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Index Essen

Essen (Latin: Assindia) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. [1]

353 relations: Aalto Theatre, Airman, Airship, Aldi, Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach, Alliance 90/The Greens, Allied-occupied Germany, Allies of World War II, Altfrid, Annexation, Anno Domini, Archbishop of Cologne, Asphalt, Association football, Asymmetry, Autobahn, Axel Springer SE, Basketball Bundesliga, Bauhaus, Bavarians, Belgium, Benefactor (law), Benito Mussolini, Berthold Beitz, Bild, Bishopric of Hildesheim, Blade, Bochum, Borbeck-Mitte, Botanical garden, Botanischer Garten Grugapark, Bottrop, Brenntag, Bructeri, Bundesautobahn 40, Bundesautobahn 42, Bundesautobahn 52, Bundesstraße, Burgomaster, Business magnate, BV Altenessen, Candelabra, Capitalization, Car and Driver, Car tuning, Catholic Church, Chancellor of Germany, Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, Chastity, Chatti, ..., Christian democracy, Christian Democratic Union of Germany, City, City council, City of Sunderland, Clock, Coal mining, Colosseum Theater, Communist Workers' International, Communist Workers' Party 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Zwentibold, 17th Airborne Division (United States), 507th Parachute Infantry Regiment (United States). 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Aalto Theatre

The Aalto Theatre, officially the Aalto-Musiktheater Essen, is a performing arts venue in Essen, Germany.

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An Airman is a member of an air force or air arm of a nation's armed forces.

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An airship or dirigible balloon is a type of aerostat or lighter-than-air aircraft that can navigate through the air under its own power.

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Aldi (stylised as ALDI) is the common brand of two German discount supermarket chains with over 10,000 stores in 20 countries, and an estimated combined turnover of more than €50 billion.

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Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach

Alfried Felix Alwyn Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach (13 August 1907 – 30 July 1967), often referred to as Alfried Krupp, was an industrialist, a competitor in Olympic yacht races and a member of the Krupp family, which has been prominent in German industry since the early 19th century.

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Alliance 90/The Greens

Alliance 90/The Greens, often simply Greens (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen or Grüne), is a green political party in Germany that was formed from the merger of the German Green Party (founded in West Germany in 1980 and merged with the East Greens in 1990) and Alliance 90 (founded during the Revolution of 1989–1990 in East Germany) in 1993.

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Allied-occupied Germany

Upon the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, the victorious Allies asserted their joint authority and sovereignty over 'Germany as a whole', defined as all territories of the former German Reich which lay west of the Oder–Neisse line, having declared the extinction of Nazi Germany at the death of Adolf Hitler (see 1945 Berlin Declaration).

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Allies of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).

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Saint Altfrid (or Altfrid of Hildesheim) (died 15 August 874) was a leading figure in Germany in the ninth century.

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Annexation (Latin ad, to, and nexus, joining) is the administrative action and concept in international law relating to the forcible transition of one state's territory by another state.

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Anno Domini

The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.

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Archbishop of Cologne

The Archbishop of Cologne is an archbishop representing the Archdiocese of Cologne of the Catholic Church in western North Rhine-Westphalia and northern Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany and was ex officio one of the electors of the Holy Roman Empire, the Elector of Cologne, from 1356 to 1801.

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Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.

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Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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Asymmetry is the absence of, or a violation of, symmetry (the property of an object being invariant to a transformation, such as reflection).

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The Autobahn (plural) is the federal controlled-access highway system in Germany.

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Axel Springer SE

Axel Springer SE is the largest digital publishing house in Europe, with numerous multimedia news brands, such as Bild, Die Welt, and Fakt and more than 15,000 employees.

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Basketball Bundesliga

The Basketball Bundesliga (BBL) (English language: Federal Basketball League), for sponsorship reasons named easyCredit BBL, is the highest level league of professional club basketball in Germany.

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Staatliches Bauhaus, commonly known simply as Bauhaus, was a German art school operational from 1919 to 1933 that combined crafts and the fine arts, and was famous for the approach to design that it publicized and taught.

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Bavarians (Bavarian: Boarn, Standard German: Bayern) are nation and ethnographic group of Germans of the Bavaria region, a state within Germany.

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Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.

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Benefactor (law)

A benefactor is a person who gives some form of help to benefit a person, group or organization (the beneficiary), often gifting a monetary contribution in the form of an endowment to help a cause.

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Benito Mussolini

Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).

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Berthold Beitz

Berthold Beitz (26 September 1913 – 30 July 2013) was a German industrialist.

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The Bild newspaper (or Bild-Zeitung, literally Picture) is a German tabloid published by Axel Springer AG.

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Bishopric of Hildesheim

The Prince-Bishopric of Hildesheim (Hochstift Hildesheim) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire from the Middle Ages until 1803.

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A blade is the portion of a tool, weapon, or machine with an edge that is designed to puncture, chop, slice or scrape surfaces or materials.

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Bochum (Westphalian: Baukem) is a city in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany and part of the Arnsberg region.

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Borbeck-Mitte is the central borough of Borbeck, the fourth suburban district of Essen, Germany.

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Botanical garden

A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms botanic and botanical and garden or gardens are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word botanic is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens.

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Botanischer Garten Grugapark

The Botanischer Garten Grugapark is a municipal botanical garden located in the Grugapark at Virchowstraße 167a, Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Bottrop is a city in west central Germany, on the Rhine-Herne Canal, in North Rhine-Westphalia.

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Brenntag AG is a German chemical distribution company founded in 1874 in Berlin.

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The Bructeri (Greek Βρούκτεροι; but Βουσάκτεροι in Strabo) were a Germanic tribe in Roman imperial times, located in northwestern Germany, in present-day North Rhine-Westphalia.

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Bundesautobahn 40

, (named A 430 until the early 1990s) is one of the most used Autobahns in Germany.

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Bundesautobahn 42

is an autobahn in western Germany.

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Bundesautobahn 52

is an autobahn in western Germany.

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Bundesstraße (German for "federal highway"), abbreviated B, is the denotation for German and Austrian national highways.

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Burgomaster (alternatively spelled burgermeister, literally master of the town, master of the borough, master of the fortress, or master of the citizens) is the English form of various terms in or derived from Germanic languages for the chief magistrate or chairman of the executive council, usually of a sub-national level of administration such as a city or a similar entity.

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Business magnate

A business magnate (formally industrialist) refers to an entrepreneur of great influence, importance, or standing in a particular enterprise or field of business.

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BV Altenessen

BV Altenessen is a German football club from the city of Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia.

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A candelabrum (plural candelabrums, candelabra, candelabras), sometimes called a candle tree, is a candle holder with multiple arms.

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Capitalisation, or capitalization,see spelling differences is writing a word with its first letter as a capital letter (upper-case letter) and the remaining letters in lower case in writing systems with a case distinction.

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Car and Driver

Car and Driver (CD or C/D) is an American automotive enthusiast magazine.

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Car tuning

Car tuning is modification of the performance or appearance of a vehicle.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Chancellor of Germany

The title Chancellor has designated different offices in the history of Germany.

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Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor

Charles IV (Karel IV., Karl IV., Carolus IV; 14 May 1316 – 29 November 1378Karl IV. In: (1960): Geschichte in Gestalten (History in figures), vol. 2: F-K. 38, Frankfurt 1963, p. 294), born Wenceslaus, was a King of Bohemia and the first King of Bohemia to also become Holy Roman Emperor.

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Chastity is sexual conduct of a person deemed praiseworthy and virtuous according to the moral standards and guidelines of their culture, civilization or religion.

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The Chatti (also Chatthi or Catti) were an ancient Germanic tribe whose homeland was near the upper Weser.

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Christian democracy

Christian democracy is a political ideology that emerged in nineteenth-century Europe under the influence of Catholic social teaching, as well as Neo-Calvinism.

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Christian Democratic Union of Germany

The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands, CDU) is a Christian democratic and liberal-conservative political party in Germany.

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A city is a large human settlement.

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City council

A city council, town council, town board, or board of aldermen is the legislative body that governs a city, town, municipality, or local government area.

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City of Sunderland

The City of Sunderland is a local government district of Tyne and Wear, in North East England, with the status of a city and metropolitan borough.

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A clock is an instrument to measure, keep, and indicate time.

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Coal mining

Coal mining is the process of extracting coal from the ground.

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Colosseum Theater

Colosseum Theater is a performance venue in Essen, Germany.

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Communist Workers' International

The Communist Workers' International (Kommunistische Arbeiter-Internationale, KAI) or Fourth Communist International was a council communist international.

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Communist Workers' Party of Germany

The Communist Workers' Party of Germany (Kommunistische Arbeiter-Partei Deutschlands; KAPD) was an anti-parliamentarian and left communist party that was active in Germany during the time of the Weimar Republic.

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A Councillor is a member of a local government council.

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The Counter-Reformation, also called the Catholic Reformation or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648).

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Cross of Otto and Mathilde

The Cross of Otto and Mathilde, Otto-Mathilda Cross, or First Cross of Mathilde (German: Otto-Mathilden-Kreuz) is a medieval crux gemmata (jewelled cross) processional cross in the Essen Cathedral Treasury.

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A crypt (from Latin crypta "vault") is a stone chamber beneath the floor of a church or other building.

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Cultural center

A cultural center or cultural centre is an organization, building or complex that promotes culture and arts.

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David Chipperfield

Sir David Alan Chipperfield (born 18 December 1953) is an English architect.

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The DAX (Deutscher Aktienindex (German stock index)) is a blue chip stock market index consisting of the 30 major German companies trading on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange.

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Düsseldorf (Low Franconian, Ripuarian: Düsseldörp), often Dusseldorf in English sources, is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the seventh most populous city in Germany. Düsseldorf is an international business and financial centre, renowned for its fashion and trade fairs.

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Düsseldorf (region)

Düsseldorf is one of the five Regierungsbezirke of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, located in the north-west of the country.

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Düsseldorf Airport

Düsseldorf Airport (Flughafen Düsseldorf,; until March 2013 Düsseldorf International Airport) is the international airport of Düsseldorf, the capital of the German state North Rhine-Westphalia.

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DB Regio

DB Regio AG is a subsidiary of Deutsche Bahn which operates short and medium distance commuter train services in Germany.

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Deichmann SE

Deichmann SE (formerly Heinrich Deichmann-Schuhe GmbH & Co. KG) is a major German shoe and sportswear retail chain.

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Der Spiegel

Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.

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Deutsche Bahn

Deutsche Bahn AG (abbreviated as DB, DB AG or DBAG) is a German railway company.

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Discrete mathematics

Discrete mathematics is the study of mathematical structures that are fundamentally discrete rather than continuous.

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A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government.

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Docklands Light Railway

The Docklands Light Railway (DLR) is an automated light metro system opened in 1987 to serve the redeveloped Docklands area of East London, England.

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Dortmund (Düörpm:; Tremonia) is an independent city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Dortmund Airport

Dortmund Airport, is a minor international airport located east of Dortmund, North Rhine-Westphalia.

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Duisburg (locally) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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E.ON SE (marketed with an interpunct as E·ON) is a European holding company based in Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Electric utility

An electric utility is a company in the electric power industry (often a public utility) that engages in electricity generation and distribution of electricity for sale generally in a regulated market.

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Electromagnetic induction

Electromagnetic or magnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force (i.e., voltage) across an electrical conductor in a changing magnetic field.

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Energiewende in Germany

The Energiewende (German for energy transition) is the planned transition by Germany to a low carbon, environmentally sound, reliable, and affordable energy supply.

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The Ennepe-Ruhr-Kreis is a district in the center of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Equestrianism (from Latin equester, equestr-, equus, horseman, horse), more often known as riding, horse riding (British English) or horseback riding (American English), refers to the skill of riding, driving, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses.

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Equitana is a trade fair organization for equestrian sports.

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Erfurt is the capital and largest city in the state of Thuringia, central Germany.

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Escutcheon (heraldry)

In heraldry, an escutcheon is a shield that forms the main or focal element in an achievement of arms.

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Essen Abbey

Essen Abbey (Stift Essen) was a monastery of secular canonesses for women of high nobility in Essen, Germany.

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Essen Hauptbahnhof

Essen Hauptbahnhof (German for Essen main station) is a railway station in the city of Essen in western Germany.

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Essen Motor Show

The Essen Motor Show is an auto show held annually in the city of Essen, Germany.

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Essen Stadtbahn

The Essen Stadtbahn (Stadtbahn Essen). is a light rail (Stadtbahn) network in Essen and the two neighbouring towns of Mülheim an der Ruhr and Gelsenkirchen in the German state of North Rhine Westphalia. It forms part of the Rhine-Ruhr Stadtbahn. Like the Frankfurt U-Bahn, it is a mixed system of light rail and underground railway. One of its three lines, U18, runs completely free of intersections with other traffic. The other two lines are partly tramlines and partly underground lines. The sections of tramline have only a few sections that have no intersections with road traffic. Like all urban public transport in Essen, the Essen Stadtbahn is operated by Ruhrbahn, a company owned by the Cities of Essen and Mülheim an der Ruhr. The transport companies of neighbouring municipalities are also involved with the operation of some lines under concessions.

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Essen/Mülheim Airport

Essen/Mülheim Airport, is an airport located south-west of Essen and south-east of Mülheim, North Rhine-Westphalia.

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ETB Wohnbau Baskets

ETB Wohnbau Baskets is a professional basketball club based in Essen, Germany.

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EuroBasket 1971

The 1971 FIBA European Championship, commonly called FIBA EuroBasket 1971, was the seventeenth FIBA EuroBasket regional basketball championship, held by FIBA Europe.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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European Capital of Culture

The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union (EU) for a period of one calendar year during which it organises a series of cultural events with a strong pan-European dimension.

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European Green Capital Award

The European Green Capital Award is an award for a European city based on its environmental record.

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Evonik Industries

Evonik Industries AG is an industrial corporation headquartered in Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, the largest specialty chemicals company in the world, owned by RAG Foundation.

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Executive (government)

The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.

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A Fachhochschule (plural Fachhochschulen), abbreviated FH, or University of Applied Sciences (UAS) is a German tertiary education institution, specializing in topical areas (e.g. engineering, technology or business).

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Far-right politics

Far-right politics are politics further on the right of the left-right spectrum than the standard political right, particularly in terms of more extreme nationalist, and nativist ideologies, as well as authoritarian tendencies.

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Federal Statistical Office of Germany

The Federal Statistical Office (Statistisches Bundesamt, shortened Destatis) is a federal authority of Germany.

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Flight training

Flight training is a course of study used when learning to pilot an aircraft.

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Fog is a visible aerosol consisting of minute water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the air at or near the Earth's surface.

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Folkwang University of the Arts

The Folkwang University of the Arts is a leading university for music, theater, dance, design, and academic studies, located in 4 German cities of North Rhine-Westphalia.

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Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.

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Forced labour under German rule during World War II

The use of forced labour and slavery in Nazi Germany and throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II took place on an unprecedented scale.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.

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Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.

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Franz Hengsbach

Franz Hengsbach (10 September 1910 – 24 June 1991) was a German Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church who served as Bishop of Essen from 1957 to 1991, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1988.

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The Frauen-Bundesliga (English: Women's Federal League), currently known as the Allianz Frauen-Bundesliga due to sponsorship by Allianz, is the top level of league competition for women's association football in Germany.

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Fraxinus, English name ash, is a genus of flowering plants in the olive and lilac family, Oleaceae.

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Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor

Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250; Fidiricu, Federico, Friedrich) was King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225.

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Free Democratic Party (Germany)

The Free Democratic Party (Freie Demokratische Partei, FDP) is a liberal and classical liberal political party in Germany.

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Free imperial city

In the Holy Roman Empire, the collective term free and imperial cities (Freie und Reichsstädte), briefly worded free imperial city (Freie Reichsstadt, urbs imperialis libera), was used from the fifteenth century to denote a self-ruling city that had a certain amount of autonomy and was represented in the Imperial Diet.

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Freikorps ("Free Corps") were German volunteer units that existed from the 18th to the early 20th centuries, which effectively fought as mercenary or private armies, regardless of their own nationality.

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Friedrich Alfred Krupp

Friedrich Alfred Krupp (17 February 1854 – 22 November 1902) was a German steel manufacturer of the company Krupp.

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Friedrich Krupp

Friedrich Carl Krupp (Essen, 17 July 1787 – Essen, 8 October 1826) was a German steel manufacturer and founder of the Krupp family commercial empire that is now subsumed into ThyssenKrupp AG.

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Funke Mediengruppe

Funke Mediengruppe (formerly WAZ-Mediagroup) is Germany's third largest newspaper and magazine publisher with a total of over 500 publications in eight countries.

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Garden city movement

The garden city movement is a method of urban planning in which self-contained communities are surrounded by "greenbelts", containing proportionate areas of residences, industry, and agriculture.

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A gasworks or gas house is an industrial plant for the production of flammable gas.

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Gelsenkirchen is a city in the North Rhine-Westphalia state of Germany.

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Generalfeldmarschall (general field marshal, field marshal general, or field marshal;; abbreviated to Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states and the Holy Roman Empire; in the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, the rank Feldmarschall was used.

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Geography (Ptolemy)

The Geography (Γεωγραφικὴ Ὑφήγησις, Geōgraphikḕ Hyphḗgēsis, "Geographical Guidance"), also known by its Latin names as the Geographia and the Cosmographia, is a gazetteer, an atlas, and a treatise on cartography, compiling the geographical knowledge of the 2nd-century Roman Empire.

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German mediatization

German mediatization (deutsche Mediatisierung) was the major territorial restructuring that took place between 1802 and 1814 in Germany and the surrounding region by means of the mass mediatization and secularization of a large number of Imperial Estates.

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German nouns

German nouns have a grammatical gender, as in many related Indo-European languages.

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German Revolution of 1918–19

The German Revolution or November Revolution (Novemberrevolution) was a civil conflict in the German Empire at the end of the First World War that resulted in the replacement of the German federal constitutional monarchy with a democratic parliamentary republic that later became known as the Weimar Republic.

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German verbs

German verbs may be classified as either weak, with a dental consonant inflection, or strong, showing a vowel gradation (ablaut).

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Gladbeck is a town in the district of Recklinghausen in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Gliding is a recreational activity and competitive air sport in which pilots fly unpowered aircraft known as gliders or sailplanes using naturally occurring currents of rising air in the atmosphere to remain airborne.

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Glossary of rail transport terms

Rail terminology is a form of technical terminology.

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Golden Madonna of Essen

The Golden Madonna of Essen is a sculpture of the Virgin Mary and the infant Jesus.

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Gothic art

Gothic art was a style of medieval art that developed in Northern France out of Romanesque art in the 12th century AD, led by the concurrent development of Gothic architecture.

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Gottfried Heinrich Graf zu Pappenheim

Gottfried Heinrich Graf zu Pappenheim (29 May 1594 – 17 November 1632) was a field marshal of the Holy Roman Empire in the Thirty Years' War.

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Gründerzeit (literally: “founders’ period”) was the economic phase in 19th-century Germany and Austria before the great stock market crash of 1873.

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Green party

A Green party is a formally organized political party based on the principles of green politics, such as social justice, environmentalism and nonviolence.

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Grenoble is a city in southeastern France, at the foot of the French Alps where the river Drac joins the Isère.

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Grillo-Theater is a theatre in Essen, Germany.

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The Grugapark is a central park in the city of Essen.

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Guided bus

Guided buses are buses capable of being steered by external means, usually on a dedicated track or roll way that excludes other traffic, permitting the maintenance of schedules even during rush hours.

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A gunsmith is a person who repairs, modifies, designs, or builds guns.

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Gustav Heinemann

Gustav Walter Heinemann (23 July 1899 – 7 July 1976) was a German politician.

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Halberstadt is a town in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt, the capital of Harz district.

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The Harz is a Mittelgebirge that has the highest elevations in Northern Germany and its rugged terrain extends across parts of Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, and Thuringia.

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Hattingen is a town in the northern part of the Ennepe-Ruhr-Kreis district, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Heiligenhaus is a town in the district of Mettmann, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, in the suburban Rhine-Ruhr area.

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Helmstedt is a town on the eastern edge of the German state of Lower Saxony.

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Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, usually derived from bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood.

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HighBeam Research

HighBeam Research is a paid search engine and full text online archive owned by Gale, a subsidiary Cengage, for thousands of newspapers, magazines, academic journals, newswires, trade magazines, and encyclopedias in English.

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Hiking is the preferred term, in Canada and the United States, for a long, vigorous walk, usually on trails (footpaths), in the countryside, while the word walking is used for shorter, particularly urban walks.

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Hochtief Aktiengesellschaft is a German construction company based in Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.

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Hong Kong Observatory

The Hong Kong Observatory is a weather forecast agency of the government of Hong Kong.

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IATA airport code

An IATA airport code, also known as an IATA location identifier, IATA station code or simply a location identifier, is a three-letter code designating many airports around the world, defined by the International Air Transport Association (IATA).

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ICAO airport code

The ICAO airport code or location indicator is a four-letter code designating aerodromes around the world.

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An idiosyncrasy is an unusual feature of a person (though there are also other uses, see below).

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Imperial immediacy

Imperial immediacy (Reichsfreiheit or Reichsunmittelbarkeit) was a privileged constitutional and political status rooted in German feudal law under which the Imperial estates of the Holy Roman Empire such as Imperial cities, prince-bishoprics and secular principalities, and individuals such as the Imperial knights, were declared free from the authority of any local lord and placed under the direct ("immediate", in the sense of "without an intermediary") authority of the Emperor, and later of the institutions of the Empire such as the Diet (Reichstag), the Imperial Chamber of Justice and the Aulic Council.

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Independent city

An independent city or independent town is a city or town that does not form part of another general-purpose local government entity (such as a county).

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Indigo is a deep and rich color close to the color wheel blue (a primary color in the RGB color space), as well as to some variants of ultramarine.

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Infinitive (abbreviated) is a grammatical term referring to certain verb forms existing in many languages, most often used as non-finite verbs.

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Interchange (road)

In the field of road transport, an interchange is a road junction that uses grade separation, and typically one or more ramps, to permit traffic on at least one highway to pass through the junction without interruption from any other crossing traffic stream.

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InterCity (commonly abbreviated IC on timetables and tickets) is the classification applied to certain long-distance passenger train services in Europe.

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The Intercity-Express (written as InterCityExpress in Austria, Denmark, Switzerland and, formerly, in Germany) or ICE is a system of high-speed trains predominantly running in Germany and its surrounding countries.

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International Motor Show Germany

The International Motor Show Germany or simply International Motor Show, in German known as the Internationale Automobil-Ausstellung (IAA - International Automobile Exhibition), is the world's largest motor show.

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Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.

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Karstadt Warenhaus GmbH is a German department store chain whose headquarters are in Essen.

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Kettwig is the southernmost borough of the city of Essen in western Germany and, until 1975, was a town in its own right.

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Kingdom of Prussia

The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.

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Konrad von Hochstaden

Konrad von Hochstaden (or Conrad of Hochstadt) (1198/1205 – 18 September 1261) was Archbishop of Cologne from 1238 to 1261.

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The Krupp family (see pronunciation), a prominent 400-year-old German dynasty from Essen, became famous for their production of steel, artillery, ammunition, and other armaments.

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Las Vegas

Las Vegas (Spanish for "The Meadows"), officially the City of Las Vegas and often known simply as Vegas, is the 28th-most populated city in the United States, the most populated city in the state of Nevada, and the county seat of Clark County.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Left-wing politics

Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.

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Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.

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List of awards

A list of orders, medals, prizes, and other awards, of military, civil, and ecclesiastical conferees.

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List of cities in Germany by population

As defined by the German Federal Institute for Research on Building, Urban Affairs and Spatial Development, a Großstadt (large city) is a city with more than 100,000 inhabitants.

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List of Imperial abbeys

An Imperial abbey (Reichsabtei, Reichskloster, Reichsstift, Reichsgotthaus) was a religious establishment within the Holy Roman Empire which enjoyed the status of imperial immediacy (Reichsunmittelbarkeit) and therefore was answerable directly to the Emperor.

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Long ton

Long ton, also known as the imperial ton or displacement ton,Dictionary.com - "a unit for measuring the displacement of a vessel, equal to a long ton of 2240 pounds (1016 kg) or 35 cu.

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Lord mayor

The lord mayor is the title of the mayor of a major city in the United Kingdom or Commonwealth realm, with special recognition bestowed by the sovereign.

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Lotharingia (Latin: Lotharii regnum) was a medieval successor kingdom of the Carolingian Empire, comprising the present-day Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany), Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany), Saarland (Germany), and Lorraine (France).

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Saint Ludger (Ludgerus; also Lüdiger or Liudger) (born at Zuilen near Utrecht 742; died 26 March 809 at Billerbeck) was a missionary among the Frisians and Saxons, founder of Werden Abbey and first Bishop of Münster in Westphalia.

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Madonna (art)

A Madonna is a representation of Mary, either alone or with her child Jesus.

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Marsi (Germanic)

The Marsi (Marser) were a small Germanic tribe settled between the Rhine, Ruhr and Lippe rivers in northwest Germany.

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In political science, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Communist International and of Stalinist political parties.

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Marxist–Leninist Party of Germany

The Marxist–Leninist Party of Germany (Marxistisch–Leninistische Partei Deutschlands, MLPD) is an anti-revisionist Marxist–Leninist political party in Germany.

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Mathilde, Abbess of Essen

Mathilde (also Mahthild or Matilda; 949 – 5 November 1011) was Abbess of Essen Abbey from 973 to her death.

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In many countries, a mayor (from the Latin maior, meaning "bigger") is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town.

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Mülheim an der Ruhr, also described as "City on the River", is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany.

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Medion AG is a German consumer electronics company owned by Lenovo.

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A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones.

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A megalopolis (sometimes called a megapolis; also megaregion, or supercity) is typically defined as a chain of roughly adjacent metropolitan areas, which may be somewhat separated or may merge into a continuous urban region.

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In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.

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Messe Essen

Messe Essen is the exhibition centre of the city of Essen, Germany.

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Mettmann (district)

Mettmann is a Kreis (district) in the middle of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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A miner is a person who extracts ore, coal, or other mineral from the earth through mining.

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Minor basilica

Minor basilica (Basilica minor, Basilicæ minores in plural) is a title given to some Roman Catholic church buildings.

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The Moltkeviertel (Moltke Quarter) is a district of the German city of Essen.

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Monessen, Pennsylvania

Monessen is a city in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, United States.

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Monongahela River

The Monongahela River — often referred to locally as the Mon — is a U.S. Geological Survey.

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Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.

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Museum Folkwang

Museum Folkwang is a major collection of 19th- and 20th-century art in Essen, Germany.

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Musical theatre

Musical theatre is a form of theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue, acting and dance.

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Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.

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National Democratic Party of Germany

The National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD) is a far-right and ultranationalist political party in Germany.

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Navalia is a town (polis or oppidum) that was mentioned by Claudius Ptolemaeus in his Geographia.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Nazi Party

The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and supported the ideology of Nazism.

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The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

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Nizhny Novgorod

Nizhny Novgorod (p), colloquially shortened to Nizhny, is a city in Russia and the administrative center (capital) of Volga Federal District and Nizhny Novgorod Oblast.

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North Rhine-Westphalia

North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen,, commonly shortened to NRW) is the most populous state of Germany, with a population of approximately 18 million, and the fourth largest by area.

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Novelty item

A novelty item is an object which is specifically designed to serve no practical purpose, and is sold for its uniqueness, humor, or simply as something new (hence "novelty", or newness).

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The NRW-Liga, or Nordrhein-Westfalen-Liga (English: North Rhine-Westphalia League), was the highest football league in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia from 2008 to 2012.

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Oberhausen is a city on the river Emscher in the Ruhr Area, Germany, located between Duisburg and Essen. The city hosts the International Short Film Festival Oberhausen and its Gasometer Oberhausen is an anchor point of the European Route of Industrial Heritage.

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Occupation of the Ruhr

The Occupation of the Ruhr (Ruhrbesetzung) was a period of military occupation of the German Ruhr valley by France and Belgium between 1923 and 1925 in response to the Weimar Republic's failure to meet its second reparation payment of the £6.6 billion that was dictated in the Treaty of Versailles by the Triple Entente(1919) in the aftermath of World War I.

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Oceanic climate

An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.

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Offener Kanal Essen

Offener Kanal Essen (Open Channel Essen) is a public television station based in Zeche Carl, Essen, Germany.

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Old High German

Old High German (OHG, Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050.

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Old Synagogue, Essen

The Old Synagogue (Alte Synagoge) is a cultural meeting center and memorial in the city of Essen in Germany.

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Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.

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Opernwelt (Opera World) is a monthly German magazine for opera, operetta and ballet.

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An oppidum (plural oppida) is a large fortified Iron Age settlement.

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An orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble typical of classical music, which mixes instruments from different families, including bowed string instruments such as violin, viola, cello and double bass, as well as brass, woodwinds, and percussion instruments, each grouped in sections.

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Order of Saint Benedict

The Order of Saint Benedict (OSB; Latin: Ordo Sancti Benedicti), also known as the Black Monksin reference to the colour of its members' habitsis a Catholic religious order of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict.

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Organ transplantation

Organ transplantation is a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ.

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Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor

Otto I (23 November 912 – 7 May 973), traditionally known as Otto the Great (Otto der Große, Ottone il Grande), was German king from 936 and Holy Roman Emperor from 962 until his death in 973.

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Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor

Otto II (955 – December 7, 983), called the Red (Rufus), was Holy Roman Emperor from 973 until his death in 983.

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Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor

Otto III (June/July 980 – 23 January 1002) was Holy Roman Emperor from 996 until his early death in 1002.

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Otto von Bismarck

Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890 and was the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890.

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Ottonian architecture

Ottonian Architecture is an architectural style which evolved during the reign of Emperor Otto the Great.

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Ottonian dynasty

The Ottonian dynasty (Ottonen) was a Saxon dynasty of German monarchs (919–1024), named after three of its kings and Holy Roman Emperors named Otto, especially its first Emperor Otto I. It is also known as the Saxon dynasty after the family's origin in the German stem duchy of Saxony.

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Patron saint

A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism, Eastern Orthodoxy, or particular branches of Islam, is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family or person.

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Paul von Hindenburg

Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known generally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a Generalfeldmarschall and statesman who commanded the German military during the second half of World War I before later being elected President of the Weimar republic in 1925.

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Peace of Westphalia

The Peace of Westphalia (Westfälischer Friede) was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster that virtually ended the European wars of religion.

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Pittsburgh Tribune-Review

The Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, also known as "the Trib," was the second largest daily printed newspaper serving metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in the United States until it transitioned to an all-digital format on December 1, 2016.

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Political party

A political party is an organised group of people, often with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in government.

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A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government.

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The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.

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A poster is any piece of printed paper designed to be attached to a wall or vertical surface.

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President of Germany

The President of Germany, officially the Federal President of the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundespräsident der Bundesrepublik Deutschland),The official title within Germany is Bundespräsident, with der Bundesrepublik Deutschland being added in international correspondence; the official English title is President of the Federal Republic of Germany is the head of state of Germany.

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President of Germany (1919–1945)

The Reichspräsident was the German head of state under the Weimar constitution, which was officially in force from 1919 to 1945.

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A Prince-Abbot (Fürstabt) is a title for a cleric who is a Prince of the Church (like a Prince-Bishop), in the sense of an ex officio temporal lord of a feudal entity, notably a State of the Holy Roman Empire.

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A principality (or princedom) can either be a monarchical feudatory or a sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a monarch with the title of prince or by a monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince.

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The ProA is the second-tier level league of professional club basketball in Germany.

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Province of Jülich-Cleves-Berg

The Province of Jülich-Cleves-Berg (Provinz Jülich-Kleve-Berg) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1815–22.

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Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.

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Qingdao (also spelled Tsingtao) is a city in eastern Shandong Province on the east coast of China.

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Rapid transit

Rapid transit or mass rapid transit, also known as heavy rail, metro, MRT, subway, tube, U-Bahn or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas.

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Ratingen is a town in the district of Mettmann, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, in the northwestern part of Berg - about 12 km northeast of Düsseldorf.

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Raymond Poincaré

Raymond Nicolas Landry Poincaré (20 August 1860 – 15 October 1934) was a French statesman who served three times as 58th Prime Minister of France, and as President of France from 1913 to 1920.

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Recklinghausen (district)

Recklinghausen is a Kreis (district) in the centre of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Red Dot

The Red Dot Design Award is an international product design and communication design prize awarded by the Design Zentrum Nordrhein Westfalen in Essen, Germany.

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The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.

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In Germany, Luxembourg and Austria, the Regional-Express (RE, or in Austria: REX) is a type of regional train.

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Regionalliga West

The Regionalliga West is a German semi-professional football division administered by the Western German Football Association based in Duisburg.

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The Reichskammergericht (Imperial Chamber Court; Iudicium imperii) was one of two highest judicial institutions in the Holy Roman Empire, the other one being the Aulic Council in Vienna.

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Renewable energy

Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.

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Representation (politics)

In the common view, political representation is assumed to refer only to the political activities undertaken, in representative democracies, by citizens elected to political office on behalf of their fellow citizens who do not hold political office.

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A reservoir (from French réservoir – a "tank") is a storage space for fluids.

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--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.

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Rhine Province

The Rhine Province (Rheinprovinz), also known as Rhenish Prussia (Rheinpreußen) or synonymous with the Rhineland (Rheinland), was the westernmost province of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Free State of Prussia, within the German Reich, from 1822 to 1946.

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The Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region (Metropolregion Rhein-Ruhr) is the largest metropolitan region in Germany with over 10 million inhabitants.

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Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn

The Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn (S-Bahn Rhein-Ruhr) is a polycentric and electrically driven S-train network covering the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia.

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Rhine-Ruhr Stadtbahn

The Rhine-Ruhr Stadtbahn (Rhein-Ruhr Stadtbahn) is an umbrella system of all of the Stadtbahn (light rail) lines included in the integrated public transport network of Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr (VRR) which covers the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area in western Germany.

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Rhine–Herne Canal

The Rhine–Herne Canal (Rhein-Herne-Kanal) is a transportation canal in the Ruhr area of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, with five canal locks.

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Road & Track

Road & Track (R&T) is an American automotive enthusiast magazine.

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Rock music

Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, and developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and later, particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States.

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Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cologne

The Archdiocese of Cologne (Archidioecesis Coloniensis; Erzbistum Köln) is an archdiocese of the Catholic Church in western North Rhine-Westphalia and northern Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany.

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Roman Catholic Diocese of Essen

The Diocese of Essen is a bishopric of the Catholic Church in Germany, founded on 1 January 1958.

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Roman numerals

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages.

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Rot-Weiss Essen

Rot-Weiss Essen is a German association football club based in Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia.

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Rowing (sport)

Rowing, often referred to as crew in the United States, is a sport whose origins reach back to Ancient Egyptian times.

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Royal Air Force

The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.

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Rudolf I of Germany

Rudolf I, also known as Rudolf of Habsburg (Rudolf von Habsburg, Rudolf Habsburský; 1 May 1218 – 15 July 1291), was Count of Habsburg from about 1240 and the elected King of the Romans from 1273 until his death.

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The Ruhr (Ruhrgebiet), or the Ruhr district, Ruhr region, Ruhr area or Ruhr valley, is a polycentric urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Ruhr (river)

__notoc__ The Ruhr is a river in western Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia), a right tributary (east-side) of the Rhine.

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Ruhr.2010 – Kulturhauptstadt Europas was the name of the campaign in Germany's Ruhr region that earned it recognition as a European Capital of Culture in 2010.

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RWE AG, until 1990: Rheinisch-Westfälisches Elektrizitätswerk AG (Rhenish-Westphalian Power Plant), is a German electric utilities company based in Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia.

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Saalbau Essen

Saalbau Essen is a concert venue in Essen, Germany, the home of the Essen Philharmonic.

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Sailing employs the wind—acting on sails, wingsails or kites—to propel a craft on the surface of the water (sailing ship, sailboat, windsurfer, or kitesurfer), on ice (iceboat) or on land (land yacht) over a chosen course, which is often part of a larger plan of navigation.

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Saints Cosmas and Damian

Saints Cosmas and Damian (Κοσμάς και Δαμιανός, Kosmás kai Damianós; Cosmas et Damianus; died 287) were two Arab physicians, reputedly twin brothers, and early Christian martyrs.

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Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.

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The Saxons (Saxones, Sachsen, Seaxe, Sahson, Sassen, Saksen) were a Germanic people whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, Saxonia) near the North Sea coast of what is now Germany.

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Schenker AG

Schenker AG is a German logistics company and a subsidiary of Deutsche Bahn, the German railway company.

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Schwarz-Weiß Essen

Schwarz-Weiß Essen is a German association football club based in Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia.

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Secularization (or secularisation) is the transformation of a society from close identification and affiliation with religious values and institutions toward nonreligious values and secular institutions.

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Specialty Equipment Market Association (SEMA) of the automobile aftermarket was formed in 1963 by Roy Richter, Willie Garner, Bob Hedman, Robert E. Wyman, John Bartlett, Phil Weiand, Jr., Al Segal, Dean Moon, and Vic Edelbrock, Jr. and now consists of 6,383 companies worldwide, bringing together aftermarket manufacturers, original equipment manufacturers (OEM), media, car dealers, specialty equipment distributors, installers, retailers and restoration specialists.

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SGS Essen

SGS Essen are a German association football club based in Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia.

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Single-family detached home

A stand-alone house (also called a single-detached dwelling, detached residence or detached house) is a free-standing residential building.

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Sister city

Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.

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A smallholding is a small farm.

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Social democracy

Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.

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Social Democratic Party of Germany

The Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.

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Internationale Spieltage SPIEL, often called the Essen Game Fair after the city where it is held, is an annual four-day boardgame trade fair which is also open to the public held in October (Thursday to the following Sunday) at the Messe Essen exhibition centre in Essen.

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Sportpark am Hallo

Sportpark am Hallo is a facility consisting of an indoor sporting arena and an outdoor stadium located in Essen, Germany.

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Stadion Essen

Stadion Essen, is a stadium in Essen, Germany.

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A Stadtbahn (German for "city railway"; plural Stadtbahnen) is a tramway or light railway that includes segments built to rapid transit standards, usually as part of a process of conversion to a metro railway, mainly by the building of metro-grade tunnels in the central city area.

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A Stadtbezirk is a form of German city district, an administrative unit within a larger city.

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Steele, Essen

Steele is a suburb of Essen, Germany.

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A stiftung is an institution/foundation which, with the aid of a property, pursues a purpose determined by the founder.

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Stone Age

The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface.

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Subcamp (SS)

The term subcamp in the context of Nazi Germany (KZ-Außenlager) refers to those outlying detention centres (Haftstätten) that came under the command of a main concentration camp run by the SS within the Third Reich.

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Tampere (Swedish: Tammerfors) is a city in Pirkanmaa, southern Finland.

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Teaching hospital

A teaching hospital is a hospital or medical center that provides medical education and training to future and current health professionals.

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Tel Aviv

Tel Aviv (תֵּל אָבִיב,, تل أَبيب) is the second most populous city in Israel – after Jerusalem – and the most populous city in the conurbation of Gush Dan, Israel's largest metropolitan area.

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Telegraphy (from Greek: τῆλε têle, "at a distance" and γράφειν gráphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message.

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A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly.

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Telephone numbering plan

A telephone numbering plan is a type of numbering scheme used in telecommunication to assign telephone numbers to subscriber telephones or other telephony endpoints.

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Temperate climate

In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.

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Tertiary sector of the economy

The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory.

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Textile industry

The textile industry is primarily concerned with the design, production and distribution of yarn, cloth and clothing.

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The Coca-Cola Company

The Coca-Cola Company is an American corporation, and manufacturer, retailer, and marketer of nonalcoholic beverage concentrates and syrups.

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The Irish Times

The Irish Times is an Irish daily broadsheet newspaper launched on 29 March 1859.

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The Left (Germany)

The Left (Die Linke), also commonly referred to as the Left Party (die Linkspartei), is a democratic socialist political party in Germany.

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The Republicans (Germany)

The Republicans (Die Republikaner, REP) is a national conservative political party in Germany.

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Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.

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Thirty Years' War

The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.

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Thomas Kufen

Thomas Kufen (born 5 August 1973 in Essen) is a German politician of Christian Democratic Union (CDU).

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thyssenkrupp AG is a German multinational conglomerate with focus on industrial engineering and steel production.

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Trade fair

A trade fair (trade show, trade exhibition, or expo) is an exhibition organized so that companies in a specific industry can showcase and demonstrate their latest products and services, meet with industry partners and customers, study activities of rivals, and examine recent market trends and opportunities.

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A tradesman, tradesperson, tradie or skilled tradesman refers to a worker who specializes in a particular occupation that requires work experience, on-the-job training, and often formal vocational education, but often not a bachelor's degree.

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Train station

A train station, railway station, railroad station, or depot (see below) is a railway facility or area where trains regularly stop to load or unload passengers or freight.

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Trams in Essen

The Essen tramway network (Straßenbahnnetz Essen) is a network of tramways forming part of the public transport system in Essen, a city in the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Treaty of Versailles

The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.

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TuS Helene Altenessen

TuS Helene Altenessen is a German football club from the district of Altenessen in the city of Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia.

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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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University of Duisburg-Essen

The University of Duisburg-Essen (Universität Duisburg-Essen) is a public university in Duisburg and Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany and a member of the newly founded University Alliance Metropolis Ruhr.

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University of the West of England, Bristol

The University of the West of England, Bristol (UWE Bristol) is a public university, located in and around Bristol, England, which received university status in 1992.

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Urban area

An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.

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Velbert is a large town in the district of Mettmann, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Venlo is a city and municipality in the southeastern Netherlands, near the German border.

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Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr

The Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr, abbreviated VRR, is the public transport association covering the area of the Rhine-Ruhr conurbation in Germany.

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Villa Hügel

The Villa Hügel is a 19th-century mansion in Bredeney, now part of Essen, Germany.

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Vogelheimer Klinge

The Vogelheimer Klinge (German: Vogelheim Blade) is an approximately 280,000 year old flint tool, discovered in 1926 during the construction of the Rhine-Herne Canal in Vogelheim, north of the city of Essen.

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Werden Abbey

Werden Abbey (Kloster Werden) was a Benedictine monastery in Essen-Werden (Germany), situated on the Ruhr.

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Werden, Essen

Werden is a borough of the city of Essen in Germany.

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Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung

The Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung (WAZ) is a leading commercial newspaper from Essen, Germany, published by Funke Mediengruppe.

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Westdeutscher Rundfunk

Westdeutscher Rundfunk Köln (WDR, West German Broadcasting Cologne) is a German public-broadcasting institution based in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia with its main office in Cologne.

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A westwork (Westwerk) is the monumental, west-facing entrance section of a Carolingian, Ottonian, or Romanesque church.

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Wilhelm Deist

Wilhelm Deist (1931–2003) was a German historian and author who specialised in the European history of 19th and 20th with an emphasis on the history of World War I. Deist was senior historian at the Military History Research Office (MGFA) and honorary professor at the University of Freiburg.

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World Heritage site

A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.

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World Meteorological Organization

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 191 Member States and Territories.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Zabrze (German: 1915–1945: Hindenburg O.S., full form: Hindenburg in Oberschlesien, 1905–1915: Zabrze, Silesian: Zobrze) is a city in Silesia in southern Poland, near Katowice.

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Zeche Carl

Ruhr Industrial Heritage Trail Zeche Carl (Carl Mine) is a cultural centre set up by Essen Council in a former coal mine.

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Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex

The Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex (German Zeche Zollverein) is a large former industrial site in the city of Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Zwentibold (Zventibold, Swentiboldo, Sventibaldo, Sanderbald; – 13 August 900), a member of the Carolingian dynasty, was the illegitimate son of Emperor Arnulf.

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17th Airborne Division (United States)

The 17th Airborne Division was an airborne infantry division of the United States Army during World War II, commanded by Major General William M. Miley.

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507th Parachute Infantry Regiment (United States)

The 507th Parachute Infantry Regiment (507th PIR), now the 507th Infantry Regiment, was an airborne infantry regiment of the United States Army.

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Redirects here:

Assindia, Essen (Germany), Essen, Germany, Eßen, History of Essen, UN/LOCODE:DEESS.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Essen

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