studying the substructure of the gene.
In bacteriology, a taxon in disguise is a species, genus or higher unit of biological classification whose evolutionary history reveals has evolved from another unit of similar or lower rank, making the parent unit paraphyletic.
Theodor Escherich (29 November 1857 – 15 February 1911) was a German-Austrian pediatrician and a professor at universities in Graz and Vienna.
Transduction is the process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus or viral vector.
A transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA and formerly referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins.
A transposable element (TE or transposon) is a DNA sequence that can change its position within a genome, sometimes creating or reversing mutations and altering the cell's genetic identity and genome size.
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)3NO.
UniProt is a freely accessible database of protein sequence and functional information, many entries being derived from genome sequencing projects.
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
Virulence is a pathogen's or microbe's ability to infect or damage a host.
Virulence factors are molecules produced by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa that add to their effectiveness and enable them to achieve the following.
Vitamin K is a group of structurally similar, fat-soluble vitamins that the human body requires for complete synthesis of certain proteins that are prerequisites for blood coagulation (K from Koagulation, Danish for "coagulation") and which the body also needs for controlling binding of calcium in bones and other tissues.
Emil Friedrich August Walter (or Walther) Migula (born 1863 in Żyrowa, Poland; died 1938 in Eisenach, Germany) was a Poland-born German botanist.
Warm-blooded animal species can maintain a body temperature higher than their environment.
Whole genome sequencing (also known as WGS, full genome sequencing, complete genome sequencing, or entire genome sequencing) is the process of determining the complete DNA sequence of an organism's genome at a single time.
Wild type (WT) refers to the phenotype of the typical form of a species as it occurs in nature.
A novel strain of ''Escherichia coli'' O104:H4 bacteria caused a serious outbreak of foodborne illness focused in northern Germany in May through June 2011.
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