185 relations: Abdominal obesity, Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, Adenocarcinoma, Afghanistan, African Americans, AJCC staging system, Alcoholism, American Cancer Society, Anaplasia, Areca nut, Ascites, Aspiration pneumonia, Aspirin, Barrett's esophagus, Biliary reflux, Biopsy, Bleeding, Breastfeeding, British English, Cancer, Cancer cell, Cancer pain, Cancer staging, Capecitabine, Carboplatin, Carcinogen, Carcinoma, Caucasian race, Chemical burn, Chemotherapy, Chewing tobacco, Christopher Hitchens, Cisplatin, Clavicle, Coeliac disease, Comorbidity, Contrast CT, Corrosive substance, CT scan, Curative care, Developed country, Developing country, Dietary fiber, Dysphagia, Dysplasia, Endoscope, Endoscopic mucosal resection, Endoscopic ultrasound, Epigastrium, Epirubicin, ..., Epithelium, Esophageal achalasia, Esophageal hiatus, Esophageal stent, Esophageal web, Esophagectomy, Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, Esophagus, Estrogen, Field cancerization, Fistula, Five-year survival rate, Fluorouracil, Gastric acid, Gastric bypass surgery, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Gastrostomy, General surgery, Genetic disorder, Gland, Gluten-free diet, Grading (tumors), H&E stain, Head and neck cancer, Healthy diet, Heartburn, Helicobacter pylori, Hematemesis, Hemoptysis, Hispanic, Histology, Histopathology, Hoarse voice, Howel–Evans syndrome, Human papillomavirus infection, Hypercalcaemia, ICD-10, Iceland, Independence (probability theory), Infiltration (medical), Inflammation, Interaction (statistics), Intestinal metaplasia, Iran, Ireland, Jaundice, Jejunum, Kenya, Laparotomy, Large intestine, Laser, Leiomyosarcoma, Liver, Lung, Lymph node, Lymphadenopathy, Lymphoma, Malawi, Malawi Medical Journal, Malnutrition, Melanoma, Metastasis, Metastatic liver disease, Micrograph, Mongolia, Morrissey, Mucous membrane, Muscular layer, Nasogastric intubation, National Cancer Institute, Nausea, Netherlands, New Mexico, New Zealand, Nitrosamine, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, North China, Nutrition, Obesity, Obesity and cancer, Oceania, Odynophagia, Oesophagogastric junctional adenocarcinoma, Oncology, Optical fiber, Oral hygiene, Overweight, Oxaliplatin, Palliative care, Peristalsis, Photodynamic therapy, Pleural effusion, Plummer–Vinson syndrome, Positron emission tomography, Primary tumor, Processed meat, Quality of life (healthcare), Radiation therapy, Randomized controlled trial, Recurrent laryngeal nerve, Regurgitation (digestion), Rhabdomyosarcoma, RHBDF2, Risk factor, Russia, Self-expandable metallic stent, Sex differences in medicine, Shortness of breath, Socioeconomic status, Specialty (medicine), Squamous cell carcinoma, Stenosis, Stent, Sternum, Stomach, Stomach cancer, Stratified squamous epithelium, Stridor, Sub-Saharan Africa, Submucosa, Superior vena cava syndrome, Surgery, Synergy, Thoracic diaphragm, Thorax, TNM staging system, Tobacco smoking, Trachea, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, United Kingdom, Upper gastrointestinal series, Vomiting, Weight loss. Expand index (135 more) » « Shrink index
Abdominal obesity, also known as central obesity, occurs when excessive abdominal fat around the stomach and abdomen has built up to the extent that it is likely to have a negative impact on health.
Acetaldehyde dehydrogenases are dehydrogenase enzymes which catalyze the conversion of acetaldehyde into acetic acid.
Adenocarcinoma (plural adenocarcinomas or adenocarcinomata) is a type of cancerous tumor that can occur in several parts of the body.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
The AJCC staging system is a classification system developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer for describing the extent of disease progression in cancer patients.
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.
The American Cancer Society (ACS) is a nationwide voluntary health organization dedicated to eliminating cancer.
Anaplasia (from ἀνά ana, "backward" + πλάσις plasis, "formation") is a condition of cells with poor cellular differentiation, losing the morphological characteristics of mature cells and their orientation with respect to each other and to endothelial cells.
The areca nut is the fruit of the areca palm (Areca catechu), which grows in much of the tropical Pacific (Melanesia and Micronesia), Southeast and South Asia, and parts of east Africa.
Ascites is the abnormal buildup of fluid in the abdomen.
Aspiration pneumonia is a type of lung infection that is due to a relatively large amount of material from the stomach or mouth entering the lungs.
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.
Barrett's esophagus refers to an (abnormal) change in the cells of the lower portion of the esophagus. It is characterized by the replacement of the normal stratified squamous epithelium lining of the esophagus by simple columnar epithelium with goblet cells (which are usually found lower in the gastrointestinal tract). The medical significance of Barrett's esophagus is its strong association (0.1 per 1 cm Prague C>M> total segment length per patient-year) with esophageal adenocarcinoma, a very often deadly cancer, because of which it is considered to be a premalignant condition. The main cause of Barrett's esophagus is thought to be an adaptation to chronic acid exposure from reflux esophagitis The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has increased substantially in the Western world in recent years. The condition is found in 5–15% of patients who seek medical care for heartburn (gastroesophageal reflux disease), although a large subgroup of patients with Barrett's esophagus do not have symptoms. Diagnosis requires endoscopy (more specifically, esophagogastroduodenoscopy, a procedure in which a fibreoptic cable is inserted through the mouth to examine the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum) and biopsy. The cells of Barrett's esophagus, after biopsy, are classified into four general categories: nondysplastic, low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia, and frank carcinoma. High-grade dysplasia and early stages of adenocarcinoma can be treated by endoscopic resection and new endoscopic therapies such as radiofrequency ablation, whereas advanced stages (submucosal) are generally advised to undergo surgical treatment. Nondysplastic and low-grade patients are generally advised to undergo annual observation with endoscopy, with radiofrequency ablation as a therapeutic option. In high-grade dysplasia, the risk of developing cancer might be at 10% per patient-year or greater. The condition is named after the Australian-born British thoracic surgeon Norman Barrett (1903–1979), who described it in 1950. Those with the eating disorder bulimia are more likely to develop Barrett’s esophagus because bulimia can cause severe acid reflux, and because purging also floods the esophagus with acid.
Biliary reflux, bile reflux or duodenogastric reflux is a condition that occurs when bile flows upward (refluxes) from the duodenum into the stomach and esophagus.
A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.
Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.
Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.
British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Cancer cells are cells that divide relentlessly, forming solid tumors or flooding the blood with abnormal cells.
Pain in cancer may arise from a tumor compressing or infiltrating nearby body parts; from treatments and diagnostic procedures; or from skin, nerve and other changes caused by a hormone imbalance or immune response.
Cancer staging is the process of determining the extent to which a cancer has developed by growing and spreading.
Capecitabine, sold under the brand name Xeloda among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat breast cancer, gastric cancer and colorectal cancer.
Carboplatin, sold under the trade name Paraplatin among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of forms of cancer.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
Carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops from epithelial cells.
The Caucasian race (also Caucasoid or Europid) is a grouping of human beings historically regarded as a biological taxon, which, depending on which of the historical race classifications used, have usually included some or all of the ancient and modern populations of Europe, the Caucasus, Asia Minor, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Western Asia, Central Asia and South Asia.
A chemical burn occurs when living tissue is exposed to a corrosive substance such as a strong acid or base.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
Chewing tobacco is a type of smokeless tobacco product consumed by placing a portion of the tobacco between the cheek and gum or upper lip teeth and chewing.
Christopher Eric Hitchens (13 April 1949 – 15 December 2011) was an Anglo-American author, columnist, essayist, orator, religious and literary critic, social critic, and journalist.
Cisplatin is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of cancers.
The clavicle or collarbone is a long bone that serves as a strut between the shoulder blade and the sternum or breastbone.
Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.
In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional diseases or disorders co-occurring with (that is, concomitant or concurrent with) a primary disease or disorder; in the countable sense of the term, a comorbidity (plural comorbidities) is each additional disorder or disease.
Contrast CT is X-ray computed tomography (CT) using radiocontrast.
A corrosive substance is one that will destroy and damage other substances with which it comes into contact.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
Curative care or curative medicine is the health care given for medical conditions where a cure is considered achievable, or even possibly so, and directed to this end.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.
Dysphagia is the medical term for the symptom of difficulty in swallowing.
Dysplasia (from Ancient Greek δυσ- dys-, "bad" or "difficult" and πλάσις plasis, "formation") is a term used in pathology to refer to an abnormality of development or an epithelial anomaly of growth and differentiation (epithelial dysplasia).
An endoscope is an illuminated optical, typically slender and tubular instrument (a type of borescope) used to look deep into the body and used in procedures called an endoscopy.
Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is a technique used to remove cancerous or other abnormal lesions found in the digestive tract.
Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) or echo-endoscopy is a medical procedure in which endoscopy (insertion of a probe into a hollow organ) is combined with ultrasound to obtain images of the internal organs in the chest, abdomen and colon.
In anatomy, the epigastrium (or epigastric region) is the upper central region of the abdomen.
Epirubicin is an anthracycline drug used for chemotherapy.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
Esophageal achalasia, often called simple achalasia, is a failure of smooth muscle fibers to relax, which can cause the lower esophageal sphincter to remain closed.
In human anatomy, the esophageal hiatus is an opening in the diaphragm through which the esophagus and the vagus nerve pass.
An esophageal stent is a stent (tube) placed in the esophagus to keep a blocked area open so the patient can swallow soft food and liquids.
Esophageal webs are thin membranes occurring anywhere along the esophagus.
Esophagectomy (US English) or oesophagectomy (British English) is the surgical removal of all or part of the esophagus.
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, (EGD) also called by various other names, is a diagnostic endoscopic procedure that visualizes the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract down to the duodenum.
The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
Field cancerization (also termed field change, field change cancerization, field carcinogenesis, cancer field effect or premalignant field defect) is a biological process in which large areas of cells at a tissue surface or within an organ are affected by a carcinogenic alteration(s).
A fistula is an abnormal connection between two hollow spaces (technically, two epithelialized surfaces), such as blood vessels, intestines, or other hollow organs.
The five-year survival rate is a type of survival rate for estimating the prognosis of a particular disease, normally calculated from the point of diagnosis.
Fluorouracil (5-FU), sold under the brand name Adrucil among others, is a medication used to treat cancer.
Gastric acid, gastric juice or stomach acid, is a digestive fluid formed in the stomach and is composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl).
Gastric bypass surgery refers to a surgical procedure in which the stomach is divided into a small upper pouch and a much larger lower "remnant" pouch and then the small intestine is rearranged to connect to both.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), also known as acid reflux, is a long-term condition where stomach contents come back up into the esophagus resulting in either symptoms or complications.
Gastrostomy is the creation of an artificial external opening into the stomach for nutritional support or gastric decompression.
General surgery is a surgical specialty that focuses on abdominal contents including esophagus, stomach, small bowel, colon, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, appendix and bile ducts, and often the thyroid gland (depending on local referral patterns).
A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.
A gland is a group of cells in an animal's body that synthesizes substances (such as hormones) for release into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland).
A gluten-free diet (GFD) is a diet that strictly excludes gluten, a mixture of proteins found in wheat and related grains, including barley, rye, oat, and all their species and hybrids (such as spelt, kamut, and triticale).
In pathology, grading is a measure of the cell appearance in tumors and other neoplasms.
Hematoxylin and eosin stain or haematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E stain or HE stain) is one of the principal stains in histology.
Head and neck cancer is a group of cancers that starts in the mouth, nose, throat, larynx, sinuses, or salivary glands.
A healthy diet is a diet that helps to maintain or improve overall health.
Heartburn, also known as acid indigestion, is a burning sensation in the central chest or upper central abdomen.
Helicobacter pylori, previously known as Campylobacter pylori, is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium usually found in the stomach.
Hematemesis or haematemesis is the vomiting of blood.
Hemoptysis is the coughing up of blood or blood-stained mucus from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs.
The term Hispanic (hispano or hispánico) broadly refers to the people, nations, and cultures that have a historical link to Spain.
Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.
Histopathology (compound of three Greek words: ἱστός histos "tissue", πάθος pathos "suffering", and -λογία -logia "study of") refers to the microscopic examination of tissue in order to study the manifestations of disease.
A hoarse voice, also known as hoarseness or dysphonia, is when the voice involuntarily sounds breathy, raspy, or strained, or is softer in volume or lower in pitch.
Howel–Evans syndrome is an extremely rare condition involving thickening of the skin in the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet (hyperkeratosis).
Human papillomavirus infection is an infection by human papillomavirus (HPV).
Hypercalcaemia, also spelled hypercalcemia, is a high calcium (Ca2+) level in the blood serum.
ICD-10 is the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), a medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO).
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
In probability theory, two events are independent, statistically independent, or stochastically independent if the occurrence of one does not affect the probability of occurrence of the other.
Infiltration is the diffusion or accumulation (in a tissue or cells) of foreign substances or in amounts in excess of the normal.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
In statistics, an interaction may arise when considering the relationship among three or more variables, and describes a situation in which the simultaneous influence of two variables on a third is not additive.
Intestinal metaplasia is the transformation (metaplasia) of epithelium (usually of the stomach or the esophagus) into a type of epithelium resembling that found in the intestine.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels.
The jejunum is the second part of the small intestine in humans and most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
A laparotomy is a surgical procedure involving a large incision through the abdominal wall to gain access into the abdominal cavity.
The large intestine, also known as the large bowel or colon, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
Leiomyosarcoma, also referred to as LMS, is a malignant (cancerous) smooth muscle tumor.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.
Lymphadenopathy or adenopathy is disease of the lymph nodes, in which they are abnormal in size, number, or consistency.
Lymphoma is a group of blood cancers that develop from lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).
Malawi (or; or maláwi), officially the Republic of Malawi, is a landlocked country in southeast Africa that was formerly known as Nyasaland.
The Malawi Medical Journal is a quarterly peer-reviewed open access general medical journal published by the University of Malawi College of Medicine and the Medical Association of Malawi.
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
Melanoma, also known as malignant melanoma, is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes.
Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; it is typically spoken of as such spread by a cancerous tumor.
A liver metastasis is a malignant tumor in the liver that has spread from another organ affected by cancer.
A micrograph or photomicrograph is a photograph or digital image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
Steven Patrick Morrissey (born 22 May 1959), known mononymously as Morrissey, is an English singer, songwriter and author.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
The muscular layer (muscular coat, muscular fibers, muscularis propria, muscularis externa) is a region of muscle in many organs in the vertebrate body, adjacent to the submucosa.
Nasogastric intubation is a medical process involving the insertion of a plastic tube (nasogastric tube or NG tube) through the nose, past the throat, and down into the stomach.
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is one of eleven agencies that are part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Nitrosamines are chemical compounds of the chemical structure R1N(–R2)–N.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.
North China (literally "China's north") is a geographical region of China, lying North of the Qinling Huaihe Line.
Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
The association between obesity, as defined by a body mass index of 30 or higher, and risk of a variety of types of cancer has received a considerable amount of attention in recent years.
Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.
Odynophagia (from - "pain" and "to eat") is pain when swallowing.
Oesophagogastric junctional adenocarcinoma is a cancer of the lower part of the oesophagus, often linked to a Barrett's oesophagus.
Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.
An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.
Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping one's mouth clean and free of disease and other problems (e.g. bad breath) by regular brushing and cleaning between the teeth.
Being overweight or fat is having more body fat than is optimally healthy.
Oxaliplatin, sold under the brand name Eloxatin, is a cancer medication used to treat colorectal cancer.
Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach to specialized medical and nursing care for people with life-limiting illnesses.
Peristalsis is a radially symmetrical contraction and relaxation of muscles that propagates in a wave down a tube, in an anterograde direction.
Photodynamic therapy (PDT), sometimes called photochemotherapy, is a form of phototherapy involving light and a photosensitizing chemical substance, used in conjunction with molecular oxygen to elicit cell death (phototoxicity).
A pleural effusion is excess fluid that accumulates in the pleural cavity, the fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs.
Plummer–Vinson syndrome (PVS), also called Paterson–Brown–Kelly syndrome or sideropenic dysphagia, is a rare disease characterized by difficulty in swallowing, iron-deficiency anemia, glossitis, cheilosis and esophageal webs.
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
A primary tumor is a tumor growing at the anatomical site where tumor progression began and proceeded to yield a cancerous mass.
Processed meat is considered to be any meat which has been modified in order either to improve its taste or to extend its shelf life.
In general, quality of life (QoL or QOL) is the perceived quality of an individual's daily life, that is, an assessment of their well-being or lack thereof.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
A randomized controlled trial (or randomized control trial; RCT) is a type of scientific (often medical) experiment which aims to reduce bias when testing a new treatment.
The recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) is a branch of the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) that supplies all the intrinsic muscles of the larynx, with the exception of the cricothyroid muscles.
Regurgitation is the expulsion of material from the pharynx, or esophagus, usually characterized by the presence of undigested food or blood.
Rhabdomyosarcoma, or RMS, is an aggressive and highly malignant form of cancer that develops from skeletal (striated) muscle cells that have failed to fully differentiate.
Rhomboid family member 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RHBDF2 gene.
In epidemiology, a risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
A self-expandable metallic stent (or SEMS) is a metallic tube, or stent, used in order to hold open a structure in the gastrointestinal tract in order to allow the passage of food, chyme, stool, or other secretions required for digestion.
Sex differences in medicine include sex-specific diseases or conditions which occur only in people of one sex (for example, prostate cancer in males or uterine cancer in females); sex-related diseases, which are diseases that are more common to one sex (for example, systemic lupus erythematosus occurs predominantly in females); and diseases which occur at similar rates in males and females but manifest differently according to sex (for example, peripheral artery disease).
Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.
Socioeconomic status (SES) is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person's work experience and of an individual's or family's economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation.
A specialty, or speciality, in medicine is a branch of medical practice.
Squamous cell carcinomas, also known as epidermoid carcinoma are a number of different types of cancer that result from squamous cells.
A stenosis is an abnormal narrowing in a blood vessel or other tubular organ or structure.
In medicine, a stent is a metal or plastic tube inserted into the lumen of an anatomic vessel or duct to keep the passageway open, and stenting is the placement of a stent.
The sternum or breastbone is a long flat bone located in the center of the chest.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
Stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, is cancer developing from the lining of the stomach.
A stratified squamous epithelium consists of squamous (flattened) epithelial cells arranged in layers upon a basal membrane.
Stridor (Latin for "creaking or grating noise") is a high-pitched breath sound resulting from turbulent air flow in the larynx or lower in the bronchial tree.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
The submucosa (or tela submucosa) is a thin layer of tissue in various organs of the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and genitourinary tracts.
Superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS), is a group of symptoms caused by obstruction of the superior vena cava (a short, wide vessel carrying circulating blood into the heart).
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
Synergy is the creation of a whole that is greater than the simple sum of its parts.
For other uses, see Diaphragm (disambiguation). The thoracic diaphragm, or simply the diaphragm (partition), is a sheet of internal skeletal muscle in humans and other mammals that extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity.
The thorax or chest (from the Greek θώραξ thorax "breastplate, cuirass, corslet" via thorax) is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals located between the neck and the abdomen.
The TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours (TNM) is a notation system that describes the stage of a cancer which originates from a solid tumour with alphanumeric codes.
Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).
The trachea, colloquially called the windpipe, is a cartilaginous tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all air-breathing animals with lungs.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
An upper gastrointestinal series, also called an upper gastrointestinal study or contrast radiography of the upper gastrointestinal tract, is a series of radiographs used to examine the gastrointestinal tract for abnormalities.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.
Aesophageal cancer, Cancer de Esofago, Cancer of oesophagus, Cancer of the esophagus, Cancer of the gullet, Cancer of the oesophagus, Carcinoma, esophageal, Cáncer de Esófago, Esophageal (cancer), Esophageal Cancer, Esophageal adenocarcinoma, Esophageal carcinoma, Esophageal neoplasm, Esophageal neoplasms, Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, Esophagous cancer, Esophagus cancer, Oesophageal Adenocarcinoma, Oesophageal adenocarcinoma, Oesophageal cancer, Oesophageal malignancy, Oesophagus cancer, Oesophagus carcinoma.