401 relations: Académie française, Accusative case, Activism, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Adjective, Affricate consonant, Agglutination, Agnes Baldwin Alexander, Akademio de Esperanto, Alveolar and postalveolar approximants, Alveolar consonant, American Radio Relay League, Amikumu, Anarchism, Anarchism in Spain, Anationalism, Android (operating system), Angoroj, Anna Löwenstein, Antoni Grabowski, Approximant consonant, Arcaicam Esperantom, Argentina, Arnold Rimmer, Article (grammar), Assimilation (phonology), Australia, Autodidacticism, Éva Tófalvi, Þórbergur Þórðarson, B movie, Back vowel, Bahá'í Esperanto-League, Bahá'í Faith, Bahá'í Faith and auxiliary language, Bahá'í Faith in Greater Boston, Bahá'í literature, Bahá'í pilgrimage, Baldur Ragnarsson, Behavior, Białystok, Bible, Bilabial consonant, Book of Mormon, Boulogne-sur-Mer, Brazil, Breve, British and Foreign Bible Society, Calque, Cambridge, ..., Canton (flag), Catalan nationalism, Chamber of Deputies (Brazil), Charlie Chaplin, Chick tract, China, China Radio International, Christadelphians, Christian apologetics, Christian cross, Christian fundamentalism, Circumflex, City of San Marino, Classical Latin, Claude Piron, Clause, Close vowel, Cologne, Color argument, Comparison between Esperanto and Ido, Comparison between Esperanto and Interlingua, Comparison between Esperanto and Novial, Compound (linguistics), Computer mouse, Conditional mood, Confidential Agent, Conjunction (grammar), Constructed language, Contents of the Voyager Golden Record, Copula (linguistics), Culture, Dave Lister, Dayton, Nevada, Deathworld, Declaration of Boulogne, Demonstrative, Dental and alveolar flaps, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar trills, Deuterocanonical books, Diacritic, Dialogue, Dictionary, Digraph (orthography), Diphthong, Diplom, Distributed Language Translation, Duolingo, Dz (digraph), E@I, East Asia, Eötvös Loránd University, Edmond Privat, Ehsan Yarshater, Encyclopædia Iranica, Encyclopedias in Esperanto, EoLA, ESP-Disk, Esperantic Studies Foundation, Esperanto, Esperanto Braille, Esperanto club, Esperanto Island, Esperanto jubilee symbol, Esperanto library, Esperanto literature, Esperanto music, Esperanto orthography, Esperanto symbols, Esperanto Wikipedia, Esperanto words with the suffix -um, Esperanto-USA, Esperantology, Esperantujo, Ethnologue, Europe, European Union, Europe–Democracy–Esperanto, Failure Magazine, Feature film, Federal Senate, Fernando de Diego, Final Fantasy XI, Finland, Finns, Finvenkismo, Fluency, François Grin, František Lorenz, Frederic Pujulà i Vallès, French Academy of Sciences, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Fundamento de Esperanto, Future tense, Gabriel Hanotaux, Gaston Waringhien, Gboard, Gender reform in Esperanto, German language, Germanic languages, Germany, Glottal consonant, Glottal stop, Google Translate, Grammar, Grammatical mood, Grammatical number, Grammatical tense, Great Purge, Hallelujah, Harry Harrison (writer), Head (linguistics), Hector Hodler, Helmar Frank, Henry Holt and Company, History of the Jews in Poland, Humphrey Tonkin, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary, Ido language, ILR scale, Image Comics, Incubus (1966 film), Indigenous Dialogues, Indo-European languages, Infinitive, Inflection, Information flow, Interlinguistics, International Academy of Sciences San Marino, International auxiliary language, International League of Christian Esperantists, International Phonetic Alphabet, International Union of Catholic Esperantists, Iran, Ireland, Isolating language, István Nemere, Italy, Jack Chick, James Ferdinand Morton Jr., Jan Fethke, Jargon, Jarlsberg cheese, Jägermeister, Jean Piaget, John C. Wells, Jorge Camacho (writer), Joseph Stalin, Jouko Lindstedt, Julio Baghy, Jussive mood, Kazimierz Bein, Kálmán Kalocsay, Keyboard layout, Korea, Krzysztof Penderecki, L. L. Zamenhof, Labiodental consonant, Languages of Europe, Latin script, League of Nations, Leon Trotsky, Lernu!, Letovicite, Letter (alphabet), Lexicon, Lidia Zamenhof, Lingua franca, Linguistic typology, Linguistics, Linux, List of Esperanto organizations, List of Esperanto periodicals, List of Esperanto speakers, List of Esperanto-language writers, List of largest languages without official status, Livingston Island, Lou Harrison, MacOS, Manifesto of Prague, Marjorie Boulton, Maurice René Fréchet, Mexico, Michael Everson, Micronation, Microsoft Windows, Mid vowel, Modern Greek, Modern Hebrew, Montevideo Resolution, Morphological derivation, Morphology (linguistics), Muztar Abbasi, Nasal consonant, Native Esperanto speakers, Nazi Germany, Neuropsychology, Neutral Moresnet, New Zealand, Nikolai Vladimirovich Nekrasov, Nitobe Inazō, Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobuo Uematsu, Nominative case, Non-governmental organization, North American Summer Esperanto Institute, Noun, Object (grammar), October Revolution, Official language, Oomoto, Open vowel, Opposing force, Orthography, Palatal consonant, Part of speech, Pasporta Servo, Past tense, Paul Wexler (linguist), Pen pal, Phoneme, Phonology, Phrase, Poland, Pope Benedict XVI, Pope John Paul II, Postalveolar consonant, Poul Anderson, Pragmatics, Prefix, Preposition and postposition, Present tense, Project Gutenberg, Propaedeutic value of Esperanto, Propaedeutics, Proper noun, Proto-Esperanto, Psychology, Qom, Quakers, Quran, Rauma, Finland, Raumism, Raymond Schwartz, Recorder (musical instrument), Red Dwarf, Red Dwarf: Infinity Welcomes Careful Drivers, Red flag (politics), Reformed Esperanto, Reinhard Selten, Relexification, Republic of Molossia, Republic of Rose Island, Reto Rossetti, Richard H. Geoghegan, Romance languages, Root (linguistics), Ruhollah Khomeini, Russian Empire, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Saga (comics), San Marino, SATB, Science, Scotland, Scouse, Second language, Secondary school, Semajno de Kulturo Internacia, Semantics, Semivowel, Sennacieca Asocio Tutmonda, Sexism, Sidney S. Culbert, SIL International, Slang, Slavic languages, Soviet Union, Spanish Civil War, Spanish language, Spiritism, Spiritist Codification, Spomenka Štimec, Star Trek: The Original Series, State school, Stop consonant, Stress (linguistics), Subject (grammar), Subject–verb–object, Suffix, Swahili language, Syntax, Tanakh, Telegram (service), Textbook, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Confidential Agent, The Great Dictator, The New York Times, The Stainless Steel Rat, Tibor Sekelj, Tivadar Soros, Togo, Tone (linguistics), Tradition, Trill consonant, UNESCO, UNESCO Courier, Unicode, United Nations, United States, Universal (Esperantido), Universal Esperanto Association, University of Hartford, University of Helsinki, University of Kansas, University of Manchester, University of Washington, Unua Libro, Urban area, Urbi et Orbi, Uvular trill, Vasili Eroshenko, Vatican Radio, Václav Havel, Velar consonant, Verb, Vladimir Varankin, Vocabulary, Voiced uvular fricative, Voyager 1, Voyager Golden Record, Warsaw Ghetto, Website, William Auld, William Shatner, Windows Phone, World Almanac, World Esperanto Congress, World Esperanto Youth Organization, World Passport, World Service Authority, Yiddish, Yrjö Väisälä, Zamenhof Day, Zed Islands, `Abdu'l-Bahá, 1421 Esperanto, 1462 Zamenhof. 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The Académie française is the pre-eminent French council for matters pertaining to the French language.
The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.
Activism consists of efforts to promote, impede, or direct social, political, economic, or environmental reform or stasis with the desire to make improvements in society.
Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań (Uniwersytet im., Polish abbreviation UAM) is one of the major Polish universities, located in the city of Poznań, Greater Poland, in the west of the country.
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Agglutination is a linguistic process pertaining to derivational morphology in which complex words are formed by stringing together morphemes without changing them in spelling or phonetics.
Agnes Baldwin Alexander (1875–1971) was an American author and a member of the Bahá'í Faith.
The Akademio de Esperanto (AdE; English: Academy of Esperanto) is an independent body of language scholars who steward the evolution of the language Esperanto by keeping it consistent with Fundamento de Esperanto in accordance with the Declaration of Boulogne.
The alveolar approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
The American Radio Relay League (ARRL) is the largest membership association of amateur radio enthusiasts in the USA.
Amikumu is a cross-platform app for smartphones (Android and iOS) which can be used to find people nearby who speak or learn the same languages as the user.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
Anarchism in Spain has historically gained more support and influence than anywhere else, especially before Francisco Franco's victory in the Spanish Civil War of 1936–39.
Anationalism (sennaciismo) is a term originating from the community of Esperanto speakers.
Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google, based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software and designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets.
Angoroj (Agonies) is a 1964 film.
Anna Lowenstein or Löwenstein (born 1951 in Great Britain) is an internationally known Esperantist.
Antoni Grabowski (June 11, 1857 in Nowe Dobra, a village 10 km northeast of Chełmno – July 4, 1921 in Warsaw)Julius Glück, El la klasika periodo de Esperanto (Grabowski kaj Kabe), en Muusses Esperanto Biblioteko No.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Arcaicam Esperantom (Archaic Esperanto; Arĥaika Esperanto), is an auxiliary sociolect for translating literature into Esperanto created to act as a fictional 'Old Esperanto', in the vein of languages such as Middle English or the use of Latin citations in modern texts.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Arnold Judas Rimmer is a fictional character in the science fiction situation comedy Red Dwarf, played by Chris Barrie.
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.
In phonology, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Autodidacticism (also autodidactism) or self-education (also self-learning and self-teaching) is education without the guidance of masters (such as teachers and professors) or institutions (such as schools).
Éva Tófalvi (born December 4, 1978) is a retired Romanian biathlete of Hungarian ethnicity.
Þórbergur Þórðarson (Thorbergur Thordarson) (Hali í Suðursveit, 12 March 1888/1889 – Reykjavík, 12 November 1974) was an Icelandic author and Esperantist.
A B movie or B film is a low-budget commercial movie, but not an arthouse film.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
The Bahá'í Esperanto-League (BEL) is the official organization of Bahá'ís who are Esperantists.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
The Bahá'í Faith teaches that the world should adopt an international auxiliary language, which people would use in addition to their mother tongue.
The Bahá'í Faith in Greater Boston, a combined statistical area, has had glimpses of the religion in the 19th century arising to its first community of religionists at the turn of the century.
Bahá'í literature, like the literature of many religions, covers a variety of topics and forms, including scripture and inspiration, interpretation, history and biography, introduction and study materials, and apologia.
A Bahá'í pilgrimage currently consists of visiting the holy places in Haifa, Acre, and Bahjí at the Bahá'í World Centre in Northwest Israel.
Baldur Ragnarsson (born 25 August 1930) is an Icelandic poet and author of Esperanto works.
Behavior (American English) or behaviour (Commonwealth English) is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment.
Białystok (Bielastok, Balstogė, Belostok, Byalistok) is the largest city in northeastern Poland and the capital of the Podlaskie Voivodeship.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.
The Book of Mormon is a sacred text of the Latter Day Saint movement, which adherents believe contains writings of ancient prophets who lived on the American continent from approximately 2200 BC to AD 421.
Boulogne-sur-Mer, often called Boulogne (Latin: Gesoriacum or Bononia, Boulonne-su-Mér, Bonen), is a coastal city in Northern France.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
A breve (less often;; neuter form of the Latin brevis “short, brief”) is the diacritic mark ˘, shaped like the bottom half of a circle.
The British and Foreign Bible Society, often known in England and Wales as simply the Bible Society, is a non-denominational Christian Bible society with charity status whose purpose is to make the Bible available throughout the world.
In linguistics, a calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation.
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.
A canton in a flag is a rectangular area at the top hoist corner of a flag, occupying up to a quarter of the flag's area.
Catalan nationalism is the ideology asserting that the Catalans are a nation.
The Chamber of Deputies (Câmara dos Deputados) is a federal legislative body and the lower house of the National Congress of Brazil.
Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin (16 April 1889 – 25 December 1977) was an English comic actor, filmmaker, and composer who rose to fame in the era of silent film.
Chick tracts are short evangelical gospel tracts, originally created and published by American publisher and religious cartoonist Jack Chick.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
China Radio International (CRI) is a state-owned international radio broadcaster of the People's Republic of China.
The Christadelphians are a millenarian Christian group who hold a view of Biblical Unitarianism.
Christian apologetics (ἀπολογία, "verbal defence, speech in defence") is a branch of Christian theology that attempts to defend Christianity against objections.
The Christian cross, seen as a representation of the instrument of the crucifixion of Jesus, is the best-known symbol of Christianity.
Christian fundamentalism began in the late 19th and early 20th centuries among British and American Protestants at merriam-webster.com.
The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin, Greek and Cyrillic scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and transcription schemes.
The City of San Marino (Italian: Città di San Marino), also known simply as San Marino or locally as Città, is the capital city of the Republic of San Marino, Southern Europe.
Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
Claude Piron (26 February 1931 – 22 January 2008), also known by the pseudonym Johán Valano, was a Swiss psychologist, Esperantist, translator, and writer.
In grammar, a clause is the smallest grammatical unit that can express a complete proposition.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).
In the constructed language community, the color argument is an often repeated argument that an international auxiliary language based on the languages of one area is only suitable for the inhabitants of that area.
Ido, like Esperanto, is a constructed international auxiliary language.
Esperanto and Interlingua are two planned languages which have taken radically different approaches to the problem of providing an International auxiliary language (IAL).
Esperanto and Novial are two different constructed international auxiliary languages.
In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem.
A computer mouse is a hand-held pointing device that detects two-dimensional motion relative to a surface.
The conditional mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood used to express a proposition whose validity is dependent on some condition, possibly counterfactual.
Confidential Agent is a 1945 spy film starring Charles Boyer and Lauren Bacall, and made by Warner Bros. The movie was directed by Herman Shumlin and produced by Robert Buckner with Jack L. Warner as executive producer.
In grammar, a conjunction (abbreviated or) is a part of speech that connects words, phrases, or clauses that are called the conjuncts of the conjoining construction.
A constructed language (sometimes called a conlang) is a language whose phonology, grammar, and vocabulary have been consciously devised for human or human-like communication, instead of having developed naturally.
The Voyager Golden Record contains 116 images plus a calibration image and a variety of natural sounds, such as those made by surf, wind, and thunder, and animal sounds, including the songs of birds, whales and dolphins.
In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae; abbreviated) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue." The word copula derives from the Latin noun for a "link" or "tie" that connects two different things.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
David "Dave" Lister, commonly referred to simply as Lister, is a fictional character from the British science fiction situation comedy Red Dwarf, portrayed by Craig Charles.
Dayton is a census-designated place (CDP) in Lyon County, Nevada, United States.
Deathworld is the name of a series of science fiction novels by Harry Harrison including the books Deathworld (first published 1960, serialized in Astounding Science Fiction), Deathworld 2 (1964, initially titled The Ethical Engineer and serialized in Analog) and Deathworld 3 (1968, serialized in Analog as The Horse Barbarians), plus the short story "The Mothballed Spaceship" (1973, written as part of a tribute to John W. Campbell).
The Declaration on the Essence of Esperantism (Deklaracio pri la esenco de Esperantismo), commonly referred to as the Declaration of Boulogne (Bulonja Deklaracio), is a historic document that establishes several important premises for the Esperanto movement.
Demonstratives (abbreviated) are words, such as this and that, used to indicate which entities are being referred to and to distinguish those entities from others.
The alveolar tap or flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages.
The deuterocanonical books (from the Greek meaning "belonging to the second canon") is a term adopted in the 16th century by the Roman Catholic Church to denote those books and passages of the Christian Old Testament, as defined in 1546 by the Council of Trent, that were not found in the Hebrew Bible.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
Dialogue (sometimes spelled dialog in American English) is a written or spoken conversational exchange between two or more people, and a literary and theatrical form that depicts such an exchange.
A dictionary, sometimes known as a wordbook, is a collection of words in one or more specific languages, often arranged alphabetically (or by radical and stroke for ideographic languages), which may include information on definitions, usage, etymologies, pronunciations, translation, etc.
A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
A Diplom (from δίπλωμα diploma) is an academic degree in the German-speaking countries Germany, Austria, and Switzerland and a similarly named degree in some other European countries including Bulgaria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Estonia, Finland (only for engineers), France, Greece, Hungary, Russia, Romania, Serbia, Macedonia, Slovenia, and Ukraine.
Distributed Language Translation (Distribuita Lingvo-Tradukado, DLT) was a project to develop an interlingual machine translation system for twelve European languages.
Duolingo is a freemium language-learning platform that includes a language-learning website and app, as well as a digital language proficiency assessment exam.
Dz is a digraph of the Latin script, consisting of the consonants D and Z. It may represent,, or, depending on the language.
E@I (“Education@Internet”) is an international youth non-profit organization that promotes international collaboration and communication and hosts educational projects and meetings to support intercultural learning and the usage of languages and internet technologies.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
Eötvös Loránd University (Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem, ELTE) is a Hungarian public research university based in Budapest.
Edmond Privat (17 August 1889 – 28 August 1962) was a Francophone Swiss Esperantist.
Ehsan Yarshater (احسان يارشاطر, born April 3, 1920) is the founder and director of The Center for Iranian Studies, and Hagop Kevorkian Professor Emeritus of Iranian Studies at Columbia University.
Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times.
Encyclopedias in Esperanto (Enciklopedioj de Esperanto) are Esperanto-language encyclopedias.
EoLA (from Esperanto — Lingvo Arta "Esperanto — Art Language") is an international festival of Esperanto arts and literature sponsored by the Russian Esperantist Union and the Russian Esperantist Youth Movement.
ESP-Disk is a New York-based record company and label founded in 1964 by lawyer Bernard Stollman.
The Esperantic Studies Foundation (ESF) is a foundation which strives to raise awareness on international language problems.
Esperanto (or; Esperanto) is a constructed international auxiliary language.
Esperanto Braille is the braille alphabet of the Esperanto language.
An Esperanto club (Esperanto-klubo) is a club of Esperanto speakers, or Esperantists.
Esperanto Island is the largest and northwesternmost island in the Zed group off the north coast of Varna Peninsula on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica.
The Esperanto jubilee symbol (jubilea simbolo) is a cultural symbol that was created in 1987 to mark the 100th anniversary of Esperanto.
The following Esperanto libraries and collections of works in the Esperanto language are worthy of note.
Esperanto literature is literature in the Esperanto language.
Esperanto music is music in the Esperanto language.
Esperanto is written in a Latin-script alphabet of twenty-eight letters, with upper and lower case.
Since the earliest days of Esperanto, the colour green has been used as a symbol of mutual recognition, and it appears prominently in all Esperanto symbols.
The Esperanto Wikipedia (or Esperanta Vikipedio) is the Esperanto edition of Wikipedia, which was started on 11 May 2001, alongside the Basque Wikipedia.
Esperanto derivation is for the most part regular and predictable: One can normally understand new words that are built upon known roots, and can create new words on the fly while speaking.
Esperanto-USA (E-USA) is the largest organization for speakers and supporters of Esperanto in the United States.
Esperantology, or Esperanto studies, is a special Esperanto linguistics whose subjects are word construction, word assembly, word introduction and transcription of umbrella terms and proper names.
Esperantujo or Esperantio (Esperanto-land) is the community of speakers of the Esperanto and their culture, as well the places and institutions where the language is used.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Europe–Democracy–Esperanto (EDE, E–D–E, or E° D° E°; Esperanto: Eŭropo–Demokratio–Esperanto) is an electoral list, which participates in the European elections.
Failure Magazine is an online magazine which features stories about failure.
A feature film is a film (also called a motion picture or movie) with a running time long enough to be considered the principal or sole film to fill a program.
The Federal Senate (Senado Federal) is the upper house of the National Congress of Brazil.
Fernando de Diego (1919–2005) was a Spanish journalist and linguist.
Final Fantasy XI, also known as Final Fantasy XI Online, is a massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG), developed and published by Square (later Square Enix) as part of the Final Fantasy series.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
Finns or Finnish people (suomalaiset) are a Finnic ethnic group native to Finland.
Finvenkismo (Finvenkism) is an ideological current within the Esperanto movement dating back to L. L. Zamenhof, the initiator of Esperanto.
Fluency (also called volubility and eloquency) is the property of a person or of a system that delivers information quickly and with expertise.
François Grin (born 14 September 1959) is a Swiss economist.
František Lorenz (24 December 1872 – 24 May 1957) also known as Francisco Valdomiro Lorenz or Francisco Lorenz was a Czech-born polyglot and philosopher born in Zbyslav (nowadays part of the Czech Republic).
Frederic Pujulà i Vallès (November 12, 1877 – February 14, 1962) was a Catalan journalist, dramatist, and a passionate Esperantist and contributor to the field of Esperanto literature.
The French Academy of Sciences (French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
Fundamento de Esperanto (English: Foundation of Esperanto) is a 1905 book by L. L. Zamenhof, in which the author explains the basic grammar rules and vocabulary that constitute the basis of the constructed language Esperanto.
In grammar, a future tense (abbreviated) is a verb form that generally marks the event described by the verb as not having happened yet, but expected to happen in the future.
Albert Auguste Gabriel Hanotaux, known as Gabriel Hanotaux (19 November 1853 – 11 April 1944) was a French statesman and historian.
Gaston Waringhien (July 20, 1901 – December 20, 1991) was a French linguist, lexicographer, and Esperantist.
Gboard is a virtual keyboard app developed by Google for Android and iOS devices.
Gender asymmetry is one of the aspects of the constructed language Esperanto that is most frequently targeted for criticism.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
Google Translate is a free multilingual machine translation service developed by Google, to translate text.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.
The Great Purge or the Great Terror (Большо́й терро́р) was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union which occurred from 1936 to 1938.
Hallelujah is an English interjection.
Harry Max Harrison (born Henry Maxwell Dempsey; March 12, 1925 – August 15, 2012) was an American science fiction author, known for his character The Stainless Steel Rat and for his novel Make Room! Make Room! (1966).
In linguistics, the head or nucleus of a phrase is the word that determines the syntactic category of that phrase.
Hector Hodler (1 October 1887, in Geneva – 31 March 1920, in Leysin, Switzerland) was a Swiss Esperantist who had a strong influence on the early Esperanto movement.
Helmar Gunter Frank (19 February 1933, Waiblingen – 15 December 2013, Paderborn) was a German mathematician and pedagogist.
Henry Holt and Company is an American book publishing company based in New York City.
The history of the Jews in Poland dates back over 1,000 years.
Humphrey R. Tonkin (born 2 December 1939) is professor of English, president emeritus of the University of Hartford in Connecticut, and a dedicated Esperantist.
The Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Magyar Tudományos Akadémia (MTA)) is the most important and prestigious learned society of Hungary.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Ido is a constructed language, derived from Reformed Esperanto, created to be a universal second language for speakers of diverse backgrounds.
The Interagency Language Roundtable scale is a set of descriptions of abilities to communicate in a language.
Image Comics is an American comic book publisher.
Incubus (Inkubo) is a 1966 black-and-white American horror film filmed entirely in the constructed language Esperanto.
The Indigenous Dialogues Foundation (Indiĝenaj Dialogoj or ID) was an international project which sought to empower organisations of indigenous peoples worldwide to communicate directly, freely, and affordably, allowing them to more effectively work together for their common interests.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Infinitive (abbreviated) is a grammatical term referring to certain verb forms existing in many languages, most often used as non-finite verbs.
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
In discourse-based grammatical theory, information flow is any tracking of referential information by speakers.
Interlinguistics is the study of various aspects of linguistic communication.
The International Academy of Sciences San Marino (Akademio Internacia de la Sciencoj San Marino, AIS) is a scientific association.
An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) or interlanguage is a language meant for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common first language.
The International League of Christian Esperantists (Esperanto: Kristana Esperantista Ligo Internacia, KELI) is the association of protestant Esperantists.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
The International Union of Catholic Esperantists (Internacia Katolika Unuiĝo Esperantista, IKUE) is an organization of Catholic Esperanto speakers.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
An isolating language is a type of language with a very low morpheme per word ratio and no inflectional morphology whatsoever.
István Nemere (born in Pécs on 8 November, 1944) is a Hungarian novelist, Esperantist, and translator.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jack Thomas Chick (April 13, 1924 – October 23, 2016) was an American cartoonist and publisher, best known for his evangelical fundamentalist Christian "Chick tracts", which presented his perspective on a variety of issues through sequential-art morality plays.
James Ferdinand Morton Jr. (October 18, 1870 – October 7, 1941) was an anarchist writer and political activist of the 1900s through the 1920s especially on the topics of the single tax system, racism, and advocacy for women.
Jan Fethke (26 February 1903 – 16 December 1980) was a German-Polish film director and, under the pen name Jean Forge, a successful author.
Jargon is a type of language that is used in a particular context and may not be well understood outside that context.
Jarlsberg is a mild cow's-milk cheese with large regular holes, that originates from Jarlsberg, Norway.
italic is a digestif made with 56 herbs and spices at a strength of 35% alcohol by volume (61 degrees proof, or US 70 proof).
Jean Piaget (9 August 1896 – 16 September 1980) was a Swiss psychologist and epistemologist known for his pioneering work in child development.
John Christopher Wells (born 11 March 1939 in Bootle, Lancashire) is a British phonetician and Esperantist.
Jorge Camacho Cordón (born 18 November 1966, Zafra) is a writer in Esperanto and Spanish.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Jouko Lindstedt (born in 1955) is a Finnish linguist and a professor at the University of Helsinki.
Julio Baghy (13 January 1891, Szeged – 18 March 1967, Budapest; in Hungarian Baghy Gyula) was a Hungarian actor and one of the leading authors of the Esperanto movement.
The jussive (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood of verbs for issuing orders, commanding, or exhorting (within a subjunctive framework).
Kazimierz Bein (1872 – June 15, 1959), often referred to by his pseudonym Kabe, was a Polish ophthalmologist, the founder and sometime director of the Warsaw Ophthalmic Institute (Warszawski Instytut Oftalmiczny).
Kálmán Kalocsay (6 October 1891 in Abaújszántó – 27 February 1976) was a Hungarian Esperantist poet, translator and editor who considerably influenced Esperanto culture, both in its literature and in the language itself, through his original poetry and his translations of literary works from his native Hungarian and other languages of Europe.
A keyboard layout is any specific mechanical, visual, or functional arrangement of the keys, legends, or key-meaning associations (respectively) of a computer, typewriter, or other typographic keyboard.
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
Krzysztof Eugeniusz Penderecki (born 23 November 1933) is a Polish composer and conductor.
Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof (Ludwik Łazarz Zamenhof; –), credited as L. L. Zamenhof and sometimes as the pseudonymous Dr.
In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.
Most languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
Leon Trotsky (born Lev Davidovich Bronstein; – 21 August 1940) was a Russian revolutionary, theorist, and Soviet politician.
lernu! is a multilingual, Web-based free-of-charge project for promoting and teaching Esperanto.
Letovicite is an ammonium sulfate mineral with composition (NH4)3H(SO4)2 (IUPAC: triammonium sulfate hydrogensulfate, Nickel–Strunz classification 07.AD.20).
A letter is a grapheme (written character) in an alphabetic system of writing.
A lexicon, word-hoard, wordbook, or word-stock is the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical).
Lidia Zamenhof (Lidja; 29 January 1904–1942) was a Polish writer, publisher, translator and the youngest daughter of L. L. Zamenhof, the creator of Esperanto.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Linguistic typology is a field of linguistics that studies and classifies languages according to their structural and functional features.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
This is a list of Esperanto organizations.
Esperanto periodicals have been an important element of the Esperanto movement since its beginning because it was one of the only practical ways the language could be used between conferences.
An Esperantist (Esperantisto) is a person who speaks Esperanto.
Authors from many nations have written literature in the Esperanto language, a constructed international auxiliary language with an estimated two million speakers worldwide.
Below is list of languages without any official status (or a minority language) with more than a million speakers, ordered by the number of native speakers.
Livingston Island (Russian name Smolensk) is an Antarctic island in the South Shetland Islands, Western Antarctica lying between Greenwich Island and Snow Islands.
Lou Silver Harrison (May 14, 1917 – February 2, 2003) was an American composer.
macOS (previously and later) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.
The Manifesto of Prague (Praga Manifesto) is a historic document that establishes a set of seven widely shared principles of the Esperanto movement.
Marjorie Boulton (7 May 1924 – 30 August 2017) was a British author and poet writing in both English and Esperanto.
Maurice Fréchet (2 September 1878 – 4 June 1973) was a French mathematician.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Michael Everson (born January 9, 1963) is an American and Irish linguist, script encoder, typesetter, font designer, and publisher.
A micronation, sometimes referred to as a model country or new country project, is an entity that claims to be an independent nation or state but is not recognized by world governments or major international organizations.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.
Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική Γλώσσα "Neo-Hellenic", historically and colloquially also known as Ρωμαίικα "Romaic" or "Roman", and Γραικικά "Greek") refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era.
Resolution IV.4.422-4224, commonly referred to as the Montevideo Resolution, is a resolution passed in Montevideo, Uruguay on December 10, 1954 by the General Conference of UNESCO.
Morphological derivation, in linguistics, is the process of forming a new word from an existing word, often by adding a prefix or suffix, such as For example, happiness and unhappy derive from the root word happy.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
Allama Muztar Abbasi (Born 1931 in Murree - Died 26 February 2004 in Islamabad) was a Pakistani Muslim scholar who belonged to the Dhund Abbasi tribe of Murree Hills in the Rawalpindi District.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
Native Esperanto speakers (Esperanto: denaskuloj or denaskaj esperantistoj) are people who have acquired Esperanto as one of their native languages.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Neuropsychology is the study of the structure and function of the brain as they relate to specific psychological processes and behaviours.
Neutral Moresnet or Altenberg was a small Belgian–Prussian condominium in central-western Europe that existed from 1816 to 1920 and was jointly administered by the United Kingdom of the Netherlands (Belgium after its independence in 1830) and the Kingdom of Prussia. After 1830, the territory's northernmost border point at Vaalserberg connected it to a quadripoint shared additionally with the Dutch Province of Limburg, the Prussian Rhine Province, and the Belgian Province of Liège. Today it is known as the Three-Country Point, being the meeting place of the borders of Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands. During the First World War, Neutral Moresnet was annexed by Germany, although the allies did not recognise the annexation. The Armistice between France and Germany in November 1918 forced Germany to withdraw from Belgium and Neutral Moresnet. A year later, the Treaty of Versailles awarded Neutral Moresnet to Belgium, effective 10 January 1920, when the territory was annexed by Belgium to become the municipality of Kelmis. The area is especially of interest to Esperantists because of initiatives in the early 20th century to found an Esperanto‑speaking state, named Amikejo (Place of Friendship), on the territory of Neutral Moresnet. During World War II, Kelmis and the surrounding area was again annexed by Germany and had its name reversed to Moresnet, but the territory was returned to Belgium in 1944.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Nikolai Vladimirovich Nekrasov (Николай Владимирович Некрасов) (18 December 1900—4 October 1938) was a Soviet Esperanto writer, translator, and critic.
was a Japanese agricultural economist, author, educator, diplomat, politician, and Christian during the pre-World War II period.
The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (officially Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne, or the Swedish National Bank's Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel), commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Economics, is an award for outstanding contributions to the field of economics, and generally regarded as the most prestigious award for that field.
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
is a Japanese video game composer, best known for scoring most of the titles in the Final Fantasy series by Square Enix.
The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.
The North American Summer Esperanto Institute (Nord-Amerika Somera Kursaro, NASK) is an Esperanto immersion course, offering instruction for Esperanto-speakers of various levels each year.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
, also known as, is a religion founded in 1892 by Deguchi Nao (1836–1918), often categorised as a new Japanese religion originated from Shinto.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
An opposing force (abbreviated OPFOR or enemy force) is a military unit tasked with representing an enemy, usually for training purposes in war game scenarios.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
In traditional grammar, a part of speech (abbreviated form: PoS or POS) is a category of words (or, more generally, of lexical items) which have similar grammatical properties.
The Pasporta Servo (Passport Service) is a hospitality service for Esperanto speakers.
The past tense (abbreviated) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to place an action or situation in past time.
Paul Wexler (born November 6, 1938, פאול וקסלר) is an American-born Israeli linguist, and Professor Emeritus of linguistics at Tel Aviv University.
Pen pals (or penpals, pen-pals, penfriends or pen friends) are people who regularly write to each other, particularly via postal mail.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
In everyday speech, a phrase may be any group of words, often carrying a special idiomatic meaning; in this sense it is roughly synonymous with expression.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Pope Benedict XVI (Benedictus XVI; Benedetto XVI; Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger;; 16 April 1927) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 2005 until his resignation in 2013.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
Poul William Anderson (November 25, 1926 – July 31, 2001) was an American science fiction author who began his career in the 1940s and continued to write into the 21st century.
Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics and semiotics that studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning.
A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word.
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
The present tense (abbreviated or) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to locate a situation or event in present time.
Project Gutenberg (PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks".
The propaedeutic value of Esperanto is the utility of Esperanto as an introduction to foreign language study and its benefit on the teaching of subsequent foreign languages.
Propaedeutics or propedeutics (from Ancient Greek προπαίδευσις, propaídeusis, "preparatory education") is a historical term for an introductory course into a discipline, that is an art, or science.
A proper noun is a noun that in its primary application refers to a unique entity, such as London, Jupiter, Sarah, or Microsoft, as distinguished from a common noun, which usually refers to a class of entities (city, planet, person, corporation), or non-unique instances of a specific class (a city, another planet, these persons, our corporation).
Proto-Esperanto (Pra-Esperanto) is the modern term for any of the stages in the evolution of L. L. Zamenhof's language project, prior to the publication of Unua Libro in 1887.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Qom (قم) is the eighth largest city in Iran.
Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Rauma (Raumo) is a town and municipality of ca.
Raumism (Raŭmismo) is an ideology beginning in 1980 with the Manifesto of Rauma, written at the 36th International Youth Congress, which criticized the goals of the traditional Esperanto movement and defined the Esperanto community as "a stateless diaspora linguistic minority" based on freedom of association.
Raymond Schwartz (April 8, 1894 – May 14, 1973), was a French banker and Esperanto author who wrote many poems and novels in Esperanto, as well as skits which he directed for Parisian Esperanto cabarets.
The recorder is a woodwind musical instrument in the group known as internal duct flutes—flutes with a whistle mouthpiece.
Red Dwarf is a British science fiction comedy franchise which primarily consists of a television sitcom that aired on BBC Two between 1988 and 1999, and on Dave since 2009, gaining a cult following.
Red Dwarf: Infinity Welcomes Careful Drivers is a best-selling science fiction comedy novel by Grant Naylor, the collective name for Rob Grant and Doug Naylor, co-creators and writers of the Red Dwarf television series, on which the novel is based.
In politics, a red flag is predominantly a symbol of socialism, communism, Marxism, and left-wing politics; it has been associated with left-wing politics since the French Revolution (1789–99).
Reformed Esperanto, or Esperanto 1894, is an Esperantido, a constructed language derived from Esperanto.
Reinhard Justus Reginald Selten (5 October 1930 – 23 August 2016) was a German economist, who won the 1994 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (shared with John Harsanyi and John Nash).
In linguistics, relexification is a mechanism of language change by which one language changes much or all of its lexicon, including basic vocabulary, with the lexicon of another language, without drastically changing the relexified language's grammar.
Molossia, also known as the Republic of Molossia, is a claimed micronation within the United States, founded by Kevin Baugh (b. July 30, 1962) and headquartered at his home near Dayton, Nevada.
The Republic of Rose Island (Respubliko de la Insulo de la Rozoj) was a short-lived micronation on a man-made platform in the Adriatic Sea, off the coast of the province of Rimini, Italy.
Reto Rossetti (11 April 1909 – 20 September 1994) was a poet and an Esperantist professor.
Richard Henry Geoghegan (8 January 1866 – 27 October 1943) was an Anglo-American philologist and the first known Esperantist from the English-speaking world.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
A root (or root word) is a word that does not have a prefix in front of the word or a suffix at the end of the word.
Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini (سید روحالله موسوی خمینی; 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989), known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian Shia Islam religious leader and politician.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
Saga is an epic space opera/fantasy comic book series written by Brian K. Vaughan and illustrated by Fiona Staples, published monthly by the American company Image Comics.
San Marino, officially the Republic of San Marino (Repubblica di San Marino), also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino), is an enclaved microstate surrounded by Italy, situated on the Italian Peninsula on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains.
In music, SATB is an initialism for soprano, alto, tenor, bass, defining the voice types required by a chorus or choir to perform a particular musical work.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Scouse (also, in academic sources, called Liverpool English or Merseyside English) is an accent and dialect of English found primarily in the Metropolitan county of Merseyside, and closely associated with the city of Liverpool.
A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.
A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place.
Semajno de Kulturo Internacia (SKI; Week of International Culture) is a week-long happening organised without a fixed schedule by the Italian Esperanto Youth (helped by the World Esperanto Youth Organization) in various cities of Italy, in association with the local town councils.
Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide, also known as a non-syllabic vocoid, is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary, rather than as the nucleus of a syllable.
Sennacieca Asocio Tutmonda (SAT; World Anational Association) is an independent worldwide cultural Esperanto association of a general left-wing orientation.
Sexism is prejudice or discrimination based on a person's sex or gender.
Sidney Spence Culbert (May 14, 1913 – October 28, 2003) was a linguist, psychologist and Esperantist.
SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics) is a U.S.-based, worldwide, Christian non-profit organization, whose main purpose is to study, develop and document languages, especially those that are lesser-known, in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy, translate the Christian Bible into local languages, and aid minority language development.
Slang is language (words, phrases, and usages) of an informal register that members of special groups like teenagers, musicians, or criminals favor (over a standard language) in order to establish group identity, exclude outsiders, or both.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Spiritism is a spiritualistic religion codified in the 19th century by the French educator Hippolyte Léon Denizard Rivail, under the codename Allan Kardec; it proposed the study of "the nature, origin, and destiny of spirits, and their relation with the corporeal world".
Spiritist Codification (or Spiritist Pentateuch) is the customary name given by spiritists to the set of books codified by Allan Kardec.
Spomenka Štimec (born 4 January 1949) is a Croatian writer, one of the most acclaimed contemporary writers in Esperanto, and also significant to Esperanto in Croatia.
Star Trek is an American science fiction television series created by Gene Roddenberry that follows the adventures of the starship and its crew.
State schools (also known as public schools outside England and Wales)In England and Wales, some independent schools for 13- to 18-year-olds are known as 'public schools'.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.
The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was hit by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case 'John'.
In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
Swahili, also known as Kiswahili (translation: coast language), is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
Telegram is a cloud-based instant messaging and voice over IP service developed by Telegram Messenger LLP, a privately held company registered in London, United Kingdom, founded by the Russian entrepreneur Pavel Durov.
A textbook or coursebook (UK English) is a manual of instruction in any branch of study.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), often informally known as the Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church that is considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ.
The Confidential Agent (1939) is a thriller novel by British author Graham Greene.
The Great Dictator is a 1940 American political satire comedy-drama film written, directed, produced, scored by and starring British comedian Charlie Chaplin, following the tradition of many of his other films.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
James Bolivar diGriz, alias "Slippery Jim" and "The Stainless Steel Rat", is a fictional character and the antihero of a series of comic science fiction novels written by Harry Harrison.
Tibor Sekelj (14 February 1912 – 20 September 1988), also known as Székely Tibor according to Hungarian orthography, was a Hungarian born polyglot, explorer, author, and 'citizen of the world.' In 1986 he was elected a member of the Academy of Esperanto and an honorary member of the World Esperanto Association.
Tivadar Soros (Teodoro Ŝvarc; born Theodor Schwarz, 1894–1968) was a Hungarian lawyer, author and editor.
Togo, officially the Togolese Republic (République Togolaise), is a sovereign state in West Africa bordered by Ghana to the west, Benin to the east and Burkina Faso to the north.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
A tradition is a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past.
In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The UNESCO Courier is the main magazine published by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Universal is an Esperantido, a constructed language based on Esperanto.
The Universal Esperanto Association (Universala Esperanto-Asocio, UEA), also known as the World Esperanto Association, is the largest international organization of Esperanto speakers, with 5501 individual members in 121 countries and 9215 through national associations (in 2015) and in official relations with the United Nations.
The University of Hartford (UHart) is a private, independent, nonsectarian, coeducational university located mostly in West Hartford, Connecticut.
The University of Helsinki (Helsingin yliopisto, Helsingfors universitet, Universitas Helsingiensis, abbreviated UH) is a university located in Helsinki, Finland since 1829, but was founded in the city of Turku (in Swedish Åbo) in 1640 as the Royal Academy of Åbo, at that time part of the Swedish Empire.
The University of Kansas, also referred to as KU or Kansas, is a public research university in the U.S. state of Kansas.
The University of Manchester is a public research university in Manchester, England, formed in 2004 by the merger of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester.
The University of Washington (commonly referred to as UW, simply Washington, or informally U-Dub) is a public research university in Seattle, Washington.
International Language (язык), usually referred to as Unua Libro (English: First Book) and translated into English as Dr.
An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.
Urbi et Orbi ("to the City of Rome and to the World") denotes a papal address and apostolic blessing given to the city of Rome and to the entire world by the Roman pontiff on certain solemn occasions.
The uvular trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Vasili Yakovlevich Eroshenko (Василий Яковлевич Ерошенко Василь Якович Єрошенко) (12 January 1890 – 23 December 1952) was an anarchist writer, esperantist, linguist, and teacher.
Vatican Radio (Radio Vaticana; Statio Radiophonica Vaticana) is the official broadcasting service of the Vatican.
Václav Havel (5 October 193618 December 2011) was a Czech statesman, writer and former dissident, who served as the last President of Czechoslovakia from 1989 until the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1992 and then as the first President of the Czech Republic from 1993 to 2003.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).
Vladimir Valentinovich Varankin (12 November 1902 – 3 October 1938) was a Russian writer of literature in Esperanto, an instructor of western European history, and director of the Moscow Ped.
A vocabulary is a set of familiar words within a person's language.
The voiced uvular fricative or approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Voyager 1 is a space probe launched by NASA on September 5, 1977.
The Voyager Golden Records are two phonograph records that were included aboard both Voyager spacecraft launched in 1977.
The Warsaw Ghetto (Warschauer Ghetto, officially Jüdischer Wohnbezirk in Warschau Jewish Residential District in Warsaw; getto warszawskie) was the largest of all the Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Europe during World War II.
A website is a collection of related web pages, including multimedia content, typically identified with a common domain name, and published on at least one web server.
William Auld (6 November 1924 – 11 September 2006) was a Scottish poet, author, translator and magazine editor who wrote chiefly in Esperanto.
William Shatner (born March 22, 1931) is a Canadian actor, author, producer, and director.
Windows Phone (WP) is a family of discontinued mobile operating systems developed by Microsoft for smartphones as the replacement successor to Windows Mobile and Zune.
The World Almanac and Book of Facts is a US-published reference work and is a bestselling retrieved 2007-12-25 almanac conveying information about such subjects as world changes, tragedies, sports feats, etc.
The World Esperanto Congress (Universala Kongreso de Esperanto, UK) is an annual Esperanto convention.
The World Esperanto Youth Organization (Tutmonda Esperantista Junulara Organizo, TEJO) is an organization dedicated to supporting young Esperanto speakers around the world and promote the use of Esperanto.
The World Passport is a fantasy travel document sold by the World Service Authority, a non-profit organization founded by Garry Davis in 1954.
The World Service Authority (WSA), founded in 1954, is a non-profit organization that claims to educate about and promote "world citizenship", "world law", and World Government.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
Yrjö Väisälä (6 September 1891 in Utra, Kontiolahti, Grand Duchy of Finland – 21 July 1971 in Rymättylä, Finland) was a Finnish astronomer and physicist.
Zamenhof Day (Zamenhofa Tago), also called Esperanto Day, is celebrated on 15 December, the birthday of Esperanto creator L. L. Zamenhof.
The Zed Islands are a small group of islands, the westernmost rising to, lying off the northeast extremity of Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica comprising four islands: Esperanto Island, Phanagoria Island, Lesidren Island and Koshava Island, and the adjacent Dlagnya and Goritsa Rocks.
`Abdu’l-Bahá' (Persian: عبد البهاء‎, 23 May 1844 – 28 November 1921), born `Abbás (عباس), was the eldest son of Bahá'u'lláh and served as head of the Bahá'í Faith from 1892 until 1921.
1421 Esperanto, provisional designation, is an asteroid from the asteroid belt, about 43 kilometers in diameter.
1462 Zamenhof, provisional designation, is a carbonaceous Themistian asteroid from the outer regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 27 kilometers in diameter.
Criticism of Esperanto, Esparanto, Esperamto, Esperano, Esperanta Klavaro, Esperanto (language), Esperanto Pen Pal Service, Esperanto as an international language, Esperanto language, Esperanto pen pal service, Esperanto penpal service, Esperanto-lingvo, EsperantoLanguage, Esperantu, Esperento, Espéranto, ISO 639 EO, ISO 639:eo, ISO 639:epo, ISO:EO, Internacia lingvo, Koresponda Servo, La Lingvo Internacia, Number of Esperanto speakers.